After Mír Murád Alí Khán’s death the chiefs and

Division of Sind into sevéral small sub-divisions.

headmen of the Balóches met together and after some consultation among themselves divided the terri­torial possessions of the late Mír into four parts, one part becoming the share of each of his four sons. These four young Mírs then began to rule at the town of Haidarábád. Similarly on the death of Mír Suhráb Khán of Khairpur,* his country was divided among his sons Mírs Rustam Khán and Alí Murád Khán and their nephews Mír Muhammad Hasan Khán son of Mír Rustam Khán, Mír Muhammad Khán son of Mír Ghulám Haidar Khán and Mír Nasír Khán son of Mír Mubárak Khán.* In the same way, Mír Alí Murád Khán son of Mír Thárah Khán of Mírpur, having died about that time, his part of the country was divided among his sons, Mírs Sher Muhammad Khán, Sháh Muhammad Khán and Khán Muhammad Khán. In this manner the whole of Sind was divided into small shares each being retained by a young Mír, who con­sidered himself independent of every other. But Mír Núr Muhammad Khán, the eldest of the Mírs at Haidarábád, being a wise and generous nobleman, soon became popular and came to be acknowledged as the chief ruling prince of Sind.

About this time a report was received from Sayyed

March of the Mírs against Shujául. Mulk at Shikárpur and the departure of the latter.

Kázim Sháh son of Ághá Ismáíl Sháh the Názim or Governor of Shikárpur* to the effect that Shujául Mulk, who had been lodged at Shikárpur by the late Mír, on hearing of his death had become the sole master of Shikárpur and dismissed him. After some consultation, the Mírs collected their forces and started to dispossess the Afghán ex-king of Shikárpur. At Khairpur* they were joined by the Mírs of that part, and they all marched together in the direction of Shikárpur. At the same time they despatched some envoys to admonish him to leave the town and go away. Shujául Mulk knowing well that the day of Balóch bravery and heroism had gone, flatly refused to depart. The Mírs proceeded and halted about 6 miles from Shikárpur. From there, their army, which amounted to 18000 men, attacked the two or three thousand Afgháns of the place. They were however soon repulsed by the hardy Afgháns with great loss. Kázim Sháh himself and Gólah Sháh, belonging to the Khairpur army, were among the killed. The Balóches without waiting longer to fight with the enemy, fled back to the Mírs’ camp. The latter were now obliged to send Ághá Ismáíl Sháh to sue for peace and settle any terms with Shujául Mulk on condition that he should leave the country. Accordingly it was soon arranged that the Afghán prince should receive 12 laks of Sind rupees (equivalent to 8 laks of British rupees) and depart. The money was forthwith given and Shujául Mulk left the place for Ludhiánah. Sayyed Ismáil Sháh was then put in charge of the administration of the place, and that officer having appointed his son, Sayyed Zainulábidín Sháh to act for him as a náib (agent), left for Haidarábád along with the Mírs, and arrived there in Shawwál 1249 H. A. (1833 A.D.)*

In 1252 A.H. (1836 A.D.)* information was received

Balóches advance to oppose the English from pass­ing through Sind to Kábul.*

that Shújául Mulk had applied to the British Government for help against his own countrymen at Kábul and the Government had appointed Sir William Macnaghten to accompany the Afghán prince with an army and reinstal him on the throne of Kábul.*

At the same time the Governor General of India, Lord Auckland, ordered an army to go from Bombay under the command of General Sir John (afterwards Lord) Keane, passing through Sind to assist Shújául Mulk. But before their coming, Colonel Pottinger was deputed from Kachh to go to the Court of the Mírs and take their formal per­mission about it and to request them to arrange in a way that the army passing through Sind viâ Karáchi, might not be molested by any natives of the province, and traders might supply provisions as well as camels, bullocks, labourers and boatmen, at any rate or wages fixed by the Mírs. Mír Núr Muhammad Khán was wise enough to know that under the circumstances of the time, the Balóches were utterly unable to oppose the English in the open field, and so he gave his consent. But the other Mírs, each of whom considered himself an independent ruler, being instigated by rude Balóches objected and showed readiness to fight with the English. Colonel Pottinger was pelted at with stones in the streets of Haidarábád by the boys of the place, and a force was hurriedly got up and marched to the bank of the river, where they encamped in the village of Ábád *. Bur Mír Núr Muham­mad Khán had already given his permission and Captain Whitelock had already left for Karáchi. Mír Sher Muhammad Khán now arrived from Mírpur with 12000 men and joined the other Mírs. The Balóches running short of provisions so soon, began to plunder the traders, who had collected large quantities of provisions for the British army, which had already been purchased and kept ready for them. This was all the work of the first night and the next morning. The Balóches were ready to loot the bazár of Haidarábád. Mír Núr Muhammad and his brothers, hearing of these outrages, tried their best to check the wild Balóches and with great difficulty succeeded in quiet­ing them, after they had shaved the beards and cut the ears of a good number of them.

Soon a report was received from Jamádár Alahrakhiah

The fort of Manahrah is taken and the British force is landed at Karáchi.

the governor of Karáchi, that ships bearing British troops had arrived off Karáchi, that the Sindí gunners posted in the fort of Manahrah,* had fired two or three guns at the ships, that the return bombs were fired from the ships razing to the ground one side of the fort in about a quarter of an hour, and that General Keane had landed his army by force. On hearing this, the Mírs sent Sayyed Ismáíl Sháh to meet Sir John Keane and to treat with him for peace through the medium of Major Pottinger, who had since left Haidarábád and joined the general. Accordingly, the Sayyed went to Karáchi and tried his best to bring about peace by giving excuses and explanation for what had happened. At last the following treaty was drawn up, viz.:

(1) That the Mírs must supply provisions and beasts of burden on reasonable prices and hire.

(2) That as the Sind rupee contained much alloy, being 3 masás out of 11, and its circulation caused great loss to traders, the Mírs should strike a rupee weighing 8 masás, containing no alloy.

(3) That the Mírs should pay an indemnity of 23 laks of pure rupees to the British Government.

(4) That in future a British force of 3000 men would be posted at Karáchi.

(5) That a Resident would be appointed to remain at Haidarábád to superintend the British force and to watch the interests of the British Government in Sind.

(6) That the Mírs would pay 3 laks of rupees annually to the British Government as a tribute, and

(7) That the Mírs would readily comply with any reasonable request that the British Resident might make and that the latter would in no way interfere with any public or private affairs of the Mírs. A copy of the above treaty was taken with Sayyed Ismáil Sháh’s letter to the Mírs, by Captain Whitelock, assistant to Major Pottinger, the British Resident. The Mírs accepted the terms and signed the treaty.*

After this Sir John Keane with his whole force started

Passage of British forces up the river to Kábul.*

for Kábul. The troops were pre­vented from going to the east of the Indus, on their march along the river. When they arrived at Kótrí, the European Military officers expressed a desire to visit the town of Haidarábád. Permission was asked from the Mírs, who were requested to arrange in such a way that no mischief or hurt be caused by the people to the officers. The permission was granted and Sayyed Jiandal Sháh, the Kotwál or Police Superintendent of the town was ordered to proclaim by tom-tom that the people should keep aloof from doing any harm to the Europeans coming to see the town, or else they would be punished severely. The next day, after sunrise, all the European officers crossed the river and came to Haidarábád. It was winter then. They went about the town visiting places of importance till 4 p.m., when they returned to Kótrí. The next morning, the British forces started again on their march. Col. Ledge was sent ahead to inform the Mírs of Khairpur of their coming. Those Mírs at first showed some opposition, but subsequently they remained quiet. In a short time General Keane arrived at Chhiprí, where after some con­versation Mr. Ross Bell was left as a Resident. The British force which consisted of 2000 men then proceeded to Khurásán.

After a year and a half Mr. Ross Bell died and the

Changes in the British Residents at Haidarábád.

Residency of Khairpur too was attached to Major Pottinger, the Resi­dent at Haidarábád. After 7 months that officer fell ill and went home and was succeeded by his assistant Captain Leckie. But he too did not remain long and was soon transferred to Bombay, Captain East­wick being next appointed as the Resident. This officer remained until after some days, Major Outram was nominated to the post and arrived at Haidarábád viâ Kachh. After a short stay at Haidarábád Major Outram left his assistant Captain Whitelock to act for him at the capital of Sind and himself went to see the Residency at Khairpur and to settle some affairs in connection with Kalát.

In the month of Zí-Kaad 1254 A.H. (1838 A.D.)

General Keane returns from Kábul and passes through Haidarábád to Bombay.

General Sir John Keane after reinstalling Shujáulmulk on the throne of Kábul returned to Bombay, with Sardár Ghulám Haidar Khán, the son of Amír Dóst Muhammad Khán, as a hostage. On his way, he alighted at the Residency bungalow of Major Outram, which was situated on the bank of the Indus, near Mír Muhammad Khán’s village. Mír Núr Muham­mad Khán ordered a salute of 19 guns in honour of the General. That morning the Mírs paid formal visits to the General, who received them with distinction. In the afternoon, General Keane, accompanied by 25 other European officers, returned the visits. They were received by the Mírs in an open Durbár, which had been held for the occasion, with all the pomp of an Indian ruler. The General gave some gold as nazránah to each of the three Mírs, Núr Muhammad Khán, Nasír Khán and Mír Muhammad Khán and then took his leave. He next paid a visit to Mír Sóbdár Khán. About sunset he returned to the Residency, The next day, the General, with Sardár Ghulám Haidar Khán and other officers left for Bombay.

In Jamádissání 1255 A.H. (1840 A.D.) Mír Núr

Death of Mír Núr Muhammad Khán*

Muhammad Khán became ill. He remained for some time under the treatment of Native and European doctors, but in vain. At last early on the morning of Wednesday, 10th Shawwál, 1255 A.H. (1840 A.D.) * he died and was buried by the side of his father.*