1. On 10th Rajjib 1224—21st August 1809—a treaty

Treaty between the British Government and Mír Ghulam Alí Khán and his 2 brothers.*

was made by the British Government with Mírs Ghulám Alí Khán, Karam Alí Khán and Murád Alí Khán. The articles of the treaty were as follows:—

“(1) There shall be eternal friendship between the British Government and that of Sinde.
(2) Enmity shall never appear between the two States.
(3) The mutual despatch of the vakeels of both the Govern­ments shall always continue.
(4) The Government of Sinde will not allow the establishment of the tribe of the French in Sinde.”

2. In the Blue Book one treaty is mentioned between

Treaty between the British Government and Mírs Karam Alí Khán and Murad Alí Khán.*

the British Government and Mírs Karam Alí Khán and Murád Alí Khán, through Ághá Ismáil Sháh on 9th November 1820. In addition to the assurances of friendship between the two Govern­ments, the following two articles are given, viz.:—

“(3) The Amirs of Sinde engage not to permit any European or American to settle in their dominions. If any of the subjects of either of the two States should establish their residence in the dominions of the other and should conduct themselves in an orderly and peaceful manner in the territory to which they may emigrate, they will be allowed to remain in that situation; but if such fugitives shall be guilty of any disturbance or commotion it will be incumbent on the local authority to take the offenders into custody and punish or compel them to quit the country.
(4) The Amirs of Sinde engage to restrain the depredations of the Khoosas and all other tribes and individuals within their limits and to prevent the occurrence of any inroad into the British dominions.”

3. On 20th April 1832 (18th Zikaad 1247 A.H.) a

Treaty between the East India Company and Mír Murad Alí Khán.*

treaty was concluded between the East India Company and Mír Murád Alí Khán, through Lieut.-Colonel Pottinger. The following were some of the important articles:—

“(2) That the two contracting powers bind themselves never to look with the eye of covetousness on the possessions of each other.
(3) That the British Government has requested a passage for the merchants and traders of Hindustan by the river and roads of Sinde, by which they may transport either goods and merchandize from one country to another, and the said Government of Hyderabad hereby acquiesces in the same request on the 3 following conditions—that no person shall bring any description of military stores by the above river and roads; that no armed vessels or boats shall come by the said river, and that no English merchants shall be allowed to settle in Sinde but shall come as occasion requires, and having stopped to transact their business, shall return to India.
(4) When merchants shall determine on visiting Sinde they shall obtain a passport to do so from the British Government, and due intimation of the granting of such passport shall be made to the said Government of Hyderabad by the Resident in Cutch, or other officer of the said British Government.
(5) That the said Government is to promulgate a tariff or table of duties leviable on each kind of goods as the case may be . . . .”—

This treaty was modified by another concluded in 1834, by which a toll was fixed on each boat of 19 Tatta rupees per Tatta Kharrar, of which 8 rupees were to be received by the Government of Hyderabad and Khairpur and 11 by other States on the banks of the Indus, viz:—H.H. Bahawal Khan, Maharajah Ranjitsing and the East India Company. The size of the boat was fixed to be 30 Tatta Kharrars for the sake of levying toll.

4. The following treaty was concluded between the

Treaty between the East India Company and Mírs Núr Muhammad Khán and Nasír Khán.*

East India Company through Colonel H. Pottinger and Mírs Núr Muhammad Khán and Nasír Khán on 30th April 1838:—

“(1) In consideration of the long friendship, which has subsisted between the British Government and the Amírs of Sinde, the Governor-General in Council engages to use his good offices to adjust the present differences, which are under­stood to subsist between the Amirs of Sind and Maharajah Ranjitsing, so that peace and friendship may be established between the two States.
(2) In order to secure and improve the relations of amity and peace which have so long subsisted between the Sinde State and the British, a minister shall reside at the court of Hyderabad and that the Amírs of Sinde shall also be at liberty to depute a vakeel to reside at the court of the British Government; and that the British Minister shall be empowered to change his ordinary place of residence as may, from time to time, seem expedient and be attended by such an escort as may be deemed suitable by his Govern­ment.
As the Amírs had large arrears of tribute to pay Sháh Shujául Mulk, they were required by the Governor-General to pay 30 laks to the king at once. The Government Secretary wrote the following to the Resident in Sind:—“Beyond the payment of this sum, you will consider facilities heartily and actively given to the British force on its advance, as the first means, by which the principal Ameers may redeem any portion of the favour, which they have forfeited. But they will understand at the same time that such has been the character of their measures as to render it absolutely necessary that military posts be occupied in their country for the safe maintenance of communication between the army and the sea, and for the easy return of the British force to the Presidency of Bombay.”

The treaty of 23 Articles between the British Govern­ment and Mírs Núr Muham­mad Khán and Nasir Khan.*

5. The following is the treaty of 23 articles, the most important of which are given here.

“(2) The Governor-General of India has commanded that a British force shall be kept in Sinde and stationed at the city of Tattá, where a cantonment will be formed. The strength of this force is to depend on the pleasure of the Governor-General of India, but will not exceed 5000 men.
(3) Meer Noor Mahomed Khán, Meer Nuseer Mahomed Khan and Meer Mahomed Khan bind themselves to pay annually the sum of 3 laks of rupees in part of the expense of the force, from the presence of which their respective territories will derive such vast advantages.
(5) The British Government pledges itself neither to interfere in any degree, small or great, in the internal management, or affairs of the several possessions of the Ameers, nor to think of introducing in any shape its regulations or adawlats.
(7) The British Government agrees to protect Sinde from all foreign aggressions.
(9) Should any Ameer attack or injure the possession of another Ameer, or those of his dependents, the Resident in Sinde will, on being applied to by both sides act as mediator between them.
(11) Their Highnesses the Ameers agree to form no new treaties, or enter into any engagements with Foreign States, without the knowledge of the British Government, but their High­nesses will of course carry on friendly correspondence, as usual, with all their neighbours.
(14) The Ameers agree to either build or allow the British Government to build an enclosure and store-house at Karáchi as a depôt for stores.
(15) Should any British merchants or others bring goods by the way of Karáchi Bunder, the duties of Sinde Government will be paid on them agreeable to the custom of the country.
(16) … As the thorough-fare (on the Indus) will now be increased a hundred-fold, the contracting Governments agree to abolish the tolls on the river from the sea to Ferozepore.
(19) Should the British Government at any time require and apply for the aid of the army of Sinde, their Highnesses the Ameers agree to furnish it according to their means, and in any such case the troops, thus applied for are not to exceed 3000 men, are not to proceed beyond the frontier of Sinde, and are to be paid for by the British Government.
(21) A separate treaty has been made between the British Government and Meer Rustam Khán of Khyrpur, 5th February 1839 A.D. = 20th Zikad 1254 A.H.”

6. Lieutenant Eastwick to the Resident in Sind.

Wavering of the Mírs before signing the last treaty.*

Sind Residency, January 26th, 1839 —. . . . (on 22nd) about 1 o’clock Captain Outram, Lieutenant Leckie and myself started for the fort. We were received by Meer Noor Mahomed, Meer Nusseer Khan and Meer Meer Mahomed in a private apartment in which Meer Shadad, Mirza Khoosrow, Nawab Mahomed Khan and Munshi Choitram were present after a profusion of civilities evidently forced, Meer Noor Mahomed produced a box from which he took out all the treaties that had been entered into between the British and Hyderabad Govern­ments, showing them to me only one, he asked “what is to become of all these. Here is another annoyance. Since the day Sinde has been connected with the English, there has always been something new. Government is never satisfied; we are anxious for your friendship, but we can­not be continually persecuted. We have given a road to your troops through our territories and now you wish to remain. This the Baluchis will never suffer. But still we might even arrange this matter were we certain that we should not be harassed with other demands. There is the payment to the king; why can we obtain no answer on this point? Four months have now elapsed since this question was first discussed. Is this a proof of friendship? We have failed in nothing; we have furnished camels, boats, grain; we have distressed ourselves to supply your wants. We will send our ambassador to the Governor-General to represent these things; you must state them to Colonel Pottinger” . . . . . . . . . . . . . (on 23rd) intelligence was brought that a night attack was meditated… we therefore made the best disposition of our small force, conveyed the baggage (except tents) and servants on board the boats and waited the result. All the people and baggage were embarked on board the boats and sent forward; the gentlemen of the Residency followed in the steamer.

7. The Resident in Sind to the Secretary with the

Sayyad Ismáil Sháh and his sons.*

Governor-General. February 16th 1839— …. The only persons in whom the Ameers seem to put con­fidence just now are Syad Ismail Shah and his family and I believe they have really exerted themselves to prevent a rupture. They have all visited India frequently and are much better acquainted with our power and policy than any other people in Sinde. The advice they have lately given no doubt chiefly proceeds from self advantage, but it might be desirable to retain them in our own interest, which from their avaricious habits could be effectually done by granting to them a small pension for the lives of Syad Ismail Shah (who is now 80 years of age) and his three sons, Tukkee Shah, Sadik Shah and Zynool Abdeen Shah.*

8. The Governor-General of India to the Secret Com­mittee,

Dealings of the British Goverument with the Ameers; the possession of Bakhar and Karachi and the march of the British troops along the Indus.*

13th March 1839—(…) The Division of the Bengal Army, under the command of Major-General Sir Willoughby Cotton reached the Indus within a week after the force of Shah Shuja-ul Mulk. Permission had then been afforded for the construction of bridges of boats over the two channels of the river between which are situated the island and fort of Bukkur. With the Ameers of Khyr­pur, to whom the fortress belongs, I have directed a treaty to be formed receiving them formally under the protection of the British Government and stipulating for the possession of Bukkur, whenever it might be required, during the continuance of defensive operations. This ready and amicable acquisition of so useful a position may be expected to have produced an excellent effect in all the neighbouring countries, for the fort is one of much celebrity. Intelligence had reached me in March 1838 of letters having been written by the two principal Ameers, Meer Noor Mahomed Khan and Meer Nusseer Mahomed Khan to the Shah of Persia professing deference to his power and encouraging his advance; and even at that early period I caused it to be notified to the Ameers that these proceedings could not be tolerated. This warning was not taken and down to the latest period, advances have been continued by the principal Ameers to the Shah of Persia. . . . From all proceedings of this character, one of the Ameers, Meer Sobdar Khan, has held himself free and it was to him, as a friendly ruler at Hyderabad, that I originally looked on the supposition of a change in the Government being forced upon me. When Colonel Pottinger proceeded to Hyderabad in the course of September last, he found that the feelings of the principal Ameers had been shown to be to the last degree ungrate­ful and hostile. . . . Colonel Pottinger himself had been insulted and his person exposed to some danger, by the throwing of stones and other missives by the populace of Hyderabad acting on the clandestine instigation or permission of the chiefs. . . . A recommendation was subsequently received from Colonel Pottinger that the British Government should accept a tract of country near Tatta, instead of any money contributions for the expense of the British troops to be stationed in Sinde. . . . While this correspondence was in progress the Bombay division under the command of Sir John Keane had landed at the Hujamro mouth of the Indus in the early days of December. No resistance was ventured to his disem­barkation, but from the date of his arrival every artifice was resorted to to thwart and impede his movements. . . . At length after the lapse of weeks, Sir John Keane’s division had been able to move on to Tatta. . . . Colonel Pottinger had determined to offer to the Ameers a revised treaty. . . . Transcripts of his instructions to his assistant Lieutenant Eastwick, with this draft of treaty to Hyderabad, accompany this address. The reception of Lieutenant Eastwick by the Ameers was in the highest degree unsatisfactory. . . . On the 23rd of January Lieutenant Eastwick with his companions was obliged to leave Hyderabad and proceed to join Sir John Keane’s force, which had then reached Jerruck within two marches of the capital. Communications were cut off, letters seized, boatmen and other work-people threatened and every appearance of intended hostility exhibited. At Jerruck Sir John Keane had to wait a few days for the arrival of the boats with his stores and ammunition; and with the prospect of an early assault upon Hyderabad before him, he judged it prudent to call for the aid … from the Bengal division, which he then knew to have reached Bukkur. Before, however, his orders had reached Sir Willoughby Cotton, that officer having received authentic intelligence of the imminent hazard of a rupture in Lower Sind had marched with the large force of two brigades of infantry, one brigade of cavalry and a considerable proportion of artillery down the east bank of the Indus, in the direction of Hyderabad. . . . A portion of the disciplined troops of Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk had been also sent down from Shikarpur to occupy Larkhana… The Ameers sent a deputation on some date before the 30th January to Colonel Pottinger assenting to all his demands, when they perceived that he was resolved and prepared to enforce them. He here judged it requisite . . . . to secure the payment which we have desired for Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk by making it a new condition that 21 laks of rupees should be paid by the Ameers of Hyderabad on this account; ten laks immediately and the remainder within some reasonable time to be specified. This stipulation was also at once agreed to. . . . Sir John Keane with his force arrived opposite to Hyderabad on the 3rd or 4th of February, and the treaties were duly signed and delivered by the Ameers and the ten laks of rupees made over to Colonel Pottinger without delay. The orders of Sir John Keane, announcing the favourable change, reached Sir Willoughby Cotton on his march southwards and these troops were immediately moved back, crossed over the bridge at Bukkur and concentrated at Shikarpur by the 21st of February. Sir John Keane with his division marched northwards from Hyderabad on the 10th of February; while the events described had been occurring at Hyderabad, two regiments of the reserve force for Sind had proceeded to land at Karachi, Her Majesty’s regiment being embarked on board the flagship “Wellesley” in which Sir Frederick Maitland, the Naval Commander-in-Chief, had obligingly afforded it accom­modation. The landing of the troops being opposed and a shot fired upon them from a small fort … the “Wellesley” opened her batteries and in a very short time the southern or sea face of the fort … was levelled with the ground. The troops in the meantime landed from the boats and the garrison of the fort was immediately apprehended. The Governor of the town at once gave over military possession of it by capitulation and we have thus gained the occupancy of a Military post which is likely to become one of much interest and importance. I may be permitted to offer my congratulations to you upon this timely settlement of our relation with Sinde by which our political and military ascendency in that province is now finally declared and confirmed.