Before we take up the account of Súmrah and Sammah

Remnants of the Arab rulers in Sind and tribes descended from them.

rulers of Sind, who next claim our attention, we shall try to give some account of the remnants of the Arab rulers, from whom arose those two main tribes.

At the time of the Khalífahs of the Ummeide dynasty, there were still a few Hindú princes ruling some parts of Sind. The chief among them were Dalúrái at Alór and Bhanbhórái at Bambhór, which town was called after him, he being its founder.* We have also seen above that in the reign of Harún Rashíd, a Khalífah of the abbaside dynasty, this same Bhanbhór and some other old towns of Sind were destroyed by a convulsion of the earth, which necessitated the removal of the people, in large bodies to the interior of Hindustán; also that at the time of Khalífah Mamún many Arab families of Baghdád and Sámrah* emigrated to Sind, and became permanent residents of that country.

It may be noted here that in the reign of Sultán Árám Sháh when Hindustán was divided into four parts, and the part of Sind and Multán fell to the lot of Násiruddín Kabáchah there were seven native ránás or princes paying tribute to Multán. They were—

(1) Ránà Bhanar Sahtah Ráthór of Derah in Darbelah.
(2) Ráná Sinyar wd. Dhamách, Kourejah Sammah, resident of Tóng in Rópáh.
(3) Jesar wd. Jajah, Máchhí Sólangí of Mániktárah.
(4) Wakhiah wd. Punhún Chanón at Darah Siwí.
(5) Chanón wd. Dethah Chanah at Bhágnai.
(6) Jiyah wd. Dariáh of Jhim i.e. Hímah Kót.
(7) Jasódhan Ágrah of Men Takar in Bhanbhór (Brahmanábád.)

In 417 A.H. (1026 A.D.) when Abdurrazák, the wazír of Sultan Mahmúd of Ghazní invaded Sind and taking Bakhar came to Sehwán and Tattá, there were indeed very few Arab residents of the time of the Ummeides and the Abbásides to be found in Sind. It is carefully calculated that there were only 18 such families of any importance, then existant in the province, some remnants of which can still be found in our time. They are enumerated below:—

(1) Sakifís—The Kàzís of Bakhar and Alór or Rohrí are descended from Músá son of Yaakúb son of Táí son of Muhammad son of Shaibán, son of Usman Sakifí. The author of the conquest of Sind in Arabic, from which Chachnámah was translated, Kàzí Ismáíl son of Alí son of Muhammad son of Músá, son of Táí, is one of the descendants of the same line. Músá son of Yaakúb was the grandson of this gentleman Kází Ismàíl and was appointed the first Kází of Alór by Muhammad Kásim after the conquest of the place.
(2) Tamímís* (or the children of Tamím), from whom is descended by a slight change of name, the present tribe of Thahíms.
(3) Mughairah* (or the children of Mughairah) which by a slight change of pronounciation, gives the name of Móriá to the tribe still in existence.
(4) Abbásís, by which name Kalhórahs and some other tribes are still known.
(5) Siddíkís whose descendants still reside in some parts of Sind.
(6) Fárúkís
(7) Usmánís
(8) Panwhárs—who are the children of Háris.
(9) Mangís, who belong to a branch of Tamímís.
(10) Jabriahs—from whom is descended Shekh Táí at Hàlání.
(11) Asadiah (or the children of Asad) from whom is descended Shékh Turáb of Fatehpur.
(12) Utbah,* (or the children of Utbah) from whom is descended Kází Burhán, also of Fatehpur.
(13) Banwálís, who were a tribe of Súfís, from whom are descended some Darweshes of Rel.
(14) Hákim (or the children of Hákim) from whom is descended the tribe of Bájár, known as Jhángár.
(15) Jarímah (or the children of Jarímah Ansárí) from whom is descended the tribe of Sipia of Siwistán.
(16) Ansárís.
(17) Jat both of whom are the descendants of Harún Makràni.
(18) Balój

The last two tribes are of some importance and so we

The Jat and Balój* tribes.

shall here speak more about them.

Muhammad son of Hárún Makrání was one of the officers of Makrán, who, in company with Muhammad Kásim, had come to Armanbelah, at the time of the con­quest of Sind and had died there. His remains were buried at that place. He was a grandson of Muhammad son of Abán, son of Abdurrahím son of Hamzah son of Abdul Mutlib.* It is believed that once Hamzah had come out on a hunting excursion to a lonely desert about this part of the country and confronting a fairy, associated with her and then returned to his native country. The fairy soon found herself with child and in due course of time gave birth to a son, who was named Abdurrahím. In short Muhammad son of Harún is said to have got 50 sons by 7 wives, as shown below:—

By Humairá Seven.
By Humairí Seven.
By Mariam Six.
By Áishah One.
By Maddí Seven.
By Fátimah Nine.
By Hawwá Thirteen.

After the passing away of Muhammad son of Hárún, the land of Makrán was divided into two parts, one going to the children of one of the sons of Jalál who was the last of Muhammad’s sons by his first wife, and the other to all the other brothers jointly. After some time a quarrel arose between the brothers. The children of Jalál were driven away to Sind and Kachh, where innumerable tribes branched off from them.

Lódahs are also called Lóliás. They take their name

The tribe of Lódah.

from Lóliá, a female slave, who, in the days of king Soloman son of David, being found in connection with one of his genii, is said to have been given away to him as a wife. A son was born of this couple and he was called Lódah. His descendants subsequently mixed with wandering Arabs and at the conquest of Sind by the Arabs, became residents about this part of the country.

The tribe of Sammah derives its name and is descended

The tríbe of Sammah, its origin and its branches.

from Sám, and Sám according to one tradition was the son of Umar son of Háshim son of Abú Lahab.* Accord­ing to another tradition he was the son of Umar son of Akramah son of Abú Jahl.* According to a third, he was the son of Akramah son of Asám son of Abú Jahl. But as the title of Jám was subsequently adopted by chiefs of the tribe, it appears more probable that Sám was a descendant of king Jamshed of Persia, or he was the same person as is known in the history as Sám son of Núh (Noah).

Whatever may be his origin, Sám had four sons and the names of these with the tribes descended from them are given as follows*:—

(1) Budha (2) Sangá (3) Hamahr (4) Bhágrat.

Budha had 16 sons:—

Badah, Sórah, Sahtah, Akhel, Aotár, Amrah, Bazír and others They are all known by the general title of Ráthór.

Sangá and Hamahr had each issue, that of the latter being called Túdarast.

Bhágrat had a son by name Derah, who had a son by name Ajepár, who had a son by name Dasrat.

Dasrat is said to have had three wives, Kaselá, Keliah and Samiá. By his first wife he had two sons Rám and Lakhman; by his second wife, he had one son by name Bart; and by his third wife also he had one son who was called Chatrkan.

Of these Bart had four sons—Parhár, Janspá, Kórejáh and Náhah. Chatrkan’s children are known by the name of Chárará. Lakhman had no issue, and Rám had one son by name Nawákas, who had a son by name Atat, whose son was called Tatat, who had a son by name Narganat, whose son was known by the name of Kin from whom the town of Kin took its name. Kin had a son who was called Sanbút Rájá.

Sanbút Rájá had four sons Sám, Bar Karrah (also called Sháh) Hunrut (also called Dakhan) and Máwah. Of these, Sám had a son by name Jádam, who had four sons— (1) Hispat, from whom are descended Sind Sammahs; (2) Kajpat, from whom is descended the tribe of Chagh­dah. (3) Bahúpat, whose descendants are Bhattís. (4) Jórá-Sammah from whom was descended the celebrated generous prince, Rái Diáj, the king of Karnál in the parganah of Sórath.*

Of these four sons of Jádam, Hispat had a son whose name was Zabdarí, who had a son by name Nayyit, whose son was called Ráno-Tyárá, who had a son by name Ódhár, who was the father of Udhah, whose son was called Lákhiár, who again had a son by name Lákhah.

Lákhah became a king and married a lady from Buthí Chárah, by whom he had four sons, two of whom were well known, viz. Udhah, who had no issue and from whom the place where he resided got his name Oudh; and Mahar, who had four sons (1) Satiah (2) Waditar-Páthárí (3) Warhá, who had no issue (4) Sánd, who too died without any issue.

It is said that, in his old age, Lákhah married another wife, by whom too he got four sons,—viz.

(1) Unar (2) Chhuttah, who had three sons,—Bábrah, Dankanah and Kalah, (3) Phul Lákhah, who had a son by name Kalání, (4) Manáhiah.

Of these, Lákhah’s eldest son Unar had a son by name Lákhah, whose son was named Sammah, who had two sons, Kákah and Jakhrah.

Kákah* became a ruler of his country and the town of Kák or Kákah was named after him. He got two sons— Pallí and Ráidan. Of the children of Pallí, Masrak Sammah became the chief of his tribe.

Ráidan son of Kákah had nine sons, and they are,— (1) Sammah, from whom are descended the Samejás (2) Nótíar, from whom are descended all the Nóts (3) Lákhah, whose descendants are Lanjárs. The well-known saint Shekh Sáhar Lanjár is out of them (4) Abrah whose children were Phul Náhiah and Dáhar Náhiah (5) Náhiyah (6) Chanesar, who became a celebrated person of his time (7) Manáhiah (8) Kóriah,* from which last three is descended the tribe of Mandrah (9) Pallí who became the chief of his people.

Pallí the last son of Ráidan had two sons (1) Udhah, from whom are descended Bahriahs, Udhejás and Kadriah­pótás; (2) Sánd, who became the headman of his tribe.

Sánd son of Pallí had seven sons;—(1) Kákah, whose descendants are known by the name of Kákejah-pótás (2) Járah, (3) Wírah, (4) Janejah, (5) Hingórah, from whom are descended Udhejás, Jaksiahs, Dhorhás and Hingórjás, (6) Derah, whose descendants are Derah Sam­mah, in Kachh (7) Jám Hóthí.

The last of these, Jám Hóthí had five sons,—(1) Hálah from whom the tribe of Hálahs takes its origin and name. (2) Hingórah, from whom are descended the residents of Dhoriah Hingórah, Chárah Hingórah, and Rámdeh, (3) Sáhar, from whom are descended Sáhar Sammahs (4) Cheláriah whose descendants are Nahriahs, (5) Jám Hápar.

Jám Hápar had two sons, Ráhújah and Jám Júnah. Jám Júnah had a son by name Kar Ráhú, who had three sons, (1) Sánd, whose children were Rahúmá, Lákhátiah and Jakhrah (2) Súmrah and (3) Lákhah Jám. This last man had a son by name Káhah, whose son was Lákhah. After the death of Káhah, another son was born to him who was called Kárah after his own name.

The above Lákhah son of Káhah had twelve sons:—

(1) Jám Júnah, from whom were descended the Sammah rulers of Sind, who became residents of Sámuí.* (2) Unar, who became the ruler of Bahriah and died without issue. (3) Pallí, whose descendants are Phul Sammahs (4) Káhah, who is the ancestor of Sódiárí Sammahs. (5) Óthah, from whom were descended Sáhah Sammah, Óthah Sammah and Sekhát Sammah (6) Jesar, whose children are called Bhayahpariá (7) Mangar, who had no issue (8) Abrah, whose descendants are known by the name of Abrejahs. (9) Hingórah Kaónr, who was the ancestor of Sahejahs (10) Sultán whose descendants were called Sultan Óth (11) Ràidan (12) Lákhah.

Of these the ninth son of Lákhah wd. Káhah, Hingórah Kaónr had three sons:—Desar, Manáhiah, Murádiah. Desar had five sons, Kahah, Hálah, Rukan, Hingórah and Júnah.

The eldest son of Lákhah wd. Káhah, Jám Júnah, the ancestor of the Sammah rulers of Sind had five sons:— Khóriah, Tájiah, Abrah, Balój and Bábínah. The children of this last son Bábínah got an opportunity of ruling their country, as will be mentioned in its proper place.