About the close of his reign Aláuddín had prepared an

Ghází Malak alias Ghayásuddín Taghlak.

expedition of 10,000 men under Ghází Malak to go to Debálpúr to fight with the Mughals of Changez Khán. Ghází Malak was thus enabled to go and secure Multán, Uch and Sind for himself, especially as Aláuddín’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom, which ultimately took away the kingdom, from the possession of the house of Khiljí. Aláuddín’s son Kutbuddín was a mad man and was soon removed from the throne of Dehlí by the hand of a murderer. The nobles of the state then put Khusró Khán on the throne. But Khusró Khán began to bestow undue favours on mischievous people and to waste public money. The Hindús began to press and encroach on the rights of the kingdom. Seeing this state of things, Ghází Malak’s son Fakhr Malak left Multán secretly and joined his father, informing him of what was happening at Dehlí. Then, father and son, being both brave soldiers, collected the forces of Sind and Multán and hastened to Dehlí to help the Mussalmans against the Hindús. Arriv­ing near Dehlí with 3,000 veteran soldiers, they engaged in battle with the army of Khusró Khán, and defeated them. Then making their way into Dehlí they again defeated Khusró Khán in a battle in which they killed a very large number of Hindús, and Khusró Khán fled away. About midnight the ministers and the headmen of the place came to Ghází Malak and his son in their camp and gave up the keys of the fort. Early in the morning Ghází Malak entered the city with all the pomp and glory of a King. Then he went into mourning for 3 days for the death of Aláuddín and his son Kutbuddín. After these ceremonies were over he issued a proclamation with the view of finding out any member of the family of those princes in order that he might put him on the throne of of Dehlí. But as no such person could be found on search, the nobles, the troops, the learned men, the sayyads and other subjects united in selecting Ghází Malak for the vacant post, as it was he who had helped the Mussalmans against the attacks of the káfirs and had removed all the cause of quarrel and disturbance in the country. Thus in the year 720 A.H. (1320 A.D.) Ghází Malak was crowned as the King of Dehlí with the title of Ghayásuddín Tagh­lak Sháh and his son Fakhr Malak was given the title of Muhammad Sháh.

When, soon after this, Ghayásuddín proceeded from Multán to Dehlí, the tribe of Súmrahs* revolted and took possession of Tattá. Ghayásuddín appointed Tájuddín Malak as governor of Multán and Khwájah Khatír as governor of Bakhar and he left Malak Alísher in charge of Sehwán. In 723 A.H. (1323 A.D.), he appointed his son Muhammad Sháh his heir and successor and took a written promise or agreement to the arrangement from the ministers and nobles of the state. In 725 A.H. (1324 A.D.) he died of heat apoplexy.

On succeeding to the throne of his father Muhammad

Fakhr Malak alias Muhammad Sháh Taghlak.

Sháh began to administer the country justly and lay down good laws for his people. In 727 A.H. (1326 A.D.) he left Kishwar Khán in charge of Sind, and himself went to live in Daolatábád, which town he fixed as his capital for the future. After two years Kishwar Khán came from Bakhar to Multán and collecting a large number of Multánís and Balóchís raised the standard of revolt. Hearing this Muhammad Sháh hastened to Multán in 728 A.H. (1327 A.D.). Kishwar Khán ungratefully came forward to fight with him, but the advance column of the royal army defeated and killed him and brought his head to the king, and the rebellious army dispersed here and there in the country. The king gave an order for a general massacre of the Multánís. When the troops entered the town with naked swords, the celebrated living saint of the place, Shekh Ruknuddín came bare-headed to the court of the king interceding for the people. The king, though much incensed, gave them pardon and after appointing new governors at Multán, Bakhar and Sehwán, returned to his capital, about the close of the year.

In 744 A.H. (1343 A.D.) an idea entered the mind of Muhammad Sháh, that he should rule the country as a subordinate to the Khalífah of Mussalmans, Abbás, who was his contemporary and whom he considered his superior, in his absence. He sent Rafíi Malak with rich presents to the Khalífah of Egypt, and the Khalífah too, in recog­nition of such a voluntary surrender of rights, sent in return rich dresses and Islámic flags, which the king was glad to receive. Thenceforth he ordered the name of the Khalífah to be coupled with his own at the Friday and other Holiday prayers and sermons.

In 751 A. H. (1350 A. D.) Muhammad Sháh prepared to go to Gujrát and with that intention moved from Dehlí to Karnál and as about that time, his slave Tághí had caused a rebellion in Khanbhát with the assistance of the tribe of Jarejahs, the king turned in haste in that direction in order to proceed thither by way of Tattá. Coming to the village of Tharí he halted there, waiting for the forces coming after him. Here he was attacked by fever and so he removed from the proximity of the water and came to Kandal, where he got better and was joined by his troops too. So with an easy mind he marched to Tattá, where the slave fugitive Tághí had taken shelter. At about 28 miles from Tattá the king made a halt for a day. It was the 10th day of Muharram, a holiday with the Mussalmans, and the king observed a fast. The next day he again suddenly got an attack of fever and no remedy of physicians could check it. He rapidly got worse, and on 21st of the same month in 752 A. H. (1351 A. D.) he expired.

Before the last moment of Muhammad had arrived he

Feróz Sháh.

appointed his nephew Feróz Sháh his successor and all the chiefs and nobles of the state accepted him as their sovereign. In 752 A. H. (1351 A. D.) on the 24th of Muharram, the coronation of Feróz Sháh was celebrated. Immediately he called an assembly of nobles and gave them presents and promised to bestow favours on them.

Hearing of Muhammad Sháh’s death the rebel Tághí made a conspiracy with the tribes of Súmrahs, Járejahs and Sammahs and with an army formed of these people he proceeded to oppose the royalists. Feróz Sháh being informed of his movements sent a column of 2,000 men to fight with him. This force made a hasty march during the night and met Tághí with an army of Súmrahs, whom they defeated in a hard-fought battle and put them to flight. The next day another battle was fought and again the Súmrahs were defeated. Tághí could not tarry longer; so he fled away. On the first of the next month (Saffar) Feórz Sháh left Tattá and moved towards Dehlí. He built a fort on the bank of the lake of Sángrah and left Nasír in charge of it and appointed Malak Bahrám to be the administrator. When he arrived at Sehwán he posted Malak Alísher and Malak Tájuddín Káfúrí to be the rulers of that part. He paid a visit to the shrine of Shahbáz Kalandar and fixed some stipendiary allowances for the keepers of the shrine and other men connected with it. Next he came to the fort of Bakhar, where he spent 20 days and appointed Malak Ruknuddín to be his agent or lieutenant for Sind with the title of Ikhlás Khán and Malak Abdulazíz to be the díwán or revenue officer of Bakhar. He also left 80 men to guard the fort. He then marched on, making similar arrangements for the important places on his way. In the month of Rajjib of the same year he arrived at Dehlí, where he spent some months peacefully, treating the people of the place with every mark of kindness.

On the 5th of Saffar of 753 A. H. (1352 A. D.) he left his capital on a touring excursion and received allegiance from several big land owners and chiefs. In 754 A. H. (1353 A. D.) he went on a hunting excursion to Kalánúr and the hills of that side. On his return he built several state buildings. He conferred the title of Shekh-ul-Islám on Shekh Sadruddín the son of Shekh Bahá-uddín Zakariyyá and then returned to his capital.

In 760 A. H. (1359 A. D.) he conquered Bengál and in 772 A. H. (1370 A. H) in the month of Rajjib he started for Bakhar. When he came to the hills situated on the way to that town, they brought iced water for him. But as he learnt that on a previous occasion when the late king Muhammad Sháh had arrived at the same place iced syrup was brought to him and that as he (Feróz Sháh) had been then absent, the late king did not touch that delicious drink out of his fondness for him, the king ordered that one hundred camel loads of sugar-candy be melted into iced water to form syrup and distributed in the honoured memory of his late uncle and patron, who had shown so much love and regard for him.

From Bakhar the king came to Tattá. Jám Khairuddín, who was then the chief at Tattá, put himself in a moated castle to defend himself and for many days kept the king’s army at bay. At last the king was obliged to leave the place owing to scarcity of grain and grass, rise of water and increase of mosquitoes. He left one Bishkal there in place of Nizámulmulk and himself went to Gujrát. After some time, leaving Zafar Khán at Gujrát he returned to Tattá. This time Jám Khairuddín surrendered to him and the king pardoned him and ordered him with many other zamindárs of the place to go to Dehlí. When these men came to the vicinity of Sehwán, Jám Khairuddín secretly arranged to make his escape by means of a boat. But on information being given to the king by the party of zamindárs, the king ordered that the Jám be put in irons and taken as a prisoner to Dehlí. The king himself too moved with his army to his capital. After some time the king appointed Jám Khairuddín’s son Jám Júnah to be the ruler of Tattá.

Feróz Sháh died on 18th Ramazán, 790 A.H. (1388 A.D.) after a successful reign of 38 years and some months.

Feróz Sháh was succeeded on the throne of Ferózábád by

Ghayásuddín alias Tagh­lak Sháh wd. Fateh Khán.

his grandson Taghlak Sháh son of Fateh Khán. On the 17th of Rama­zán 790 A.H. (1388 A.D.) according to the will of the dying king and with the assistance of nobles and ministers he got the title of Ghayásuddín. Feróz Sháh’s son Muhammad Sháh with whom his father had been annoyed for something and who had therefore been purposely sent away on some excuse and put aside, now came up as the rightful claimant of the throne. In the month of Zulhajj he arrived at the mountain of Sarmór but he was driven away by Taghlak Sháh who pursued him with 1,00,000 men to some distance and then returned to his capital without completely subjugating him. Taghlak Sháh now began to spend his time in youthful luxuries. He kept his own brothers in close confinement. Fearing the king’s ill-treatement his nephew Abúbakr son of Zafar Khán, fled away and was soon joined by Malak Ruknuddín, the prime minister, with some other nobles of the state. They made a conspiracy and caused a revolt. They attacked the capital and killed Malak Mubárak Kabír at the very gate of the king’s palace in Ferózábád Dehlí. Taghlak Sháh was so much frightened at the results of this mutiny that in company with Khán Jahán, he secretly left the fort by the river Jún gate. But he was soon pursued by Malak Ruknuddín, who caught Taghlak Sháh and Khán Jahán and killed them and hung the king’s head from the top of the gate by which he had escaped. This event occured on the 21st of Saffar, 791 A. H. (1389 A.D.). The reign of Taghak Sháh lasted for 5 months and 3 days.

The nobility now came forward and installed Feróz

Abúbakr Sháh wd. Zafar Khán.

Sháh’s grandson Abúbakr son of Zafar Khán on the throne with the title of Abúbakr Sháh. They appointed Malak Ruknuddìn to be his wazír. A short time after this, Abúbakr Sháh, suspecting that Ruknud­dín was in a secret league with some other nobles of Feróz Sháh to secure the throne for himself, killed Malak Ruk­nuddín. He now began to reign with some ease of mind.

About the same time the chief of Sámánah was murdered by Mír Sadah Sámánah, who sent his head to Muhammad Sháh son of the late king, at Nagarkót. Muhammd Sháh getting this favourable opportunity hastened to Sámánah and proclaimed himself king of the place, in the month of Rabí-ul-awwal and received the obeisance of Mír Sadah Sámánah and other zamindárs of the place. Here Muham­mad Sháh was soon joined by some other nobles who had deserted Abúbakr Sháh. In a short time about 20,000 foot and horse assembled under the standard of Muhammad Sháh, who now proceeded from Sámánah to Dehlí. By the time he arrived in the vicinity of Dehlí, his forces increased to 50,000 men. Thus equipped Muhammad Sháh marched on hastely and encamped at Jahánábád, on the 2nd day of Rabí-ul-ákhar of 791 A. H. (1389 A. D.) and again on the 2nd of Jamádi-ul-awwal of the same year and engagement took place within the heart of the town of Ferózábád between the armies of Muhammad Sháh and Abúbakr Sháh. While the battle was going on, Abúbakr Sháh was suddenly strengthened by the arrival of succour under Bahádur Khán of Mewát and he gained the upper hand. The next day a hard battle was fought which too ended in the defeat of Muhammad Sháh and in his escape with 2,000 men to Duábah, across the river Jún. Once more in the month of Shuabán of the same year, Muham­mad Sháh came prepared for a fight with Abúbakr Sháh, but he soon fled, being pursued to a distance of 6 miles by the victorious army of the king. Thenceforth Muhammad Sháh remained in one place in a position of rest. In the next month (Ramazan) he only wrote letters to the people of Láhór, Multán and other places instigating them to kill all the men of the side of Feróz Sháh, wherever they could find them. Accordingly massacre and plunder made their appearance in those towns, to the great annoyance of the public. At last the nobles of the state being disheartened by the cruel behaviour of Muhammad Sháh left him and went to Abúbakr Sháh at Mewàt. The reign of this king lasted for a year and a half only.

Muhammad Sháh son of Feróz Sháh came to the throne

Muhammad Sháh bin Feróz Sháh.

on 16th Ramazan 792 A.H. (1389 A.D.). His first act was to banish some of his father’s men, who had been against him and to slay others. At the same time he issued a proclamation to the effect that if any of such men were found in his country, they would be killed.

Coming to Dehlí, he began to effect some improvements in state affairs. After he had sufficiently strengthened himself, he deputed his son Humáyún Khán, with the advice of his ministers to go and fight against Abúbakr Sháh who was now living at Kótlah. Accordingly this prince with his forces came to the vicinity of that place and camped there. During the night, Abúbakr Sháh with the assistance of Bahádur Khán the leader of Feróz Sháh’s men, who had joined him, made a sudden attack on the prince’s camp. A severe engagement ensued in which Abúbakr Sháh was defeated and he hurried to the fort of Kótlah, where he took shelter from the invading forces. Hearing this state of things Muhammad Sháh himself came down to the place by hurried marches and laid siege to the fort. The result was that Abúbakr Sháh was obliged to surrender. He was taken prisoner and sent to the fort of Mewát, where ultimately he died.

Soon after his return to Dehlí the king went to Gujrát and thence to Bengál, where he punished some of the mischief-makers and then came and halted at the castle of Muhammadábád, which town he had built in his time. During his stay here he got ill, but hearing that Bahádur Náhir had attacked some villages in the close vicinity of Dehlí and pillaged them, he started for Mewat without delay, though very weak. At Kótlah he met Bahádur Náhir, who gave him battle in open field, but being soon defeated, retired to the fort of Kótlah. He could not however remain long there and was compelled to run away. The king now prepared to go to Muham­madábád but illness returned to him with double severity, to which he succumbed on 17th Rabí-ul-awwal 796 A.H. (1393 A.D.). He reigned for 6 years and 7 months.

After the 3 days of the mourning ceremony of the late

Aláuddín alias Humá­yún bin Muhammad Sháh.

king, his son Humáyún Khán ascended the throne with the title of Aláuddín. He tried his best to walk in the steps of his father. But unfortunately he soon got unwell and died on the 5th of Jamádi-al-awwal of the same year.

On the death of Aláuddín many nobles and ministers

Mahmúd Sháh alias Nási­ruddín bin Muhammad Sháh.

determined to retire to their estates, leaving the kingdom to its fate. But Khán Jahán, the prime minister of Muhammad Sháh induced them to return to the capital. They unanimously placed Muhammad Sháh’s youngest son Násiruddín on the throne, with the title of Mahmúd Sháh. His coronation took place on 20th Jamádi-al-awwal 796 A.H. (1393 A.D.). He treated his late father’s and brother’s ministers and nobles with singular distinc­tion, and conferred the title of Sultánusharaf on Khán Jahán. He appointed him governor of the province extending from Kanúj to Bahár and sent him with a large army in that direction. Accordingly Khán Jahán went and joined his new post. He soon brought the powerful chiefs and zamindárs of that district under his sway and rebuilt several fortified towns that had fallen into decay. All the rájáhs and amírs of Bengál and neighbouring states, who hitherto used to send present and nazránahs to Feróz Sháh now began to send the same to Mahmúd Sháh.

In the same year Mahmúd Sháh prepared an expedi­tion under Sárang Khán against Debálpur and Sind, and against Shekhá Khókhar, who with the assistance of Bhattís, Khiljís and some tribes of Multán had commenced to play mischief. Accordingly in the month of Zí-kaad of 796 A. H. (1393 A. D.) Sárang Khán started for Láhór and arriving within about 12 koss from that town, engaged with Shekhá Khókhar in a pitched battle. Shekhá Khókhar was defeated and fled to the mountain of Jamún. The next day Sárang Khán took possession of the fort of Láhór, and left his brother Malak Khandú with the title of Ádil Khán, in charge of the place, and himself went to Debálpur. In the month of Shuabán of the same year, Mahmúd Sháh left Mukarrab Khán with some other trustworthy men in charge of the fort of Debálpur and himself, taking Saádat Khán with him, left for Gwaliár and Bayánah. When he arrived near Gwaliár a treacherous conspiracy was formed against him by Malak Aláuddín Már­wál, Mubárak Khán son of Malak Rajúr and Sárang Khán’s brother Malúr. Saádat Khán getting secret information about this league, managed to secure Malak Aláuddín and Sárang Khán and killed them. Sárang Khán’s brother Malúr effected his escape and coming to the king succeeded in removing the suspicion against himself; then quietly slipping from his camp to the town, openly defied him to fight. The king with the assistance of Saádat Khán laid siege to the town. Then commenced daily engagements between the two parties, which continued for three months. At length some of Mukarrab Khán’s friends treacherously separated the king from Saádat Khán and brought him to the town. Saádat Khán, seeing that his efforts to take the fort were of no avail and having no hope of taking any active measures owing to the rain falling about the time, he left the place and moved to Ferózábád and there, all the nobles of the place unanimously summoned Násiruddín son of Feróz Khán and grandson of Feróz Sháh, who was in Mewát, and in the month of Rabí-ul-awwal put him on the throne of Feróz­ábád with the title of Nasrat Sháh. But soon perceiving that Nasrat Sháh had become now a different person from before, the nobility found means to detach Saádat Khán, who was the chief of the ministers, from him. Thus putting Saádat Khán, by some excuses at a distance from Nasrat Sháh, they tried to harm him. And Saádat Khán not being able to cope with them single-handed hastened to Dehlí, where Mukarrab Khán treacherously got him murdered.

After this occurrence Muhammad Muzaffar, Sháhah Náhir and Fazlulláh, who were house-born slave-nobles of Feróz Sháh had no other alternative but to join Nasrat Sháh. And the latter with their assistance succeeded in securing many parts of the kingdom.

Seeing this state of things king Násiruddín Mahmúd Sháh began to look with fear and suspicion at his nobles and army. He was in a fix as to what course to adopt in dealing with them. But soon war broke out between the two claimants to the throne. In 798 A.H. (1395 A.D.) some disagreement arose between Sárang Khán, the gov­ernor of Debálpur and Láhór, on behalf of Mahmúd Sháh and Khizir Khán, the ruler of Multán. Some men of the tribe of Bhattí also joined him and increased his ranks. Thus strengthened Sárang Khán came and took Multán. In Ramazan 799 A.H. (1396 A.D.) he assembled a large force and proceeded towards Dehlí. The chief men of Dehlí made common cause and came out prepared to fight with him. A battle took place between them on the 15th of Muharram 800 A.H. (1397 A.D.). Sárang Khán, being defeated, returned to Multán.

This disagreeable war-fare continued between these two princes, causing much disturbance in the country. A foreign enemy now appeared on the scene, who changed the aspect of the whole affair. In the month of Rabí-ul-awwal of the same year, Mirzá Pír Muhammad a grand­son of Amír Taimúr, known by the title of Sáhib Kirán, traversing the Panjáb, the land of five rivers, laid siege to the fort of Uch. Malak Alí, who was the gover­nor of the place, on behalf of Sárang Khán defended himself in the fort and kept the assailants at bay for about a month. Then arrived succour in the form of 4,000 men, under Malak Tájuddín despatched by Sárang Khán. At the approach of this reinforcement Mirzá Pír Muhammad left the fort and went in advance to meet Malak Tájuddín. He put him to flight and then returned to lay siege to the fort of Multán. For six months continually he kept on fighting with Sárang Khán. After this period Sárang Khán surrendered to the Tartar prince. Mirzá Pír Muhammad took possession of Multán and made a halt there for some time.

Hearing of the encroachments of Mirzá Pír Muhammad as precursors of Amír Taimúr, all the nobles and ministers of Dehlí assembled in Shawwál 800 A.H. (1397 A.D.) at the shrine of Shekh Kutbuddín Bakhtyár Kákí and brought about reconciliation and union between them and thus secured strength and protection for the empire immediately within the province of Dehlí, detaching Sind to shift for itself under its rulers.

In the month of Saffar 801 A.H. (1398 A.D.) amír Taimúr himself came with a large army to Multán and joined his grandson Mirzá Pír Muhammad. He dealt out undue punishment to those who had opposed his party, some of whom were even then prisoners.

At this time the rulers of Sind threw off the yoke of the kings of Dehlí and thereafter ruled their country independently.