Finding the country vacant, Muhammad Atur Khán

General feelings against Muhammad Atur Khán.

had no difficulty in entering it. Ahmad Yár Khán considered it expedient to move towards Naoshahrah and fix his residence there. In the beginning of Rabíussání, Muhammad Murádyáb also arrived to join his brother. In fact he and the Siraí chiefs entertained hopes that Atur Khán had taken all that trouble and secured the rulership for him, being his elder brother. But Atur Khán was too ambitious for that. Without even meeting his brother, he ordered him to be taken and settled at Khudábád. Although this conduct of his, increased bad feelings in the minds of the nobility towards him, still since he had been appointed by the royal decree, they could only submit to him ostensibly. The officers began to hate him; the revenue began to fail; the king’s demands for tribute and other government dues began to increase. All these things combined to make the new ruler disgusted with the country, whilst the people, being much oppressed by him, began to curse him and wish for his dethronement.

Meanwhile Mián Ghulám Sháh passing some time in the

Mián Ghulám Sháh marches against Atur Khán and defeats him at Lóhrí.

State of Udhepúr, returned to Bahá­walpur, where he spent 3 months. Being encouraged by the state of things in Sind, he left his son Muhammad Sarafráz Khán with his baggage and dependents at Baháwalpur and him­self started for Sind, about the middle of Ramazán. Muhammad Atur Khán hearing of his approach proceeded to meet his adversary. On the last day of Ramazán, he arrived at Lóhrí* and fixed his camp on the bank of Umarkas, just outside the town. Here Mián Ghulám Sháh came with his selected band to measure arms with him. After some fighting at a distance with guns and arrows, he crossed the water and came to close quarters with the enemy. A hard fight took place which ended in the defeat of the ruler of Sind. Atur Khán, Ahmad Yár Khán and Maksúdah were put to flight disgracefully, and the whole army with all its baggage came into the possession of Mián Ghulám Sháh. That day and the next, which was the Ramazán Íd, or holiday, he celebrated his victory, and then taking the Siráí chiefs with him, he came from Lóhrí to Siwistán or Sehwán.*

As during this short period Muhammad Murádyáb Khán

Mián Ghulám Sháh comes to Siwistán and thence to Alahábad and Muham­madábád.

had died, Mián Ghulám Sháh tried his best to conciliate the minds of that deceased ex-ruler’s followers. About the close of Shawwál 1171 A. H. (1758 A. D.) he returned to Alahábád, where he was met by his son and his other party. After spending a few days there, he moved to Muhammadábád, where he remained up to the end of the year.

In the beginning of the next year 1172 A. H. (1759 A.D.)

Atar Khán goes to Kalát; subsequently joins the King’s camp and returns with an imperial army in succour.

difficulties again arose making matters complicated. Muhammad Atur Khán and Ahmadyár Khán in their flight after the above defeat went straight to Kalát, where the ruler of the place, Muhammad Nasír Khán* on the strength of the friendship he bore to Mían Ghulám Sháh, retained them with him till the King’s army arrived in that country to punish him and defeated him. The two brothers then joined the royal army on their return to the camp. There they employed means to re-secure the rulership of Sind, and eventually succeeded. Ahmadyár Khán remained in the king’s camp, while Atur Khán was sent back with an army commanded by Atáí Khân to reinstate him on the throne of Sind.*

Getting this news, in the month of Rabiussaní 1172

The town of Sháhbandar, founded by Mián Ghulám-Sháh.

A. H. (1759 A. D.) Mián Ghulám Sháh moved to Kujah, a deserted town. He ordered all the residents of the part of Orangá to remove to Kujah, which once more became a populous town and which he named Sháhgarh. He appointed it as his head-quarters, and in its vicinity he founded a new fort, calling it Sháhbandar. He built a castle and collected all materials of war there. He then left that place together with the State prisoners he had with him in charge of his son Muhammad Sarafráz Khán and himself advanced to meet his brothers.

Muhammad Atur Khán was already advancing with

Peace concluded between Mián Ghulám Sháh and Atur Khán and the country divided between them.

his Afghán forces * laying waste the country on his way, Maksúdh being the leader of the advance party. At Cháchikán the two armies met. For some time indecisive fighting went on, but eventually Atur Khán losing all hope of success, sought for peace, which was concluded. The country of Sind was divided into three shares. The share extending from Sháhgarh to the limits of Nasarpúr and Tattá, fell to the lot of Míán Ghulám Sháh, and Tattá with the remaining portion of Sind was given to the two brothers, as their two shares. Accordingly Míán Ghulám Sháh went to Sháhgrah and Atur Khán left for Naoshahrah.

Up to the month of Ramazán matters went on quietly.

Disagreement between Atur Khán and his brother Ahmdyár Khán.

Then, as it was destined that the whole country should fall into Mián Ghulám Sháh’s possession, disagree­ment broke out between the two brothers, Atur Khán and Ahmadyár Khán. It was represented to the king of Dehlí that Atur Khán was incapable of carrying on the administrative duties of a country. It was therefore arranged that Ahmadyár Khán should leave his son with the king as a hostage and himself go to Sind, with the sanad appointing him the ruler of that country.

Hearing of this, Mián Ghulám Sháh started for the

The whole of Sind falls into the hands of Ghulám Sháh, and Atur Khán flees.

conquest of Sind in the month of Ramazán 1172 A.H. (1759 A.D.) When Atur Khán learnt that Ghu­lám Sháh was coming from one side and Ahmadyár Khán from another, he lost heart and fled from Naoshahrah. On the Íd holiday, Mián Ghulám Sháh got this news near Nasarpúr and he immediately advanced to take advantage of the situation. As Ahmadyár Khán was yet far away, the country fell easily into the hands of Mián Ghulám Sháh’s men. In the reign of Atur Khán the people of Tattá had suffered a great deal. A party of the tribe of Jókhiah had fallen on the place and in open day­light plundered the quarter of Mulah Talahtí. The Afghán forces had further oppressed the people on account of the weakness of the ruler. So they were now very glad to hail a new ruler.

On the 2nd of Shawwál of the same year, Mián Ghulám

Mián Ghulám Sháh comes to Ládkánah and Siwistán and punishes the rebellious Khósahs.

Sháh received a letter from Muham­mad Atur Khán stating that he was going to leave the country for good and that he and his brother Ahmadyár Khán might do whatever they liked with it. Being still more encouraged by this news, Mián Ghulám Sháh advanced further and secured the men left behind by Atur Khán to his own side. He came as far as Ládkánah. He put to death all the Khósah chiefs, who had invaded and plundered Khúdábád in the period of anarchy, and posted a permanent force about the place to keep a watch over that tribe and to chastise them whenever necessary. Then coming to Siwistán he took the fort of Jóyah and Laknallí, which had served as a rendezvous of the Khósahs, and killing some of the ringleaders of that side and capturing others, he retraced his steps.

Mián Ghulám Sháh now heard that Muhammad Atur

Mián Ghulám Sháh defeats Atur Khán at Ubáórah.

Khán and Maksúdh Fakír, being assisted by some Dáúdpótah chiefs, especially Bahádur Khán, were com­ing prepared for fight. Accordingly he marched with his army to meet them. Coming to Ubáorah, he gave them battle, and completely defeated them, killing Bahádur Khán and another chief named Basásar. Victorious and happy at having made his path clear, he turned back to the centre of his country.

On 25th Muharram, 1173 A. H. (1760 A. D.) Mián

The Jám of Kakrálah is defeated and put to flight.

Ghulám Sháh fixed his camp at the new built town of Sháhpur and sent for his son from Sháhgarh. He had already sent Muhammad Káim, as the administrator of Tattá and the latter did his best to relieve the residents of the place from the oppression of the old officers and the tyranny of the Afgháus.

In this year, Jám Desar, the chief of Kakrálah, who during Mián Ghulám Sháh’s absence at Sháhgarah, had taken the offensive was defeated and driven away by Muhammad Siddík Wais and other generals, who had been specially sent for the purpose, On 7th Saffar 1174 A.H. (1761 A. D.), the Jám was compelled to leave the fort of Ábád and seek shelter in Kachh. His son, Hardárjí, who some time before had come to the camp of Mián Ghulám Sháh, was detained by the Mián as his own aide-de-camp.