We have mentioned at the close of a previous chapter

Sháhbeg invades Tattá.

that some Mughuls had come to Sind in the reign of Jám Feróz and settled there with the permission of the Jám. Among them were Kíbak Arghún who had left Sháhbeg’s party owing to a murder he had committed that side, and Mír Kásim Kíbakí, who was a sort of spy left by Sháhbeg. Most of these Mughuls, chiefly of Daolatsháh and Núrgáhí tribes had been enlisted in his service by Jám Feróz, who entertained some suspicions against Daryá Khánand wanted to secure some intrepid men to work against him, in case of necessity. It was at the information and invitation of Mír Kásim Kíbakí, that Sháhbeg marched against Tattá with a large army about the close of 914 A.H. (1508 A.D.).

Sháhbeg came to Fatehpur and Ganjábah to make

Sháhbeg’s flght with Daryá Khán.

warlike preparations by collecting and arrauging troops. He left some chiefs in charge of those places, posted his own brother at Siwí and sent Mír Fázil Kókaltásh * with 240 horses, as an advance party. The Sammah army of sind on passing through the district of Bághbán was joined at Taltí, about 6 or 7 miles from Sehwán, by Daryá Khán’s sons Mahmúd and Mótan Khán. On the arrival of Sháhbeg at the village of Bághbán, the chief men of the place hastened to pay their respects to him, which encouraged him to advance towards Tattá. Passing through the Lakí hills, be came within about 6 miles of Tattá southwards, where he halted and encamped on the bank of the Khánwáh. In those days the river flowed to the south of Tattá and so he had to make arrangements to cross it. The spies soon found a native way-farer, who, on pressure put upon him, pointed out the place where the river was fordable. It was on the 15th of Muharram 926 A.H. (1519 A.D.) that Sháhbeg rode into the river and led his whole force across, having left a party of soldiers to protect the camp at the river. Daryá Khán, the adopted son of Jám Nindó, left his master Jám Feróz at the capital city and himself advanced with a large army and gave battle to the Mughuls. A severe battle was fought, which ended in the victory of Sháhbeg.* Jám Feróz hearing of the defeat of his army, fled across the river. Daryá Khán was killed in the battle. Up to the 20th of the same month the Mughuls plundered the city. Several women and children of respectable families were captured. Even those of Jám Feróz remained in the city. It was at the intercession of Kází Kázan, the most learned man of the time at Tattá, whose family members also had been taken prisoners, that Sháhbeg stopped the plunder by giving an arrow to the Kází to show it round to the plundering Mughuls. A proclamation was also issued to that effect, and once more there was order and quiet in the city.

Jám Feróz, with a few persons was tarrying in the

Fight of Jám Feróz.

village of Perár, anxious to get some information about his own and his father’s family, to protect whom, however, Sháhbeg had the good sense to post a party of his men round their residence. Seeing no help for it, he was obliged to send messengers to Sháhbeg recognising him as his superior and asking for mercy. Sháhbeg sent back the messengers with presents and with promise of pardon on the Jám’s surrender. Accordingly Jám Feróz, taking his brothers and kinsmen with him issued from Perár to the bank of the river with a sword hanging round his neck as a mark of surrender. Sháhbeg ordered the Jám’s families to be taken across with due honour, and in the next month, Saffar, Sháhbeg encamped outside the city, where Jám Feróz came to pay homage to him in person. Sháhbeg received him well and gave him the rich robe of honour that his own father Amír Zunnún had received from king Muzaf­far Husain. Sháhbeg was kind enough to give the governorship of Tattá to the Jám. But after some consultation with the chief men of the place it was resolved that as Sind was a spacious country, half of it might be given to Jám Feróz and the other half retained and left in charge of agents appointed by the Mughul prince. Accordingly the Lakí hills near Sehwán were fixed as the boundary. The country from Lakí down to Tattá was to remain under Jám Feróz, and that upwards to the north, to be retained by the agents of Sháhbeg. After this settlement was made and ratified, Sháhbeg left Tattá and marched out on his return journey.

At Taltí Sháhbeg received the homage of certain Sahtah

Sháhbeg at Tattá.

and Sódhá chiefs. He then came to Sehwán. He left Mír Alíkah Arghún, Sultán Mukímbeg Lár, Kíbak Arghún and Ahmad Tarkhán in charge of the place, and sent Sultán Mahmúd Khán Kókaltásh* to take charge of Bakhar and himself proceeded to Shál to bring his family. At the same time he deputed Kází Kázan to bring Mahmúd son of Daryá Khán to his senses and advise him to surrender, but the Kází did not succeed in his mission. Sháhbeg, was therefore obliged to come to Taltí, where Daryá Khán’s sons Mahmúd and Mótan Khán, and Jám Sárang and Rinmal Sódhó had mustered their forces and prepared to defend the place at the instigation of Makhdúm Bilál,* a learned man of the place, as the latter had been ill-treated by the Mughuls after Sháhbeg’s victory in Sind and compelled to give certain taxes. Within 3 days, Sháhbeg secured some boats and crossed the river, with Mír Fázil Kókaltásh and the Arghún and Tarkhán forces. As Rinmal with his brother Jódhó* advanced to meet them Mír Fázil attacked them and defeated them. The fort of Taltí was taken. Most of the Sammah troops were cut down, some drowned themselves in the river and a few fled to Sehwán. Rinmal Sódhó’s brother Jódhó was also among the slain.

After spending 3 days at Taltí Sháhbeg returned to

Tattá given back to Jám Feròz. Jám Salahuddín invades Tattá.

Shál and Siwí, and Jám Feróz began to rule quietly at Tattá as before. But it was not long before Jám Saláhuddín, who had some time ago revolted against Jám Feróz and driven him away from his capital, and had subsequently been himself driven away by Daryá Khán to Gujrát, once more invaded Tattá with an army of 10,000 men, consisting chiefly of Járejás and Sódhá Khangárs.* Jám Feróz, without losing time, hastened to Sháhbeg’s agents at Sehwán and through them sent some fleet messengers to Sháhbeg for help. The latter despatched his son Mírzá Sháh Hasan with a column of Mughuls for the purpose, and sent some more forces after him, by successive instalments.

On the 14th of Muharram 927 A.H. (1520 A.D.) Mirza

Sháhbeg’s son Sháh Hasan comes to Jám Feróz’s help.

Sháh Hasan left Shál for Sind, and after 20 days’ journey arrived in the vicinity of Tattá. Saláhuddín hearing of the Mughul’s approach left Tattá, recrossed the river and betook himself to the village of Jún. Jám Feróz received Mírzá Sháh Hasan gratefully and in return received marks of distinction and friendship from him. Saláhuddín was soon pursued and overtaken. A fight ensued between the advance columns of the two parties, one led by Haibat Alí Khán, Saláhuddín’s son, who was son-in-law to Sultán Muzaffar of Gujrát, and another by Mírzá Ísá Tarkhán,* Sultán-kulíbeg and Mír Alíkah. Saláhuddín’s son was killed and his army routed. Mad with rage at his son’s death, Saláhuddín precipitated himself upon the Mughuls. But soon he too was slain and his army fled to Gujrát. After spending 3 days at the scene of the battle Jám Feróz went back to Tattá to settle affairs there and Mírzá Sháh Hasan returned to Bághbán to pay his respects to his father, who had come to that place. Here during their stay, the Máchhí tribes, who had become rather turbulent and refractory, were punished, their cattle and property plundered and their villages razed to the grounds.

Soon after, Sháhbeg, leaving his son there went to

Sháhbeg at Sehwán.

Sehwán with a few chiefs of Bághbán and others and inspected the new fort. He posted some trustworthy persons there and returning to his camp, prepared to move to Bakhar. Soon Kází Kázan came to visit him, and was shown great favour. Envoys with rich presents from Jám Feróz also arrived. Sháhbeg received them cheerfully and returned them with a letter to the Jám intimating that he intented to conquer Gujrát, and that should he succeed in that undertaking he would give up the whole country of Sind to him.

Mír Fázil Kókaltásh, who had been in charge of Bakhar,

Revolt at Bakhar and Sháhbeg marches in that direction.

left his son Sultán Mahmúd Khán, who was then a boy of 15, in his place and himself joined Sháhbeg. In his absence, some headmen of the Dhárejah tribes, who had been asked by Sháhbeg to live in the fort of Bakhar, left that place and stationed themselves in the plain close to Lóhrí* from which place they twice attempted to take Bakhar, but were repulsed by the Sayyeds of Bakhar, who were on very friendly terms with Sultán Mahmúd. On the information being sent to Mír Fázil, the latter took his leave from Sháhbeg at his camp of Chándko, a town about 60 miles to the west of Bakhar* and came to Bakhar, bringing with him 43 ringleaders of Dhárejahs, who had voluntarily advanced to meet him and to flatter him. On hearing the personal complaint of his son against the Dhárejah headmen, Mír Fázil beheaded 27 of the chiefs. By this time Sháhbeg had encamped near Sakhar* on his way to Bakhar. Here he was received by Sultán Mahmúd, who gave him a full report about the conduct of Dhárejahs. On consultation with Kází Kázan, who had happened to come there to visit Sháhbeg, the latter ordered a massacre of those mischievous leaders. Accordingly Sultán Mahmúd Khán hastened to Bakhar, during that very night, and slaying the Dhárejah chiefs threw their corpses from the tower, since known by the name of “Bloody Tower,” and in the morning he accompained his father and the Sayyeds to the camp of Sháhbeg. Although the Sayyeds were much praised for their faithfulness and friendship by Sultán Mahmúd Khán and on that account honoured by Sháhbeg, it was considered necessary to put more Mughuls in the fort of Bakhar, probably to check the power and influence of the Sayyeds. The latter feeling the inconvenience of their position in the fort asked permission to go and live at Lóhrí on the other side of the river. This was granted and they all removed to Lóhrí, where they have been residing ever since.*

Sháhbeg now visited the Bakhar fort and divided the

Sháhbeg at Bakhar.

ground inside into different building sites for his chiefs and their families and ordered the work to commence. The bricks of the ancient fort of Alór, * the old capital of Sind, as well as the materials of the buildings belonging to the Turks and Sammahs living round about the town of Bakhar, were brought and utilised in repairing the fort walls and building houses in it. It was first resolved to cut and remove the two hills to the south of Bakhar, * but as the river flowed between, it was considered a sufficient protection for the town and so the plan of blasting the hills was abandoned as unnecessary. The repairs of the fort were then immediately taken in hand and finished in the course of one year. He then ordered some of his chief men to settle there, as for instance, Mír Fázil Kókaltásh, Sultán Sanjar and Mír Muhammad Sárbán.*

After settling the affairs at Bakhar, Sháhbeg determined to extirpate the Balóch tribes, who had now and then been causing trouble. To do this, he appointed several parties of his men, who were instructed to go in different directions and on a fixed day to slaughter them all at once.

These parties spread themselves over the country. About 42 villages of Balóches were destroyed and their residents put to the sword.

In the winter of 928 A.H. (1521 A.D.) Sháhbeg

Sháhbeg marches towards Gujrát but he dies in the way.

appointed Muhammad Tarkhán as the governor of Bakhar and himself proceeded towards Gujrát clearing both the banks of the river of hostile tribes living there. Coming to Chándiko, Mír Fázil fell ill and he was permitted to go back to Bakhar with his younger son. Shortly afterwards Mír Fázil breathed his last. The sad news made Sháhbeg very sorry. He sent the deceased chief’s elder son Sultán Mahmúd Khán and his other relations too to Bakhar, himself following them soon after. He was so much affected by his brave general’s death that Sháhbeg openly declared that his own end was near. Coming to Sehwán he halted there for a fortnight. Thence he proceeded to Tattá on his way to Gujrát. From Tattá he moved to the village of Agham,* where he encamped for some time, waiting for Jám Feróz, who had been called to meet him. Sháhbeg was now very anxious to take Gujrát, because after leaving Bakhar he had heard that Muhammad Báber had come as far as Khusháb and intended to conquer Hindustán. He was therefore almost sure that he would not be allowed to remain in possession of Sind, and so he was contemplating to secure some other country for himself to rule. These anxieties made his heart more heavy and his mind more uneasy. At last when he came to the village of Agham he expired on the 12th of Shuabán 928 A.H. (1521 A.D.),* while the Korán was being read before him at his request. That very night Mírzá Sháh Hasan was recog­nised as his father’s successor by the chiefs and grandees. After funeral ceremonies, the coffin was sent to Meccá, where Sháhbeg’s remains were buried in a prominent place.