In the beginning of the next year 1175 A.H. (1762 A.D.)

Mián Ghulám Sháh appointed ruler of Sind by a royal decree, with the title of ‘Sháh Wardí Khán.’

a royal sanad was received confirming Mián Ghulám Sháh as the ruler of Sind, giving him the title of “Sháh Wardí Khán,” and bringing an elephant, a robe of honour and some other presents. In the same year the Mián again marched as far as Khánpúr in order to punish the Dáúdpotahs, but at the intercession of the Sayyeds of Uch he pardoned them and returned without going further.

In 1176 A.H. (1763 A.D.), on the 9th of Rabíussání

Mián Ghulám Sháh invades Kachh and makes peace with the Ráo.

the Mián marched towards Kachh in order to punish the Hindús of that place. He took the fort of Sindrí on his way, and on the heights of Járah* mountain killed about 6000 men of the Kachhí’s. Continuing his victori­ous march he came to within 12 koss of Bhuj, plundering the villages and towns in the vicinity of that city. He took the sea-ports of Busta and Lakhpat. At length at the entreaties of the Ráo of Kachh and on his suing for peace the Mián marched back, arriving at Sháhpúr on the 2nd of Rajjib 1177 A.H. (1764 A.D.).

In 1178 A.H. (1765 A.D.) Mián Ghulám Sháh again

Another invasion against Kachh and fresh treaty with it.

invaded Kachh and took the fortified town of Mórú on his way. Coming to within 10 miles of Kachh, he made a halt. The Ráo of Kachh again applied for peace and a fresh treaty was concluded. Returning from Kachh he went to the old Sháhpúr instead of the new, which town he found uncomfortable on account of the excessive wind and dust.* About this time the king conferred a fresh title of “Samsámuddaolah*” on Mián Ghulám Sháh, in addition to the former one, in consideration of his brave deeds and successful management of State affairs.

Not long after this, Muhammad Atur Khán, whose

Atur Khán surrenders.

companions like Maksúdah, had died and left him alone, repented and surrendered to Mián Ghulám Sháh, who showed him great kindness and kept him in his company.

In 1181 A.H. (1767 A.D.) Mián Ghulám Sháh was

Mián Ghulám Sháh entrusted with the adminis­tration of the Derahs.

entrusted by the king with the charge of the Derahs* whence some disturbance was reported. Accordingly in the beginning of Rabíussání, the Mián started for that division. In the course of three months he settled all matters and restored peace and order there. Taking some hostages from the chiefs of the place, he returned to Sháhpúr.

Unfortunately during this interval, the force left by the Mián at the Derahs had to fight with the natives of the place headed by their chief Nasrat. This confusion induced the king to send Sardár Jahán Khán as his agent to settle and administer the State affairs there. The Sardár came, dismissed the Mián’s officers and appointed his own in their place. In 1183 A.H. (1769 A.D.) however, Derah Gházi Khán was lost to the Sardár, and Mián Ghulám Sháh had again to go in that direction to settle the country. He succeeded in quieting the country once more. And as a reward for this remarkable piece of the service, the remaining portion of Derah Gházi Khán, that used to be attached to Multán, was given to the Mián and its governor made subordinate to him.

On his return from the Derahs in Zíhajj, 1183 A. H.

The city and fort of Haidarabád, founded by Mián Ghulám Sháh.

Mián Ghulám Sháh went straight to Nerúnkót, where in Zíkaad of the previous year, 1182 A.H. (1768 A.D.), he had commenced a strong fort with the view of turning that city into his future capital. This fort, which was built on hilly high ground was named Haidarabád. And there the Mián remained for the rest of his life.

After Gul Muhammad Khán Khurásáni and Muham­mad

The administrators of Tattá.

Káim no other administrator was appointed at Tattá. In the Muharram of 1184 A.H. (1770 A.D.), however, Habíb Fakír Náij was put in charge of the place. Habíb was succeeded by Muhammad Husain, but he soon returned and resumed the same charge. After Habíb was removed Murád Fakír Nizámání was made the administrator of Tattá and continued as such up to 1188 A.H. (1774 A.D.).

In 1184 A.H. (1770 A.D.) for several reasons the charge

Matrimonial connection between the Mián and the Ráo of Kachh.

of the Derahs was taken from Mián Ghulám Sháh by the king and given back to Sardár Jahán Khán. In this year the Ráo of Kachh gave the hand of a daughter of his cousin Wesújí in marriage to the Mián and the marriage was celebrated with great pomp and splendour on both the sides. In consideration of this relationship, the towns of Bustá Bandar and Lakhpt Bandar and others that had been conquered by the Mián, were returned to the Ráo.

It was in the year 1185 A.H. (1771 A.D.) that a

The rain of flesh, a strange phenomenon.

wonderful physical phenomenon was seen in Sind. In about a bígah of land, near Dhand Ohattí, pieces of flesh fell in rain. Each piece was more in weight than a seer of Súrat. A few pieces were brought to the Mián. The flesh resembled the flesh of a pig, both in smell and colour. It was thrown to dogs, but they would not eat it.

In 1186 A.H. (1772 A. D.) foundation was laid for a mud

The death of Mián Ghulám Sháh.

fort on a hillock to the south-west of the fort of Haidarábád and for the protection of the same. The hillock was sacred to Hají Muhammad Makaí* and was called after his name. His remains had been buried there and round his tomb a spacious grave-yard had been formed. As a large number of tombs had to be razed to the ground to lay the foundation of the fort, it proved to be a bad omen on account of the disrespect that was shown to the dead, especially to the saint. Unfortunately, soon after the fort was built, Mián Ghulám Sháh died all of a sudden on the 2nd of Jamádil-awwal of the same year, having been attacked by paralysis on the previous day only.*

About this time Ahmad Sháh Durání died and with the

Death of Ahmad Sháh Durání and accession of his son Taimúr Sháh to the throne.

assistance of his prime minister Sháh Walí Khán his younger son Sulaimán Sháh succeeded him to the throne. His elder son Taimúr Sháh, who was at Khurásán at the time of his father’s death, hastened to the capital, killed Sháh Walí Khán, removed his younger brother from the throne, and occupied it himself.