Soon after Mírzá Sháh Hasan took the reins of govern­ment,

Mírzá Sháh Hasan Arghún returns to Tattá to punish Jám Feróz.

he came to know that Jám Feróz and the people of Tattá in general had become very much pleased to hear of his father’s death and were thinking of shaking off his yoke. Sháh Hasan therefore postponed his going to Gujrát and prepared to return to Tattá and punish Jám Feróz.

It was in the town of Nasarpur that Sháh Hasan formally and publicly occupied the throne of his father, and all the Sayyeds, Kázís, headmen and chiefs of the place flocked to him to condole with him on his recent bereavement and to congratulate him on his ascension to the gádi of government. They then proposed to mention his name in the Friday orations, as is usually done for recognised kings of countries. But Sháh Hasan said that as long as any descendant of Amír Taimúr Sáhib Kirán was in existence, he did not think it proper to allow such a thing. He ordered that Báber be recongised as the king and his name mentioned in the public addresses in mosques, on the approaching holiday succeeding the month of Ramazan. Soon after, Kází Kázan and some other religious men brought submissive messages from Jám Feróz, trying to intercede and secure pardon for him. But Sháh Hasan learning that the Jám was collecting men and arms, dismissed them and marched against Tattá.

Hearing of Mírzá Sháh Hasan’s approach Jám Feróz

Flight of Jám Feróz from Tattá.

could not dare stop there. He left the city and crossing the river took to flight. The Jám’s son-in-law Shekh Ibráhím and his wazír Maniká brought some gunners and archers in boats to oppose the Mughuls and to prevent them from landing. But soon they were frustrated : Sháh Hasan landed at Tattá and Jám Feróz hurried to Kachh in order to secure some help from the Rái.

At Cháchikán and Rahímán Jám Feróz succeeded in

Fighting between Sháh Hasan and Jám Feróz.

assembling 50,000 men, horse and foot, and determined to make a stand against the enemy. Mírzá Sháh Hasan coming to know of this, sent some men to keep a watch on Tattá and himself marched against Jám Feróz. Seeing the Mughul forces at hand, the Jám’s men lost all hope and resolved to sell their lives dear and die to a man. Accordingly, following the custom prevalent in those days in Hind and Sind, they came down from their horses, tied the corners of their scarfs and turbans with one-another’s, and commenced the fight in a body. Seeing this, Mírzá Sháh Hasan, alighted from his horse, made ablusions, said his prayers and asked blessings and help from God, and then riding his horse charged the enemy with his chiefs. From the morning to the afternoon the fight went on. Swords and arrows were busy at work. Both sides fought bravely. At last Jám Feróz losing 20,000 men turned away from the field and fled to Gujrát, where he remained till death removed him from the world. Sháh Hasan took possession of the animals and the baggage left behind by the enemy and distributed the same among his troops. After spending three days he returned to Tattá and thence to Taghlakábád, where he made a long halt of 6 months. Then he proceeded to Bakhar viâ Hálakandí.* Coming to a place opposite Sehwán, he was visited by chiefs of Sehwán and other neighbouring places, and appointing Mír Farrukh to be in charge of Darbelah he came to Baburló,* about 6 miles from Bakhar, amusing himself with hunting all the way. During his stay at Bakhar, the place became more populous with some new arrivals from Kandhár and Hirát.

In 908 A.H. (1502 A.D.) Bábá Ahmad the younger son

Some fighting in Ubáorah and Máthelah.

of Mír Fázil Kókaltásh was sent with a column to punish some tribes of Dáhar and Máchhí, in the district of Ubáorah, and Batí and Amín, as they had oppressed the peaceful inhabitants of Máthelah and Mahar. Bábá Ahmad came to the fort of Máthelah, after chastising the mischievous tribes and carrying off their cattle and other property as booty. The Balóches of the fortified town of Sewrái prepared to resist the Mughuls and free the country about the place from their depredations. Bábá Ahmad marched against them and defeated them in a single fight, in which they lost a large number. Many Dáharís and Máchhís were taken prisoners. A large amount of money was takn from the people, who also gave a girl in marriage to Bábá Ahmad. After settling the affairs of Ubáorah and leaving some persons in charge of it Bábá Ahmad came back to Bakhar.

As the river was overflooded at that time the Mughuls had been obliged to leave the animals and cattle taken in booty, near Máthelah. Finding it a favourable oppor­tunity, a party of Balóch Jats of Sewrái, fell upon them and carried away the same. Hearing this, Bábá Ahmad returned with some 300 men, killed most of the mischief makers and again secured the animals. On his return, he was again confronted at Batí and Amín, with the joint parties of Balóches and Dàharís. A battle ensued in which Bábá Ahmad was severely wounded. He had hardly arrived at Máthelah, when he died of the wounds.

With the permission of Mírzá Sháh Hasan, Bábá Ahmad’s younger brother, Abdul Fattáh, in company of his father-in-law Mír Kásim, came with a force to the scene of disturbance to revenge the death of their dear relation. Bábá Ahmad’s body was sent to Bakhar for burial. An attack was now made on the Balóches, a large number of whom was killed. At Máu another fight took place with them and there too the Balóches were defeated. A peace was soon arranged, according to the terms of which Batí and Amín were fixed as the boundary of Sind.

In 930 A. H. (1523 A. D.) Mírzá Sháh Hasan resolved

Sháh Hasan prepares to march against Multán.

to take Multán and for that purpose he summoned all his chiefs and agents with their armies to Bakhar. At first he went to Siwí with 1,000 men to settle some quarrels among the Arghún and Hazárah tribes. He thoroughly repaired the fort of that place and left it in the hands of some trustworthy chiefs. Then he returned to Bakhar, punishing in the way some Balóches of Rind and Magsí tribes and bringing some of their chiefs and prisoners with himself.

As about this time the rumours of Báber’s coming to

Sháhbeg pays homage to Báber and some marriages are celebrated.

Hindustán were afloat, Mírzá Sháh Hasan sent some presents with a letter to that king and he himself soon followed them and received the honour of his audience. Shortly after this, a matrimonial connection between the two princes was arranged, which brought them into still closer terms of friendship. Gulbarg Begum a daughter of Khalífah Hisámuddín Mírak, Báber’s chief secretary and minister, was married by the king to Mírzá Sháh Hasan, and Náhíd Begum, Máh Begum’s daughter, of whom we have spoken in a previous chapter and who had been detained at Kábul *, was given in marriage to Khalífah’s son Alíkhán. Sháh Hasan brought his bride to Bakhar and gave the district of Bághbán and Pát to Hisámuddín Mírak as a present and himself proceeded to Multán.

We have seen from the first volume of this history

A short account of Multán* and its rulers.

that Muhammad Kásim Sakifí had conquered Multán,* and after his death it remained in the hands of Arab lieutenants. Then it was ruled by Sultán Mahmúd of Ghazní and his descendants as mentioned in the first part of this volume. Next it passed into the hands of princes of the line of Karámatih * and next into those of Sultán Múizzuddín son of Muhammad Sháh.* Up to 874 A. H. (1469 A. D.) it was held by the kings of Dehlí. In the confusion and disorder that followed in that year, the then ruler of Multán became independent. In 840 A. H. (1436 A. D.) when Aláuddín son of Muhammad Sháh son of Khizir Khán of the Sayyed dynasty was on the throne of Dehlí, * disorder spread thoughout the vast empire owing to the impetuous behaviour of the Mughuls. And Multán like some other important places in Hindu­stán was left without a ruler. The headmen and chief persons of the place, therefore elected Shekh Yúsif Kuraishí as their ruler, as he was a descendant of Shekh Baháuddín Zakariyyá Multání * and the keeper of his shrine, which was held in great reverence and was visited by people far and near. Thus from Uch to Multán, all the headmen and landowners recognised Shekh Yúsíf as their head and assisted him by giving him men and money.

A short time after this, one Rái Sahrá, a headman of Lángáh tribe, living in the vicinity of Lóhrí sent messages to Shekh Yúsíf requesting that as Bahlúl Lódhí had got the throne of Hindustán * and an invasion was expected, they might make common cause and live like friends. To take in the Shekh completely, who was a pious and simple person, he gave the hand of his daughter to the Shekh and on the excuse of seeing his daughter, he began to visit Multán more often. To save his father-in-law this trouble, Shekh Yúsíf gave him separate quarters in the town, in which he began to collect some of his own men. One night he went with an attendant to the Shekh’s residence to visit his daughter. Before entering the house, he secretly drank a cup of fresh blood of a kid, supplied to him by his attendant. A few minutes after­wards he began to complain of belly-ache and appeared to grow restless. He soon vomitted out blood which terrified the whole family. Rái Sahrá now declared that he was on the point of death and wanted to see his men and to bid them a last farewell. Of course the simple Shekh had no objection to the admission of these men at such a critical juncture. When the brave Lángáhs assembled there, they immediately following their master’s hint, took the gates of the palace and drove away Shekh Yúsíf and his men, who fled to Dehlí and Rái Sahrá ascended the throne of Multán, taking the title of Sultán Kutbuddín.*

In 931 A.H. (1524 A. D.) Mírzá Sháh Hasan started

Sháh Hasan takes the forts of Sewrái and Máu.

for Multán. From the fort of Sewrái, he commenced the work of destruction and depredation. The Balóches ran to strengthen the fort of Uch, which was the strongest of all the forts in the country. Sháh Hasan encamped on the bank of a lake and sent his brave general, Sultán Mahmúd Khán, with 80 warriors only, against the assembled Balóches. A severe battle was fought. 200 men of the enemy were killed, Sultán Mahmúd himself slaying 30 men. The Balóches were put to flight. Sháh Hasan now ordered the fort of Sewrái to be razed to the ground, which work was finished in about a week. He next proceeded to the fort of Máu. But by the intercession of a pious man of the place, Sháh Hasan did not destroy the town, but captured the Lángáhs and Balóches only, who were found in it. The fort was soon taken possession of formally and the Shekhs of the place were called upon to remain faithful to him. Sháh Hasan then proceeded to the country of the Lár tribe and sent Muhíb Tarkhán ahead with 500 horses.

Mírzá Sháh Hasan now marched against Uch, with a

Sháh Hasan fights with Lángáhs and Balóches at Uch.

large army, the right division of which was commanded by Muham­mad Miskín Tarkhán and Mírzá Ísá Tarkhán, and the left division by Mír Farrukh and Mír Alí Arghúns, Sultán Mahmúd Khán and Mír Mahmúd Sárbán leading the advance party. The army of Lángáhs and Balóches of Multán was led by one Náhir, and was a hundred times more numerous than the Mughuls. The two armies met and the battle commenced. At first showers of arrows were exchanged, but soon they came to close quarters. The native forces being repulsed outside, they rushed into the fort and began to shower stones and arrows from the top of the walls. The chiefs and head­men, who had been taken prisoners, were now ordered to be pierced to death with lances within the sight of the garrison. This had the desired effect. Several men secretly threw themselves down from the ramparts in order to make good their escape, but they were seized one by one and killed. The town was now ordered to be plundered and the fort to be razed to the ground. The wood and other materials of the fort of Uch were sent to Bakhar by boats.

When Mahmúd Khán Lángáh, the ruler of Multán

The boundary line between Bakhar and Multán is fixed.

came to know of Mìrzá Sháh Hasan’s actions, he collected the people of the tribes of Jats, Rinds, Dódáís, Kóráís, Chándiás and other Balóches, and within one month issued from Multán with 80,000 men, cavalry and infantry. At the very first stage, he fell ill and died from the effects of poison admimistered by a kinsman, with whom he had become angry for some fault. Mahmúd Khán’s son Sultán Husain Lángáh was appointed as his father’s successor by the tribes, but at this critical juncture, peace was considered necessary and so some pious men interceded and a peace between the two parties was brought about, according to the terms of which the Gháró, on the bank of which Sháh Hasan was then encamping, was fixed as the boundary line between Bakhar and Multán territories. After this settlement, Sháh Hasan ordered another fort to be constructed at Uch and he appointed some trustworthy men in charge of the same.

Mírzá Sháh Hasan was now informed that a large

The fort of Diláwar is taken.

treasure was buried in the fort of Diláwar. So he wrote a letter to Gházi Khán, * the governor of the place, asking him to appear before him and pay obeisance to him. But Gházi Khán refused to do so. Sháh Hasan therefore prepared to march against the fort of Diláwar. He took provisions with him to last for about a month and on the 1st of Rajjib 931 A. H. (1524 A. D.) he marched out with his forces. Sanbul Khán was sent ahead to lay siege to the fort, which was apparently impregnable and situated in a desert, where no water could easily be got. In the course of 3 days only, 100 wells were sunk and in 4 days more, Sháh Hasan himself arrived with the main army. The fort was blockaded. At last a breach was made by Sanbul Khán, and the occupants of the fort, engaged with the belligerents in a desparate fight. Some were killed and others wounded, and a large number of them was taken prisoner. The treasures were secured and a good portion of it distributed among the troops. Sháh Hasan now returned to Uch and thence to Bakhar, where he arrived after a fortnight.

About the close of 932 A. H. (1525 A. D.) some

Sháh Hasan takes Multán and gives it over to Báber.

disturbance arose in Multán owing to the weakness of the new ruler Sultán Husain Lángáh. The people, being dissatisfied with his rule, were anxious to have some other chief as their head. Hearing of this state of things, Mírzá Sháh Hasan marched towards Multán in order to take it. An attempt was made by the ruler of Multán to pacify the Mírzá, but it failed as Sháh Hasan wanted him to come personally to pay homage to him, which Sultán Husain would not consent to do. So the Lángáhs made a sortie from the fort on the Arghún army and killed a few of them. This enraged Sháh Hasan, who came and encamped close to the Shams gate of the city, and besieged the fort. Every day a battle was fought with guns and arrows. As the siege lasted for about a year, famine began to be felt at Multán. People began to eat hides of cattle and even dead cats and dogs. The occupants of the fort were compelled to throw themselves from the top of the walls into the moat round the fort. At last on the 11th of Rabíussání 933 A.H. (1526 A.D.) the Luhárí gate was broken down and entry made by the Arghúns. A massacre of the natives then commenced. All the males from the age of 7 to 17 were taken prisoners and the rest put to sword. Great booty, both cash and jewels, were obtained. Sultán Mahmúd Lángáh’s son and daughter were brought and entrusted to Sháh Hasan, who handed them over to Miskín Tarkhán. The latter married the girl himself and retained the boy as his own child and protegê. After 2 months, Sháh Husain returned to Bakhar, having first left Khwájah Shamsuddín Khaofí with 200 horse and 100 foot and 100 guns, in charge of Multán. At the same time Sháh Hasan sent some envoys with letters to king Báber offering Multán as a present to him. Báber accepted it and gave it over to his son Mírzá Kámrán.

On his arrival at Bakhar Mírzá Sháh Hasan received

Sháh Hasan invades Kachh and defeats Rái Khangár.

despatches from Tattá informing him that Ráí Khangár of Kachh was about to march against that city. Accordingly Sháh Hasan, without losing time, came to Tattá. Here he received a letter from Rái Khangár, stating “You killed my brother Ámir Amrání and to revenge his death I have collected an army.* You had gone to Multán and in your absence I could have easily taken Tattá. But I did not do so to oblige you. Now either make peace with me giving me part of Sind or prepare yourself for fight.” To this Mírzá Sháh Hasan gave the following reply “I am only anxious to fight. The field reddened with Ámir Amraní’s blood is destined to bear the token of your blood too. Before you take the trouble of coming this side, I am coming to you.” Shortly after this, Sháh Hasan started for Kachh. Arriving in the vicinity of the capital, he divided his forces into four columns to attack the city from different sides, so that the enemy should, by seeing the advanced party, believe that the force was small and when all should fall upon it, the other columns should attack from other sides and take the place. The advance column was led by Sultán Mahmúd Khán Bakharí. The other three columns were commanded by Mír Farrukh, by Sháh Hasan Takdirí and by Mírzá Ísá Tarkhán and Mír Alíkah. Meanwhile Rái Khangár learning that Sháh Hasan was making a stand with a handful of men only, hurried against him with a force of 10,000 men. Sultán Mahmúd Khán hearing the kettle drums of the Kachh army, hastened to meet him, calling Mír Farrukh at the same time to his help and preventing Mírzá Sháh Hasan from venturing out. In the engage­ment that took place Rái Khangár himself fought on foot along with his men, having first tied together the corners of their scarfs according to their custom. Sultán Mahmúd commenced with showers of arrows and killed a large number of them. The remnants were cut down with swords by Mír Farrukh, who had arrived at the spot soon afterwards. It was sunset now. The Mughuls spent the night in the battle-field and the next morning they plundered the country and came to the camp with many horses, camels, cows and other booty, together with the prisoners obtained in the battle. Happy and victorious, Sháh Hasan now returned to Tattá.