Mián Núr Muhammad succeeded his father with the

Mián Núr Muhammad or Nawáb Khudáyár Khán.

title of “Khudáyár Khán.” For the first three years his younger brother Dáúd Khán would not submit to him and tried to oppose him, but ultimately yielded and paid allegiance to him.

In the 4th year of his rule, i.e. 1135 (1722 A.D.) the

He fights with the Dáúd­pótahs.

Dáúdpótahs revolted and took certain aggressive measures. They fought with Mullá Jiand Abrah, who was the Mián’s agent in charge of certain villages in the parganah of Jatóí of the tálukah of Bakhar. They further trespassed on the parganahs of Shikárpur, Khánpur and other villages, that formed the jágír of Mír Abdul-wasía Khán and would not give any explanation to the said Khán. Mián Núr Muhammad therefore, sent Thariah, one of his confidential men, to the Emperor* requesting that under the circumstances the jágír might be conferred on him in his own name, and at the same time marched against the Dáúdpótahs. After some hard fought battles he besieged them in the fort of Shikárpur and compelled them to submit. At last that division of the country was divided into four parts or shares, two shares being given to the original owner of the jágír, one to the Dáúdpótahs and one being retained by the Mián himself, who after taking some hostages, returned to his capital.

The Dáúdpótahs did not long remain quiet. Again and again they gave trouble, but were as often defeated and dispersed, till in 1139 A.H. (1726 A.D.) Mián Núr Muhammad Khudáyár Khán fixed his residence at Shi­kárpur and sent his army to extirpate them finally. The army pressed them hard in the fort of Dablí, but through the intercession of some Sayyeds they were pardoned and swore solemnly never to revolt again.

The result of all this was that the land of Nahárs, that

The Dáúdpótahs completely subjugated.

had lately fallen into the hands of the Dáúdpótahs, came back into the owner’s possession, and the Dáúd­pótahs were scattered in confusion over certain parganahs of Multán, e. g. Pahlí, the territory of Imámuddín Jóyah and Faríd Khán Lakhwírah, Náin, Baháwalpur, the terri­tory of Hánas Sammah, Patan of Bábá Faríd and the country near the settlements of the Afgháns. Within two years, however, they were reduced to straitened circumstances and were obliged to seek service under the Mián who gave them suitable pensions and places in the tálukah of Bakhar, which had only recently come into the hands of the Siráís.

Similarly Shekh Hamíd and Shekh Usmán Rónkahs, noteworthy zamíndárs of the suburbs of Multán, emigrated to Bakhar and entered the service of the Mián.

In the year 1142 A.H. (1729 A.D.) Murád Kalerí,

Certain chiefs of the country near Siwí brought into subjection.

known as Ganjah, was appointed as an agent in charge of Siwí, and brought into subjection powerful chiefs like Kaisar Khán Magsí, the zamíndár of Ganjá­bah,* Mírú Kódrí Rind, the chief of Shóran, descendants of Guhrám Láshárí, the chief of Siwí, Miró Buldí, the chief of Kachhí, Mahyán Erí and Lahná Máchhí, big land owners of Bhág Nárí, Kálá Khán and other chiefs of the tribe of Bázóí, the owners of Dhádar and other Balóch zamíndárs of Kóhistán, and Bahár Khán Amrání the chief of Kanganí.

Mián Núr Muhammad now commenced hostilities with

Hostilities with Mír Abdulláh the Khán of Kalát.

the Khán of Kalát, who was a Bróhí and who proudly called himself “the royal Eagle of Kóhistán” In 1143 A.H. (1730 A.D.) he marched and took the fort of Kartah from Mubárak Khán, after a severe blockade and fight, in which Ismáíl Khán Bróhí was defeated and Kákar Bróhí was killed. After these events Mír Abdul­láh Khán, the Khán of Kalát thought it expedient to conclude peace with the Mián, which was ratified by his giving two daughters in marriage to the two sons of Mián.

Unfortunately, in 1144 A.H. (1731 A.D.) a force of Bróhís, in open contravention of the terms of the peace, invaded the land of Káchhah and plundered that part of the country. To punish them for this, Mián Núr Muhammad himself marched out and encamped at Ládkanah. From there he despatched some brave chiefs to fight with Mír Abdulláh Khán. At Jandehar, where Mír Abdulláh Khán had arrived in advance, a pitched battle was fought which ended in the complete overthrow of the Bróhís and the death of their ruler.

In 1145 A.H. (1732 A.D.) the Mián’s son Muhammad

Marriage connections between the Kalhórah and Bróhí chiefs.

Murádyáb Khán went to Khiár and Wankár with a few selected chiefs and celebrated his marriage with a daughter of Murádalí Khán, a cousin of Mír Abdulláh Khán; and in the next year his other son Khudádád Khán also married a daughter of a kinsman of his. Thus the connection between the Siráís and the Bróhís became stronger and closer by these marriages.

Then arose the rumours of Nádir Sháh’s coming, and

Siwistán and Tattá secured by Mián Núr Muham­mad.

Mián Núr Muhammad began to send envoys to him to prepare the way for their friendship. In 1149 A.H. (1736 A.D.) the division of Bakhar was completely secured by the Siráís, Siwístán or Sehwán having already been brought into their possession. Next year 1150 A.H. (1737 A.D.) Tattá was obtained from the Emperor of Dehlí, and Shekh Ghulám Muhammad was deputed to have charge of it.*

That same year, Nadir Sháh* having conquered Kan­dhár

The Mián’s son Muham­mad Murádyáb defeats the invading armies of Dhárájah and Kakrálah at Tattá.

determined to pass through Sind on his way to Hind, and intimated the same to the ruler of Sind. Accordingly Mián Núr Muhammad went to Ládkánah in order to keep a firm possession of that division, and sent his son Muhammad Murádyáb to Tattá, where he arrived at the close of Zíkaad of 1151 A.H. (1738 A.D.). Ráná Ajmal, the ruler of Dhárájah and the Jám of Kakrálah rose to oppose him. They brought down ships from the sea to the river and commenced war both by land and by water. The ships came as far as Khát and from there up to Nasarpur. They commenced fighting and plundering on both the sides of the river. But as the guns were soon placed along the banks and fired by the Siráís, the enemy were driven back and pursued till they were compelled to submit.

Soon after this, Nádir’s approach spread confusion

Nádir Sháh’s invasion and Mián Nur Muhammad’s flight to Umarkót where he is taken prisoner.

throughout the country. In the beginning of Shawwál of 1152 A.H. (1739 A. D) Muhammad Murádyáb Khán left Tattá and joined his father, who fled to Umarkót for shelter, having sent away his heavy baggage to Talhár. Early one morning, before Mián Núr Muhammad left the fort, as he had determined to do, all of a sudden, Nádir Sháh appeared at the gate. The Mián had no alternative but to surrender, having tied his own hands like an offender. The king carried him with his camp and came to Ládkánah.

Accepting a gratification of one million of rupees

Mián Núr Muhammad confirmed as a ruler by Nádir with the title of Sháh Kulí Khán.

Nádir returned from there to Tattá. He confirmed the Mián in his own country, with the title of “Sháh Kulí Khán” and departed with the Mián’s two sons Muhammad Murádyáb and Ghulám Sháh as hostages. At the same time he left Siwí in the hands of the Afgháns and Shikárpur in those of the Dáúdpótahs as used to be the case some years back.

On the 11th of Muharram 1153 A.H. (1740 A. D.)

Nádir’s envoys at Tattá. Sultán Sámtiah appointed as the Mián’s agent at the place.

Nádir Sháh left Ládkánah, and about the close of Zíkaad, his generals Sálih Khán Bayát and Sháhwerdikhán Karat, who with some other officers at the head of several columns had spread themselves from Umarkót over the whole of Sind, came to Tattá, having brought with them, Shekh Shukrulláh and Mastí Khán Jóyah from the town of Agham, about 3 kos from Tattá. From Tattá they proceeded with the above prisoners under Nádir’s orders to join his camp. At the same time, a number of noblemen and chiefs of the city accompanied Áká Muhammad Karím Isfahání to pay respects to the king. The king received them kindly and sent them back with suitable presents and appointments. Áká Muham­mad Karím was appointed as an envoy for the people of the place, and Sultán Sámtiah was posted as agent or administrator of Tattá, on behalf of Mián Núr Muham­mad, Shah Kulí Khán.

In 1154 A.II. (1741 A.D.) the tribe of Shórah, who

Chiefs of Shórah and other tribes defeated and punished by the Mián.

during the period of anarchy conse­quent on Nádir’s arrival, had shaken off the Mián’s yoke, began to assemble at Kand, Manání Aresar and Khír in the tálukah of Chákar Hálah, under the command of Húnd son of Shórah, and to display great audacity. Mián Núr Muhammad marched against them and without much trouble completely extirpated them. He next punished Tamáchí, Tógháchí, Tharú, Silah, Káhah and Ású Súmrah, the chiefs of parganah Wangah in the tálukah of Cháchikán, as they would not pay the fixed tribute.

In 1155 A.H. (1742 A.D.) Muzaffar Alí Khán Bayát, Beglarbegí, who had gone to bring some ships that had been ordered by Nadír Sháh to be built for him at the port of Súrat, came to Tattá from Karáchi port, Nawab Sháh Kulí Khán (Mián Núr Muhammad) came to receive him at Tattá, where they spent about two months and a half together, after which period Muzaffar Alí took his departure.

In 1156 A.H. Tahmásb Kulí Khán, the chief of Jaláir

Fresh anarchy in Sind in consequence of Tahmásb Kulí Khán’s coming.

had been sent by Nádir Sháh to punish the Dáúdpótáhs. Mián Núr Muhammad thought it expedient to remain quiet and not take any part in the affair. Conse­quently anarchy broke out anew in Sind, during which Sultán Sámtiah, the administrator of Tattá and Shekh Shukrulláh were called away by the Mián and the charge of the place given to Razábeg the king’s envoy and another noble by name Fázilbeg. These two thought it proper to conclude a treaty of peace with the Ráná of Dhárájah and Sájan Ramah, the Hindú chiefs of neigh­bouring states. But when subsequently the Mián received Tahmásb Kulí Khán, who departed with the Mián’s third son Atur Khán as a hostage, Sultán Sámtiah and Shekh Shukrulláh were again sent to take up the administration of Tattá.

In 1157 A.H. (1744 A.D.) Shekh Shukrulláh defeated

Fighting with certain Hindú chiefs.

Jám Hothí, the chief of Kakrálah and killed him, and placed Jám Máhar in his place. The next year the Mían himself proceeded to attack the fort of Kánjí, and took it. As the Hindús of Kachhí had, after the conquest of Kánji, come to Badín and other neighbouring places, the Mián determined to punish them. In 1158 A.H. Bahár Sháh and other Fakírs, who had been deputed for the purpose, completely overpowered them. Sultán Sám­tiah, being now dead, was buried on the Maklí hill and his place given to his son Masú Fakír.

In 1160 A.H. (1747 A.D.) at the instigation of the

Fighting with the Ráná of Dhárájah who is killed treacherously.

Ráná of Dhárájah some hundreds of hill tribes invaded the town of Tattá. Masú Fakír, Shekh Shukrulláh and Búlah Khán Naomardiah Jakhrah,* advanced to meet them. As the hill people had been sacrilegious enough to pass through graveyards without respect for the tombs or the spirits of the dead, they were completely routed on the third day, though on the other side there were comparatively few persons. Getting this news, the Mián’s son Muhammad Khudádád Khán came to Tattá with a large army. Masú Fakír was removed from the charge of Tattá and Biláwal Fakír Náij was appointed in his place, who immediately marched against the Ráná’s fort. The Ráná betook himself across the river and left the place to some of his men to defend. But they could not stand against such an overwhelming force. The fort fell into the hands of the Mián’s son, who returned victorious to his father. Shortly after this Shekh Shukrulláh caused the Ráná to be killed by Bijár Jókhiah, who treacherously secured his presence to discuss terms of peace.

In 1161 A.H. (1748 A D.) Ahmad Sháh Dúrání, who

The Mián receives the title of Sháhnawáz Khán and his sons return from Persia.

settled the boundaries of Nádir Sháh’s share of the country with the Emperor of Dehlí, and secured it for himself,* confirmed Mián Núr Muhammad as the ruler of Sind, giving him the new title of “Sháhna wáz Khán.” In the next year, the Mián’s sons Ghulám Sháh and Atur Khán, who had been taken away as hostages, returned from Persia. In 1163 A.H. (1750, A.D.) Gul Muhammad Khurásání became the Miáns agent at Tattá. In the same year news was received of the Miáns third son Murádyáb Khán’s arrival at Muscat and the death of Shekh Ghulám Muhammad, who had been in his company. Accordingly Shukrulláh Khán was ordered to proceed immediately to bring the young nobleman home.

In 1164 A.H. (1751 A.D.) ships left for the port of Muscat, but Shekh Shukrulláh died soon after. In due course of time Muhammad Murádyáb Khán arrived and was received with great affection by his father, who entrusted him with the entire management of the financial business of the state, and appointed Khudábád to be his head quarters. Sháhnawáz Khán, who used to be at Khudá­bád, came to reside at the new built town of Muhammadá­bád. Khudádád Khán, who during the absence of his elder brother, had put on the turban of an heir-apparent, had now to resign that honourable position to the right­ful owner Murádváb Khán. Being much chagrined and mortified at this, he left his native land and went to Hindustán. But Muhammad Murádyáb Khán soon proved a failure as a financial manager and so that office was taken back from him.

In the beginning of 1166 A.H. (1753 A.D.) it was

The king comes to Sind and Diwán Gidúmal is sent as an envoy to him.

rumoured that Sardár Jahán Khán was coming to Sind. And about the close of the year a different rumour was circulated to the effect that the king himself was coming in order to pass on to Hindustán.* On the 4th of Muharram 1168 A.H (1755 A.D.) information was received that the king had moved from Muhammadàbád to the sand-hills. Diwán Gidúmal was therefore sent in a hurry as an envoy to meet him at his camp and assure him of the Mián’s loyalty and faithfulness, and if possible to induce him to turn back without marching further by the route. The Diwán met the king’s camp at the bridge of Sakhar.* As the king was angry and out of humour, the Diwán could not get an audience for 3 days. At last the king encamped at Naoshahrah. Here Diwán Gidúmal was fortunate enough to secure the king’s audience and to conciliate him.*

It was about this time, on the 12th of Saffar of the

Death of Mián Núr Muhammad and the election of his son Murádyáb Khán.

same year 1168 A.H. (1755 A.D.) that the ruler of Sind Mián Núr Muhammad died of quinsy or the inflammation of the throat in the vicinity of Jesalmer.*

The nobles of the state lost no time in electing the late ruler’s eldest son Muhammad Murádyáb Khán to the throne. That young nobleman, fearing lest he might be again given away as a hostage, had left his father on the way and betaken himself in a different direction, from which he had to be brought to fill the vacant throne. This ceremony of enthronement took place on 16th, i.e. 4 days after the late Mián’s death.