Mírzá Muhammad Bákí was succeeded by Mírzá Jání

Election of Mírzá Jámí Beg to the throne.

Beg, who had become very popular with the nobility as well as with the public, with whom he had always dealt very kindly. Coming after a cruel ruler like Mírzá Bákí, he was hailed to the seat of government by all men, who in his reign got great relief from the sufferings of the past reign.

It is said that at first Mírzá Bákí’s eldest son Páindah Beg was elected by certain nobles, but as he appeared to be more or less insane, the choice fell on his son Jání Beg, who was a clever person and a good man. On Mírzá Bákí’s death both of them were called from Sehwán. Mírzá Bákí’s son Muzaffar Beg had come to the spot from Badín on the very first day, but the nobles did not allow him to enter the city till after 3 days, when Páindah Beg and Jání Beg came from Sehwán.*

On coming to the throne, at the pecial recommendation of those nobles who were well-wishers of his father, he undertook to punish the persons who were suspected of having assassinated his father. And how these unfortunate men were dealt with, we have briefly noted above. Seeing the tortures to which they were subjected, Mírzá Muzaffar Beg was so much afraid that from his camp outside the city he went back to Badín in such a hurry, that he left behind much of his baggage. There he began to prepare himself against some future evil day.

When Mírzá Jání Beg heard that Mírzá Muzaffar

He defeats his uncle Mírzá Muzaffar in a battle fought at Badín.

Tarkhán was mobilising an army at Badín, he acquainted his nobles with the necessity of settling the matter with him, as without that, he said, the rebellion would not come to a conclusion. Mírzá Muzaffar, with Alíkhán Kúkah, was fully prepared for the expedition and had resolved to start the next morning. During the night that intervened Mírzá Jání Beg managed to write letters to chief men of the Mughuls at Badìn stating “Should Mírzá Muzaffar gain power and become successful, he will certainly bring his own relations, the rájpúts of Kachh and prefer them to you. In that case you will be very much disappointed and will find it hard to live happily. This is the time for you to move in the matter. I shall try all I can to comply with your wishes. If you cannot at this hour withdraw from him, at least stand aloof to-morrow, when the battle commences between us.”

In this way he gave them splendid promises and cheered them with good words, and won them over to his side. The next morning when the martial drums began to beat and fighting commenced between Mírzá Jání Beg’s men and Mírzá Muzaffar’s troops composed chiefly of Kachh rájpúts, the former began to overpower the latter. Mírzá Muzaffar called his Mughuls to take part in the fight and encouraged them much to do so, but they paid no heed to him. Mírzá Muzaffar was therefore obliged to beat a hasty retreat to Kachh, having already sent his mother and dependents ahead. After his flight, Mírzá Jání Beg ordered all the baggage and provisions left by him and his men, to be loaded on camels and sent to him. He then entered the fort and showered more favours on the Mughuls than they had expected or he had promised to them. He granted them large estates, and did all he could to console and comfort the people, who had suffered much in the tyrannical reign of his father. Mírzá Muzaffar went and sought protection under Rái Bhárah, the ruler of Kachh and Mírzá Jání Beg returned victorious to Tattá.

Mírzá Jání Beg now began to take some measures for

His peaceful measures at Tattá.

the improvement of public affairs. He distributed the heaps of grain lying useless in the granaries and storehouses of his father, to the people who were in want of it. He extended his patronage to many of the deserving nobles, giving them rewards and honorary titles. He encouraged commerce and made some important changes in weights and measures and coinage of money. It is said that before that time no gold coins, were used except the ashrafís bearing the French mark or impression. Mírzá Ísá Tarkhán had invented some copper money, that was called Ísáí. Mírzá Jání Beg now reduced its value and called it Mírí. He caused similar reduction in the weights and measures, which however was considered a bad omen in the midst of so much happiness.

In this way Mírzá Jání Beg reigned at Tattá peacefully for some months till in the next year 994 A.H. (1585 A.D.) he had to fight with Muhammad Sádik Khán, a nobleman sent by Emperor Akbar to Sind. But before we record that event, we shall give an account of what was going on at Bakhar, and how the Emperor of Dehlí interfered in the affairs of Sind.

We have seen that Bakhar remained in charge of Sultán

Affairs at Bakhar.*

Mahmúd Khán, who was carrying on warfare with Mírzá Bákí, but in his last days his attention was called to his own division by the arrival of some generals or agents of the Emperor Akbar. Before giving an accout of it we shall take this opportunity of saying something more about Sultán Mahmúd Khán and the gradual rise to importance of Bakhar.

As the readers know Sultán Mahmúd Khán was the son of Mír Fázil Kókaltásh who was the son of Ádil Khwájah Isfahání. From Isfahán, the capital of Persia, his grandfather had come to Khurásán. When Amír Taimúr invaded Hirát, Ádil Khwájah’s father Ahmad Khwájah had fallen into the hands of Mír Hasan Basrí,* the father of Mír Zunnún Arghún, who began to bring him up and treat him like his son. Ahmad Khwájah had two sons Ákil and Ádil. Ádil Khwàjah had a son and a daughter. This son was Mír Fázil who had 5 sons, by 5 different wives. Sultán Mahmúd Khán’s mother was the daughter of an Afghán of Shál and Mastóng. From his youth Sultán Mahmúd Khán led a soldier’s life having remained with Mírzá Sháh Beg. We need not repeat what he did during the reign of that prince or his successors. In 950 A.H. (1543 A.D.) he married Gohartáj Khánum, a daughter of Sháhburdí Beg through the endeavours of a relation of Bairam Khán. In the same year Sháh Tahmásp, king of Persia conferred the title of Khán on him and in 956 A.H. (1549 A.D.) he got Uch, Amín and some other neighbouring parganahs as a Jágír. In 979 A.H. (1571 A.D.) Sháh Tahmásp conferred the title of Khán Khánán on him and sent him some valuable presents.

When Emperor Akbar took greater part of Hindu­stán,

Sultán Mahmúd Khán’s fight with Mujáhid Khán.

Náhíd Begum, Máh Begum’s daughter, who used to remain in her camp, came to Tattá to see her mother. And when Máh Begum was murdered, she fled to Sultán Mahmúd Khán at Bakhar as we have already mentioned. Sultán Mahmúd Khán promised to espouse her cause and to avenge her brother’s death, provided she used her influence with the Emperor and got from him an order recognising him as a permanent ruler, or, governor of Bakhar. Náhíd Begum went to the Emperor and brought the required order of confirmation and brought with her two of the Emperor’s nobles Muhib-alí Khán and Mujáhid Khán, on whom the Emperor had conferred Fatehpur and Kirór near Multán as Jágírs. They were soon joined by the Arghúns, who being oppressed at Tattá had come for help to Sultán Mahmúd Khán, but he too had dismissed them without showing them much favour. On arriving at Ubáorah, 80 miles from Bakhar, Náhíd Begum and her companions informed Sultán Mahmúd Khán of their coming, but the latter being much annoyed with their conduct and fearing some bad results, sent an offensive reply to them. Accordingly Mujáhid Khán and others came to Máthelah and com­menced fighting with Mubárak Khán, the governor of that place on behalf of Sultán Mahmúd Khán. The latter was defeated and was obliged to shelter himself in the fort. Hearing of this, Sultán Mahmúd Khán sent about 3,000 men to help the governor, but after all Mubárak Khán surrendered and Máthelah fell into the hands of Mujáhid Khán. This event occurred in 930 A.H. (1523 A.D.) In the same year, a marriage connection being arranged between Emperor Akbar and Sultán Mahmúd Khán’s daughter, the latter sent the bride with great pomp and glory to the royal bridegroom, through Jesalmer. Akbar had sent an officer of his to receive the party, but he was murdered by a Rájpút at Nágór. Akbar therefore got angry and invaded Gujrát. Meanwhile Mubárak Khán managing to come back, Sultán Mahmúd Khán appointed him the governor of Alór, to which place he went with 1,500 cavalry.

Mubárak Khán and his son Beg Óghlí were now the

Sultán Mahmúd Khán’s death.

chief moving figures, in this division of Sind. Beg Óghlí was a villain and a drunkard. He made a conspiracy with some servants of Sultán Mahmúd Khán to assassinate their master. But Sultán Mahmúd Khán coming to know of the plot, Beg Óghlí took some men with him, went and joined Mujábid Khán and Muhibalí Khán and began to speak ill of Sultán Mahmúd Khán. In 980 A. H. (1522 A. D.) they all came to Lóhrí near Alór. The troopers spread themselves over the whole of Lóhrí and Bakhar to the great annoyance of Sultán Mahmúd Khán, who sent his nephew Muhammad Kulí to fight with the trespassers. The two armies met in a battle, in which Muhammad Kulí and most of his men lost their lives. Mujáhid Khán now crossed over to Sakhar and was met by Sultán Mahmúd Khán’s brother Amìr Sultán, but he too was defeated. Sultán Mahmúd Khán now took shelter in the fort of Bakhar to which the enemy laid siege. When after some time scarcity of food and sickness prevailed in the fort, and Mubárak Khán and his son Beg Óghlí were murdered by some men of Muhib-alí Khán, Sultán Mahmúd Khán got an opportunity of sending some envoys with presents to the Emperor at Ajmer. The Emperor was pleased to send him an order confirming him as his agent and governor at Bakhar, which fact greatly mortified Mujáhid Khán and his friend. As Sultán Mahmúd Khán had been suffering from dropsy for some time, in 982 A. H. (1574 A. D.), he wrote a letter to the Emperor imforming him that he was unwell and unable to work and requesting him to appoint some other agent to take charge of the government of the place. In the same year, on Saturday, the 8th of Saffar, Sultán Mahmúd Khán expired.* Considering this, a favourable opportunity, Mujáhid Khán and Muhib-alí Khán tried to take Bakhar, but they were bravely repulsed by the occupants of the fort.

At last, on Monday, the 12th of Jamádi-al-awwal of the

Emperor Akbar sends Kesú Khán to succeed Sultán, Mahmúd Khán.

same year 982 A.H. (1572 A.D.) Kesú Khán arrived at Bakhar, having been sent by Emperor Akbar to take charge of the government. He was well received by the people of the place and admitted into the fort. Seeing Emperor’s agent on the field, Mujáhid Khán and Muhib-alí Khán betook themselves to Ganjábah. But Kesú Khán soon received an order directing him to give half of the division of Bakhar in charge of Muhib-alí Khán and Mujáhid Khán and to march against Tattá, to bring Mírzá Muhammad Bákí under subjection. Muhib-alí Khán and Mujáhid Khán having come back to Bakhar they were given Bakhar and Lóhrí, Kesú Khán retaining Sakhar. Soon after this, internal quarrels and fights commenced between these two parties and some complaints were lodged against Kesú Khán in the court of Akbar by Sultán Mahmúd Khán’s widows and others. The Emperor at first sent Tarsú Muhammad Khán to succeed him, but on second thought he sent Tarsú Muhammad to Ágrá and appointed a Sayyed by name Mír Adl to settle the affairs at Bakhar. This was in the year 983 A.H. (1575 A.D.).

In the days of Sayyed Mír Adl, some men, of the

Kesú Khán succeeded by Mír Adl, who again was succeeded by his son Abul Fazl.

tribe of Mangchá having raised the standard of revolt, Mír Adl led a force against them and with great loss quenched the rebellion. In 984 A.H. (1576 A.D.) Mír Adl died and was succeeded by his son Sayyed Abul Fazl under the sanction of the Emperor. Some Kákir chiefs having revolted, the Sayyed made them prisoners and put them to death by having them trampled under the feet of elephants.

In 985 A.H. (1577 A.D.) Emperor Akbar sent Iatimád

Akbar sends Iatimád Khán to Bakhar.

Khán Khwájah, as the governor of Bakhar. He was a man of very bad temper. He used to abuse and insult people who were therefore dissatisfied with him and took their complaints to the Emperor, who felt for them and said that if he behaved like that, he would be cut to pieces. And so it happened; for, on the 10th of Rabí-ul-awwal, 986 A.H. (1578 A.D.) he was assassinated by some troopers.

The charge of Bakhar was next given to Masnad Alí

Fateh Khán and Rájá Parmánand succeed him.

Fateh Khán Bahadúr and Rájá Parmánand, a relation of Rájá Taonr­mal, jointly. After 2 years Rájá Parmánand went to visit the king, leaving his brother Mádhaúdás. A revolt broke out in his part of the division and it was quenched by Fateh Khán. Soon after, Fateh Khán also went to visit the Emperor who was so pleased with him that he made him the sole governor of the whole division of Bakhar. Shortly after this, some fighting took place with the chief of Náhirs in which Fateh Khán lost a large number of men. The Emperor therefore gave the district of Bakhar as a Jágír to Nawáb* Muhammad Sádik Khán* and sent him with instructions to take Tattá.

The Nawáb arrived at Bakhar on Tuesday the 12th of

Nawáb Muhammad Sádik Khán is sent to Bakhar.

Rabí-ul-awwal 994 A.H. (1585 A.D.). After spending some months at Bakhar settling the affairs of the place, he started for Sehwán. He sent a part of his men in advance and they went and engaged in a fight with Mírzá Jání Beg’s men at Pát. The latter were defeated with great loss. Proceeding to the river, he was opposed by Subhán Kulí Arghún in a sort of naval battle. The two armies fought in boats. After all Subhán Kulí was taken prisoner with 12 boats of his. Muhammad Sádik Khán now marched straight against Sehwán and laid siege to the fort. Mírzá Jání Beg came from Tattá to defend the place. When he arrived at about 12 miles from Sehwán, Muhammad Sádik Khán moved out to meet him.

At Lakí fire was opened from Mìrzá Jání Beg’s boats. In this way warfare went on for some days. A breach was made on one side of the fort. The occupants raised another wall about the place, so that when the enemy completed the breach, they found a stronger wall in front of them; which fact greatly disheartened them. Muhammad Sádik Khán was therefore obliged to raise the siege and to return to Bakhar.

* Soon after his father’s death Mírzá Jání Beg received a letter from the Emperor asking him to pay homage to him as had been done hitherto, to use his coins and to mention his name in the public orations. Mírzá Jání Beg wrote a reply in respectful terms, admitting the Emperor as his superior and promised to send his brother with proper presents.

Soon after his return to Bakhar Muhammad Sádik Khán went to the Emperor. In his absence famine broke out in Sind and people left the country and went to other sides. In 996 A.H. (1587 A.D) the Jágír of Bakhar fell to the lot of Nawáb Ismáíl Kulí Khán, whose son Rahmán Kulí Beg came to Bakhar. He was a very rich man and he showed great favour to the people of the place. On his return to Hindustán, the Jágír was given to Sheróyah Sultán who came to Bakhar in the beginning of 997 A.H. (1588 A.D.). This nobleman was a drunkard and he left his whole affairs in the hands of his inferiors. He sent one of his sons to take Siwí, but he was soon obliged to return unsuccessful.

In 998 A.H. (1589 A.D.) the Jágír of Bakhar was once more given to Nawáb Muhammad Sádik Khán, whose son Mírzá Muhammad Záhid came to Bakhar, on the 12th of Rabí-ul-awwal. He was a very good man and he tried his best to please the people. In his time too, famine broke out to the great trouble and hardship of the people.

In the same year 998 A.H. (1589 A.D.) the Emperor

Arrival of Nawáb Khán Khánán and his fight with Mírzá Jání Beg.

Akbar again determined to bring Mírzá Jání Beg under subjection, as he had then made Láhór his capital, and Mírzá Jání Beg was behaving like an equal in such close vicinity. Accordingly he sent Nawáb Khán Khánán* to take Tattá and that nobleman arrived at Bakhar in the month of Shawwál of the same year. Mír Maasúm Sháh the author of the Táríkh Maasúmí writes that at that time he himself too had gone to pay his respects to the Emperor Akbar, who treated him kiadly and gave him the Parganahs of Darbelah, Kákrí and Chándikó in Jágír, and he returned to Bakhar along with Nawáb Khán Khánán.

Without losing much time Khán Khánán marched against Sehwán, and as Mírzá Jání Beg had come out with a large army from his capital, he proceeded from Sehwán to meet him. Jání Beg encamped in boats, on the bank of the river near Nasarpur. When Khán Khánán came to about 12 miles from his camp, Jání Beg sent Khusró Khán with 120 big boats and several small boats to go and open fire on the fleet of Khán Khánán, but the latter succeeded in alighting on the bank and making a secure camp for his men by putting up rude walls or embankments. Khusró Khán tried to prevent them from landing. Thereupon a battle of boats commenced. Khusró Khán was defeated and pursued by Khán Khánán, but as some of the latter’s boats caught fire accidentally the former made his escape.

The next day Rhán Khánán brought his force against the camp of Mírzá Jání Beg, who had already sheltered himself in a sort of rude fort. He tried to take it but did not succeed. Khán Khánán therefore had recourse to another strategem. He divided his army into parties and sent each party in a different direction. One party was sent against Sehwán, another to Tattá, a third to Badín a fourth to Fateh Bágh and Jún. Khán Khánán himself proceeded against Tattá and Sháh Beg Khán was sent against Sháhgarh. Sayyed Baháuddín and others includ­ing the author of the Táríkh Maasúmí, were sent against Sehwán. The forts in different places were besieged. On being called for help, Mírzá Jání Beg came to defend the fort of Sehwán, but was met at Lakí by the imperial force which consisted of 1,200 horse, the Sind force being about 2,000 horse. Mírzá Jání Beg attacked the enemy both by land and by water. About noon the engagement com­menced. A pitched battie was fought in which Jání Beg’s men were defeated but he himself with 11 men still continued fighting bravely. At last they too fled and the day was lost.*

Mírzá Jání Beg came to Unarpur which was about 40 miles from the scene of the above battle. There he defended himself in a rude fort, which was soon encircled by Khán Khánán’s column. The siege went on for some days. Every day a battle was fought. Steps were taken to cause a breach which greatly frightened Jání Beg. On his side again, Khán Khánán was convinced that as long as Jání Beg lived he would never give in. So both of them were inclined to make peace, which was soon arranged.

At this juncture Khán Khánán sent a messenger to

* Peace made between them.

Jání Beg telling him,—“Both of us are servants of the same master and are attached to the same royal family of Sahib Kirán. What if by the revolution of time some fighting took place between us. The bravery you have shown in it will long be remembered. But you must remember that on the other side you have the Emperor of the world, before whom brave warriors rub their foreheads on the ground. We must therefore make up the matter and cease from shedding the blood of the poor. I shall stand guarantee for you and see that you are treated well by that monarch, and it is advisable for you to mend matters before all is lost.”

It is said that Jání Beg was the first to seek the truee by proposing to give 30 boats of his and the fort of Sehwán and to be allowed to go to Tattá and prepare to fight with the enemy there; and Khán Khánán, though advised by his officers to reject the proposal and take advantage of Jání Beg’s weakness, on consideration that innocent blood would be spilt, accepted the terms and made peace with him.

Before making the peace Jání Beg had written to his father Mírzá Páindah Beg and his son Mírzá Abul Fatih to destroy the city and to remove their families and people to Kalán Kót, which fortified town he had built for occasions like these. This was done and the splendid city of Tattá was brought to ruins. But unfortunately Jání Beg’s father and son died about the same time. This was a severe blow to him. He was mourning over these bereavements when he got Khán Khánán’s message for peace and he had no other alternative but to consent to it. Orders were immediately issued to the governors of different places to give the keys of the forts to the Emperor’s men. Nerún Kót was taken from the hands of Muhammad Amán Tarkhán. Sháh Beg Khán took the charge of Sháhgarh from Abul Kásim Arghún and so on.

After every thing was settled Mírzá Jání Beg returned to Tattá and Khán Khánán spent his time at Sann, as the river was then high. In the beginning of winter he pro­ceeded to Tattá. At Fatehbágh he was received by Jání Beg. It is said that the two nobles came riding on horses, being preceded by some men on foot. On their meeting, the footmen first embraced one another as friends and then their leaders alighted and greeted each other. After a while they again got on their horses, and came together to the city. Mírzá Jání Beg went and put up in Taghlak­ábád leaving Tattá to Khán Khánán, who engaged himself for the time in settling the political affairs of the place. This occurred in the year 1000 A.H. (1591 A.D.)* after seeing the seaport of Lóhrí and visiting other places of importance, both Khán Khánán and Mírzá Jání Beg prepared to go and pay their respects to Emperor Akbar, as the latter had expressed a desire for it.

Mírzá Jání Beg was very anxious about his own fate

Khán Khánán and Mírzá Jání Beg go to Emperor Akbar.

but on his going to Emperor Akbar the latter showed him greet kindness and confirmed him, as the governor of Sehwán, Tattá and the seaport Lóhrí. Khán Khánán had left Daolat Khán Lódhí at Tattá. Akbar desired Mírzá Jání Beg to send for his family and live with him for some time. The Mírzá was very unwilling to do so, and so, at the request of Khán Khánán, he was excused the trouble. Mírzá Jání Beg now sent his men under the authority of the Emperor to his minor son Mírzá Ghází Beg, asking him to rule at Tattá for him, with the assistance and under the regency of Shah Kásim Arghún, Khusró Khán Charkas, Bháí Khán Arab Kúkah and Jamáluddín secretary, who were especially sent out for the purpose, while he himself remained with the Emperor for about 8 years. During this period Mírzá Jání Beg’s daughter was married to Akbar’s son Khusró Sháh.

It was in the year 1008 A.H. (1599 A.D.) on the

Mírzá Jání Beg’s death.

21st of Rajjib that Mírzá Jání Beg died of apoplexy or brain fever.* Under the orders of the Emperor his body was carried to Tattá and buried on the Maklí hill in the mausoleum since known by the name of Ránk.*