After Mírzá Ghází Beg’s death in 1021 A.H. (1612 A.D.) Khusró Khán Charkas tried to be independent and Hindú Khán, being unable to cope with him, wanted to retire but was asked by the Emperor to retain the govern­ment in his hands till a new man was sent. Khusró Khán now saw that the province had been annexed and that he could do nothing in opposition to the Emperor; so he left the place and went away* The following governors were appointed successively to the Súbah of Sind,* with Tattá as their capital.

1. Mírzá Rustam, son of Sultán Husain Mírzá son of Bahrám Mírzá, son of Sháh Ismáíl Safawí, king of Persia. This nobleman was at first the governor of Dáwar, a province of Kandhár, but when Khurásán was conquered by Uzbaks he left that country and attached himself to the Emperor Akbar in 1002 A. H. (1593 A. D.). In Jahángír’s time he was sent as the governor of Tattá with the rank of Panj-hazárí. He got 2 lacs of rupees as a reward and travelling allowance and the whole revenue of Tattá as his salary. In fact Tattá was given to him as a Jágír, but he was instructed to try his best to improve the country and look to the comfort of the people, who had suffered much during the reign of Tarkháns. But unfortunately he acted quite contrary to the hopes entertained by the Emperor, and there were so many complaints against him that he was suspended and called away, Rájah Sankdilán holding the charge in his absence. After 2 years, how­ever, he was appointed to the Súbah of Alahábád and then of Pátná and Bahár. About the close of Sháh Jahán’s reign he retired and lived at Ágrah up to his death, his son Mírzá Murád being taken in service for him.

2. Mírzá Mustafá Khán, succeeded Mírzá Rustam.

3. Mír Báyazíd Bukhárí came next to Tattá in 1028 A. H. (1618 A. D.) in the 15th year of Jahángír’s reign. He had the grade of Du-Hazárí (commander of 2,000 men). He had been the Faojdár of Bakhar and from that post he was promoted to this.

4. Nawáb Sharíful-Mulk, known as Sharíf Khán. He was one-eyed. It was in this time in 1035 A. H. (1625 A. D.) in the 21st year of Jahángír’s reign that prince Sháh Jahán quarrelled with his father and came to Tattá, with a few persons, in order to go to Irák Ajam. Sharíful-Mulk tried to harass him and to drive him away. Several skirmishes took place between them, in which many lives were lost. It is said that the prince’s wife being pregnant desired to eat some pomegranates. Prince Sháh Jahán sent a message to Sharíful-Mulk requesting him to get him the fruit. The latter sent for a European gunner and made him fire in the direction of the prince. Owing to the sudden report of the gun, the princess miscarried the child she bore, and Sharíful-Mulk was so angry with himself for pointing out the wrong direction to the gunner that he plucked out one of his eye-balls, and from that day he became one-eyed. For this act of enmity, when Sháh Jahán ascended the throne he put him to death together with some of his friends.

5. Mírzá Ísá Tarkhán, a cousin of Mírzá Ghází Beg and a grandson of Mírzá Ísá, the elder, who in the beginning of Mírzá Ghází’s reign joined Abul Kásim Sultán in raising the standard of revolt. He had left Sind out of fear and come to the Emperor’s camp. He became the governor of Tattá with the rank of Chár-Hazárí (commander of 4,000 men), in 1037 A. H. (1627 A. D.) and in the last year of Jahángír’s reign. He was soon sent to defend the fort of Karnál, where he remained up to his death. He was buried on the Maklí hill and his “Ránk” (Mausoleum) is well known, for which he himself is said to have sent stones during his life-time and which he built when he was 18 years old. Its cost was borne by the revenue of the village of Nóráí, which was set apart for the repairs of the tombs of his elders. Some say the Mírzá died, while the building was being built and was yet incomplete.

6. Nawáb Amír Khán. His name was Mír Abul Baká and he was the son of Nawáb Kásim Khán of Hirát. When Sháh Jahán succeeded his father Jahángír to the throne, he ordered Sharíf Khán and his friends the Jám of Kakralah and others to be killed. The orders were carried out by Nawáb Amír Khán. The town of Amírpur was built by this Nawáb, which became the chief place of Bathórah and Bahrámpúr and Palejah. He was a very learned and witty person. He built a mosque on the site of a Hindú temple in the street of Bháí Khán. His body was buried in a rank on the Maklí hill. He is said to have lisped or stammered in pronounc­ing certain letters of the alphabet. But he was so clever that while speaking fluently he avoided words containing those letters and substituted other words of the same meaning in their place.

7. Nawáb Muzaffar Khán, whose name was Mír Abdurrazzák. He built a big mosque at Tattá.

8. Sayyed Ibráhím, son of Mír Báyazíd Bukhárí (No. 3).

9. Nawáb Mughul Khán came as the governor of Tattá in 1057 A. H. (1647 A. D.) in the 21st year of Sháh Jahán’s reign. In his time, in the year 1059 A. H. (1649 A. D.) in the 23rd year of Sháh Jahán’s reign, Tattá together with Bakhar and Sehwán were given as an endowment to prince Aorangzeb, who, before this, held the province of Multán as a Jágír. Henceforth the governors of Tattá were sent by him as his agents.

10. Nawáb Zafar Khán. He came to Tattá in 1063 A.H. (1652. A.D.) in the 37th year of the Emperor’s reign. He remained here for 6 years. He planted the celebrated “Musk garden.” In 1065 A.H. (1654 A.D.) Sipahr Shikóh son of Dárá Shikóh, eldest son of the Emperor was entrusted with the government of Tattá with the rank of “Haft Hazárí” (commander of 7,000 men), and the governor of the place was made his agent or lieutenant. About this time Aorangzeb Álamgír ascended the throne of Dehlí in 1069 A.H. (1658 A.D.).

11. Kabád Khán came in 1069 A.H. (1658 A.D.) In his time famine and plague broke out in the country. Soon after, prince Dárá Shikóh arrived in the country, which fact still increased the troubles of the people. That prince, believing that the citadel was not worth residing at and not finding it to his taste, ordered it to be burnt to ashes.

12. Nawáb Lashkar Khán. He came to Tattá in 1075 A.H. (1664 A.D.) and in the 10th year of Aorangzeb’s reign. He remained for 3 years and was succeeded by

13. Nawáb Sayyed Izzat Khán, commonly known as Izzat Pír, who had been the Faojdár of Bakhar. He came in 1078 A.H. (1667 A.D.). After 2 years he was recalled.

14. Nawáb Abú Nasrat Khán, who was maternal uncle to Emperor Álamgír Aorangzeb. He was a pious noble­man and was a poet. He came in 1082 A.H. (1671 A.D.) in the 12th year of Aorangzeb’s reign. He remained for 2 years.

15. Nawáb Saádat Khán. He also remained for 2 years.

16. Nawáb Sayyed Izzat Khán. He came a second time in 1084 A.H. (1673 A.D.) being the 13th governor at first. He remained for 6 years.

17. Nawáb Khánazád Khán. He came in 1090 A.H. (1679 A. D.) in the 22nd year of the Emperor’s reign. He governed at Tattá for about 5 years. He wrote very good poetry.

18. Nawáb Sardár Khán. He came in 1095 A.H. (1683 A.D.) and remained for 3 years. In his time, too, famine and plague broke out. Towns that were depopulated in those days, were never populated again.

19. Nawáb Muríd Khán. He was the son of a rájah and had recently become a convert to Islámism. He came in 1099 A.H. (1687 A.D.). He brought with him a few thousands of Rájputs, who so much annoyed the Musal­man population of the place that he was removed from the post, after 2 years. After retirement too he spent time in Taghlakábád with the climate of which place he had been much charmed.

20. Nawáb Zabardast Khán. He came in 1101 A.H. (1689 A.D.) and died in the same year.

21. Nawáb Abú Nasrat Khán. He came a second time, having first come as 14th governor. He remained for 2 years and some months.

22. Nawáb Hifzulláh Khán, son of Saadulláh Khán the wazír of the late Emperor Sháh Jáhán. He came in 1103 A.H. (1691 A.D.) in the 35th year of Emperor Aorangzeb’s reign. He held Tattá and Sehwán both. He was a very charitable person. As about this time prince Muizzuddín was coming to Sind to arrest Míyán Dín Muhammad Siráí, the Nawáb personally superintended the work of putting a bridge over the river at Sehwán. He got a sun-stroke and died of its effects at Sehwán in 1112 A.H. (1700 A. D).* He constructed a new fort at Tattá, which was left incomplete, as he was not allowed further expenditure on that account.

23. Saíd Khán, known more commonly as Khánazád Khán. He came as the governor of Tattá and Sehwán in 1113 A. H. (1701 A. D.) in the 45th year of the Emperor’s reign. He himself resided at Tattá and sent his son Arshad Khán to live at Sehwán.

24. Nawáb Mír Amínuddín Khán Husain, son of Sayyed Abul Makáram son of Mír Abul Báká AmÍr Khán (No. 6). He came to Tattá in 1114 A. H. (1702 A. D.). He was a reader of books and spent much of his time in the com­pany of learned men. He wrote two big books, one treating of fourteen arts and sciences and another of general knowledge of the world.

25. Nawáb Yúsuf Khán Tarí. He came in the next year and was recalled after one year.

26. Nawáb Ahmad Yár Khán. He belonged to the tribe of Barlás, his forefathers having come from Khúsháb, in the province of Láhór. His father Alahyár Khán was the governor of Láhór and Multán and the Faojdár of Ghazní for 40 years. He remained for 3 years. During his time, that is in 1118 A. H. (1706 A. D.) on 26th of Zíkaad, Álamgír Aorangzeb passed away and was succeeded by his eldest son Bahádur Sháh. This Nawáb built the bridge on the Alíján which was close to the eastern gate of the city fort.

27. Nawáb Atr Khán. His name was Saíd Khán Bahádur and was the son of Saíd Khán the elder (No. 23). He came in 1119 A. H. (1707 A. D.) under the orders of the new Emperor. He was recalled after a year and some months.

28. Nawáb Mihín Khán. He came in 1121 A. H. (1709 A. D).

29. Nawáb Shákir Khán. He came in 1123 A. H. (1711 A. D.) and in the same year he was recalled and was succeeded by

30. Nawáb Mihín Khán who came a second time to Tattá. In his time in the year 1124 A. H. (1712 A. D.) the Emperor Bahádur Sháh died and was succeeded by his son Muizzuddín Jahándár Sháh.

31. Nawáb Khwájah Muhammad Khalíl Khán came to Tattá in 1124 A. H. (1712 A.D.).

In the course of nine months prince Farrukh Siyar dethroned Jahándár Sháh with the assistance of the Sayyeds of Bárah and himself took the throne.

32. Nawáb Atr Khán son of Saíd Khán (No. 27). He was a young and inexperienced person. He left his whole work to one Muhammad Yaakúb Kashmírí. Soon, con­fusion broke out in the affairs of administration. He had to fight with Mír Lutfalí Khán and was killed in the battle that ensued. Mír Lutfalì Khán having some influence at the court, was made his successor.

33. Mír Lutfalí Khán. His name was Mír Muham­mad Shafía. He was grandson to Mír Muhammad Yúsuf Mahdí Razawí a saintly person of Bakhar. His govern­ment lasted from the beginning of 1125 A.H. to 1127 A.H. (1713 —1715 A.D.). He earned the title of Sháatalí Khán. He was a powerful ruler and a learned man. He died in 1144 A.H. (1731 A.D.). Himmat was his nom-de-plume in the poetry written by him. The poet Muhammad Hasan lived in his time. He had two sons Mír Ghazánfaralí and Mír Zulfikáralí whose descendents are still living at Tattá.

34. Nawáb Aazam Khán, son of Sálih Khán. He came to Tattá in 1128 A.H. (1715 A.D.) in the 5th year of Emperor Farrukh Siyar’s reign. Before his coming his agent Khwájah Muhammad Khalíl was doing work for him. He governed the country for about 4 years. It was in his time, that Sháh Ináyat Súfí the great saint of the time died at Jhók or Míránpur on the bank of the Gháziáh or Gajiáh, in the parganah of Bathórah. It is said that the Sayyeds of Bulrí were on inimical terms with this pious man and his disciples, as the disciples of the Sayyeds and the Fakírs of Bulrí hearing the good name of Sháh Ináyat left Bulrí and went over to Jhók. At the instigation of these Sayyeds as well as of some zamindárs like Núr Muhammad Palejah and Hamal Jat, Nawáb Aazam Khán wrote a report to the Emperor, who ordered Khudáyár Khán Abbásí better known as Núr Muhammad Kalhórah to collect an army and extirpate that leader of the Súfí Fakírs. Accordingly Khudáyár Khán came with a large force and besieged the town of Jhók. This siege went on for four months. The Fakírs occasionally made a sortie and fought with the besiegers. Finding that it was difficult to take the place Khudáyár Khán made peace with Sháh Ináyat. On this excuse an opportunity was soon availed of and the pious man was beheaded on the 9th of Saffar 1130 A.H. (1717 A.D.). Another pious man Makhdúm Rahmatulláh was also ill-treated in the same way, as he was made a prisoner and put in chains. And in the next year Farrukh Siyar was succeeded by Muhammad Sháh.*

35. Nawáb Mahábat Khán son of Muhammad Mun-im Khán, titled Khán Khánán the prime minister of Sháh Álam Bahádur Sháh. He came to Tattá in 1132 A.H. (1719 A.D.) in the second year of Muhammadsháh’s reign. He was a very good man, respected, pious and learned. He was a good poet taking Kázim as his nom-de-plume. He died at Tattá in 1135 A.H. (1722 A.D.) and his body was carried to Hindustán viâ Láhór. He was succeeded by his son, a minor.

36. Sultán Mahmúd Khán. His mother, the widow of the deceased Nawáb sent Rází Muhammad Khán to act as his guardian and manager. This gentleman came in 1136 A.H. (1723 A.D.) and remained for one year. In the next year the post was given to

37. Nawáb Saifulláh Khán, who before his joining the post deputed Abdussamía Khán, brother to Sháh Abdul Ghafúr of Hálah Kandí, of the tribe of Sanwriáh, to administer the state affairs for him. The Nawáb himself arrived at Tattá in the month of Zíhaj 1137 A.H. (1724 A.D.). He brought several learned men with him. In his time great improvement was made in every way. Commerce also improved much. He was a Shiah and encouraged that sect. He effectually prohibited the use of liquor and other intoxicating drugs. In short he is spoken of as a very good man and an excellent governor. He died in 1143 A.H. (1730 A.D.). He was buried on the Maklí hill. His son Sádik Alí Khán remained in charge of the government for a short time till he was relieved by

38. Nawáb Dilerdil Khán. He came to Tattá in 1146 A.H. (1733 A.D.) and remained there for two years. He was a very good man. About this time, the Súbah of Tattá was given to Amír Khán as a reward, and was thenceforth held on a sort of contract or lease.

39. Nawáb Himmat Dilerdil Khán. He hastened to take the contract of the revenue of Tattá from Amír Khán, fearing lest some other person should find mistakes in the accounts of his father. He came to Tattá in 1145 A.H. (1732 A.D.) Although the contract system could not come up to the Jágír system, this Nawáb was fortunate enough to continue in charge of the place for 4 years.

40. Nawáb Sádik Alí Khán son of Nawáb Saifulláh Khán (No. 32). He came in 1149 A.H. (1736 A.D.) in the 19th year of the Emperor’s reign. Of course he had taken the contract from Amír Khán. In the first year he somehow managed to make up the amount for which he had contracted. But in the next year he failed and had to show a great deficiency and so he was unwilling to retain the charge.

41. Nawáb Khudáyár Khán, commonly known by the name of Mián Núr Muhammad Kalhórah Abbásí. He was a nobleman enjoying the greatest confidence and regard of the Emperor. He got the government of Bakhar, Sehwán and Tattá. He immediately sent an agent of his, Shekh Ghulám Muhammad son of Shekh Azízulláh, who relieved Nawáb Sádik Alí Khán of the charge.

Thus the government of Sind came to the hands of the Kalhórás, in which it is said to have remained as long as it had remained in the hands of the Arghún dynasty and longer than it had remained in the hands of the Sammahs and the Tarkháns. We give an account of that dynasty together with that of the Tálpurs who succeeded them, in the second part of this volume.