In the translation of the ‘Chachnámah,’ which I have lately written, will be found the ancient history of Sind up to the close of the Hindú period and the Arab conquest. That book may be taken as the first volume of the history of Sind, the present book being a continuation of the same, and so the second volume of it.

This volume is divided into two parts. Part I. gives an account of the lieutenants of the Khalífahs or successors of Muhammad, the rulers of the Súmrah, Sammah, Arghún and Tarkhán dynasties, and finally of the governors or agents of the Emperors of Dehlí. This brings us to the rule of the Kalhórahs, an account of whom, together with that of their successors, the Tálpurs, is given in Part II.

The first part is entirely based on the information supplied by the ‘Táríkh Maasúmí’ and the ‘Tuhfatulkírám,’* to which a reference has been made in the preface of ‘the Chachnámah.’ In fact these were the only two Persian books which gave a full account of this period. For the sake of distinctness and easy reference, I have made a note at the beginning of each chapter, stating from which of the above two books the account has been taken. I con­sidered it necessary to draw from the two books in this manner, as in some respects one was deficient and in some, the other; and so by a judicious use and mixture of the two I have filled up the deficiencies of both. Taking one book as my text for that chapter, I have added foot-notes to give the different versions, if any, of the other book. I have also given some other interesting referential notes, as I have done in the translation of ‘the Chachnámah.’*

The second part of the book deals with the whole period of the Kalhórahs and Tálpur dynasties of the rulers of Sind, up to the advent of British rule. The account of the former dynasty is taken from the Tuhfatulkirám and that of the latter dynasty from the Fatehnámah and Frerenámah. The Fatehnámah is a metrical history written about 1783 A.D., by Muhammad Azím, a respect­able person of Tattá, who lived in the reign of Mír Fatéh Alí Khán, to whom the book was dedicated; while the Frerenámah was written in 1857 A.D., by Mír Yár Muhammad Khán, Tálpur, son of Mír Murád Alí Khán, and was dedicated to Mr. (afterwards Sir Bartle) Frere, the then Commissioner in Sind. The first portion of this book (the Frerenámah) is entirely taken from the Fateh­námah, and the last portion is written by the author of the Frerenámah from his own experience, as he was an eye-witness of the period, being the son of a ruling Mír, and subsequently one of the unfortunate Mírs who were taken to Calcutta by the English as State prisoners.

This part too is written on the same principle adopted in the first part; namely, I have given a free translation of the Persian books from which the account is taken, adding as many explanatory and historical notes from other books as I considered necessary. If the language and style of the book appear strange and unhistorical, that is because I have tried to follow the Persian original closely, and at the same time avoided the redundant words and phrases, and sometimes passages, which being super­fluities of the Persian language and imagination, were very common in the books. The readers may, however, be sure that I have given them all the facts on the subject that are recorded in the Persian books.

The division of the book into chapters and the head-notes of paragraphs will be found of great assistance to them in grasping the subject; I experienced much difficulty in that respect while going through the Persian books.

In Appendices I have given copious and interesting extracts (with head-notes) from the Blue Book, or official correspondence relative to Sind as placed before the British Parliament, and from some other books, to corroborate the facts related in the texts about the connection of the British Government with Sind from early times to the conquest.

I have also added biographical sketches of some note­worthy persons mentioned in the book, and genealogical trees of the ruling tribes and some other important per­sons referred to in the book.

In transliterating proper names I have adopted the system followed in the First Volume (The Chachnámah).

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that as a rule, in writing the history of a country, it is necessary to give a detailed account of the system of government or adminis­tration, as well as other important geographical, physical and social features of the same. But in this volume I have given bare historical facts, as found in the Persian books from which they were taken, reserving the above information for the concluding part of the last volume, in which, it is hoped that after the history of the British rule up to the present day, the subject will be discussed and the states of things in the different periods compared.




I am highly obliged to Rev. J. Redman, C. M., and L. W. Seymour, Esq., for going through the first and second parts of the book, respectively, and to Dayaram Gidumal, Esq., B.A., LL.B., C.S., for writing an intro­duction for the book.

K. F. M.