The family or tribe of Arghún is descended from Changez Khán; thus:—

Descendants of Changez Khán and Amír Taimúr Kúrkán Sáhib Kirán.

Arghún Khán son of Abáká Khán son of Halákú Khán son of Túlí Khán son of Changez Khán. And as we shall soon meet with references to Taimúr and Báber and some other well known members of the family, it would not be out of place to mention here how these men were related to one another.

Changez Khán * had four sons (1) Jújí Khán, who was made the ruler of Kabchák and Bulghár (2) Chighatá Khán, the ruler of Máwará-unnahr (i. e., Transoxania or Khurásán) and Turkistán (3) Oktái Káán, whom his father made his heir-apparent and (4) Túlí Khán, whom he retained as his attendant. Changez Khán died in 624 A.H, (1244 A.D.) at the age of 73 and after a reign of 25 years. There are six branches of his children who became rulers in different parts of his vast empire:—

(i) The rulers of Ulugh Yurat, who were 15 in number:—

Oktaí Káán, his son Kewak Khán, Mankú Káán son of Túlí Khán, Kublá Khán son of Túlí Khán, Taimúr Káán (Aljáitó) and others.

(ii) The rulers of Kabchák, who were 39 in number:—

Jújí Khán, his son Bátú Khán and others, including Uzbak Khán, the ancestor of the tribe of Uzbak.

(iii) The rulers of Írán (Persia), who were 15 in number:—

HALÁKU KHÁN son of Túlí Khán, his sons Ibáká Khán and Ahmad Khán; ARGHÚN KHÁN son of Ibáká Khan and others, including Gházán Khán son of Arghún Khán, who became convert to Islám and got the name of Sultán Mahmúd.

(iv) The rulers of Túrán (Turcomania or Scythia), who were 34 in number:—

Chighatáí Khán and others, the last being Sultán Mahmúd who was contemporary with Amír Taimúr Kúrkán.

(v) The princes of the branch of SHAIBÁNIAH, who were descended from Jújí Khán and ruled in Túrán. They were 19 in number. Their army was called UZBAKIAH.

(vi) The rulers of Káshghar, who were descended from Chighatáí Khán. They were 19 in number.

As for Amír Taimúr* Kúrkán known by the title of Sahíb Kirán, he was descended from Tomnah Khán, who was the fourth ancestor of Changez Khán; thus, Taimúr son of Tarágháí son of Barkal son of Elankar Bahádur, Ejal Núyán son of Karájár Núyán, son of Sóarseján, son of Erómjí Barlás son of Kájulí Bahádúr son of Tómnah Khan.*

The following were the descendants of Amír Taimúr who ruled in Íran and Túrán:—

(1) Mírán Sháh Mirza son of Amír Taimùr, who in his father’s life-time held the two Iráks, Ázarbáiján, Dayárbakar and Syria.*
(2) Umar Mírzá son of Mírán Sháh,
(3) Abábakr Mírzá son of Mírán Sháh,
(4) Sháhrukh Mírzá son of Abábakr, who in his father’s time held Khurásán,
(5) Khalíl Mírzá son of Mírán Shàh, who got Samarkand as his province,
(6) Ulughbeg Mírzá son of Sháhrukh,
(7) Abdul-latíf Mírzá son of Ulughbeg,
(8) Aláuddaolah Mirzá son of Báisankar son of Sháhrukh,
(9) Sultán Muhammad Mírzá son of Báisankar,
(10) Báber Mírzá son of Báisankar,
(11) Abdulláh Mìrzá son of Ibráhím son of Sháhrukh.
(12) Sháh Mahmùd Mírzá son of Báber,
(13) Ibráhím Mírzá son of Aláuddaolah,
(14) SULTÁN ABÚ SAÍD MÍRZÁ son of Sultán Muhammad son of Mírán Sháh son of Amír Taimúr.
(15) Umar Shekh Mírzá son of Sultán Abú Saíd,
(16) Sultán Muhammad Mírzá son of Sultán Abú Saíd,
(17) BÁBER MÍRZÁ son of Umar Shekh,
(18) YÁDGÁR MUHAMMAD MÍRZÁ son of Sultàn Muham nad son of Báisankar,
(19) SULTÁN HUSAIN MÍRZÁ son of Mansúr son of Báisankar descended from Umar Shekh Mírzá son of Amír Taimúr,
(20) BADÍ-UZZAMÁN MÍRZÁ son of Sultán Husain,
(21) MUZAFFAR HUSAIN MÍRZÁ* son of Sultán Husain. The last two, who were brothers ruled jointly at Khurásán, till they were driven away by Sháhbeg Arghún who came from Transoxania.

Sháhbeg Arghún with whom we are concerned for the

Origin of Arghún Dynasty.

present was the son of Amír Zunnún son of Mír Hasan Basrí,* who was a descendant of Arghún Khán (see above, Branch iii.) This Amír Zunnún was one of the warlike leaders under Sultán Abú Saíd Mírzá (No. 14). He spent some time at Hirát, in the company of his father, under Sultán Yádgár Mírzá (No. 18) and then he went to Samarkand where he spent two or three years. After the quarrel that took place between Tarkhán and Arghún chiefs, Zunnún came back to Khurásán, where Sultán Husain Mírzá (No. 19) took him under his patronage and made him the governor of the districts of Ghór and Dáwar. Here he had to fight with the tribes of Hazárah and Takdarí whom he defeated in several battles, in 884 A. H. (1479 A. D.) and three succeeding years, and brought them completely under his subjection. Sultán Husain was so much pleased with him that he entrusted the absolute government of Kandhár, Hirát and Ghór to him, and Amír Zunnún fixed his residence at Shál and Mastóng and ruled the provinces ceded to him.

As Amír Zunnún strengthened himself with the tribes

The reign of Amír Zun­nún Arghún.

of Hazárah and Takdarí and Kab­chák, Sultán Husain Mírzá, and his son Badí-uzzamán Mírzá (No. 20) became jealous of him and tried to weaken his power. Zunnún, coming to know of the Sultan’s intentions, left his capital with his two sons Sháhbeg and Muhammad Mukìm and his brother Mír Sultán Alí and went to Kandhár. Soon after, Badíuzzamán had a rupture with his father and he went to Kandhár, where Zunnún received him well and tried his best to conciliate his feelings. Their friendship was sealed by the marriage between Badíuzzamán and Zunnún’s eldest daughter to the chagrine of Shekh Alí Taghaí and some other chiefs of the Mírzá, who were against the union.

Badíuzzamán’s son Mírzá Muhammad Mómin was at Astarábád, when Badíuzzamán himself had gone to Kan­dhár. In his absence, Badíuzzamán’s brother Muzaffar Husain Mírzá (No. 21) led an army against his nephew at Astarábád. The latter fought bravely in his defence with his uncle, but was taken prisoner and sent to Hirát in 903 A. H. (1497 A. D.). While in confinement he was murdered at the instigation of Muzaffar Husain’s mother and under his order, issued in an intoxicated state.

When Badíuzzamán Mírzá heard of his son’s sad death,

His fighting with Sultán Husain Mírzá on behalf of Mírzá Badíuzzamán.

he began to prepare to take revenge with the co-operation of Amír Zun­nún Arghún. This led Sultán Husain to come with a large army to Kandhár. But before his arrival, Zunnún prepared for assistance in the fort of Pishang, and posted his sons Sháhbeg and Muhammad Mukím in the forts of Kandhár and Dáwar respectively, while Mírzá Badíuzzamán occupied a fourth stronghold. They had prearranged to help one another, in case of necessity. When Sultán Husain came to Kandhár he could not find provisions for his army; consequently he was obliged to return to Hirát, without doing anything.

After some time, Mírzá Badíuzzamán and Shábbeg led an army of three or four thousand men against Sultán Husain, at Lank Nishín, but they were defeated and repulsed by the Sultán. Badíuzzamán fled to Ghór and Sháhbeg to Dáwar, and Sultán Husain returned to Hirát. This was in the month of Shuabán 900 A H. (1494 A.D.).

In 904 A.H. (1498 A.D.) reconciliation was brought about between the Sultán and Mírzá Badíuzzamán and Amír Zunnún, through the intercession of some pious Shekhs and Sayyeds, and the province of Sístán was ceded to Badíuzzamán, who therefore left Ghór and went to his new state. But when Sultán Husain went to Astarábád, Badíuzzamán and Zunnún invaded Hirát, plundered the place and defeated the forces of the chiefs of the place. Soon hearing that Sultán Husain was coming with an army, they withdrew to the river Murgháb.

Here he was joined by Sháhbeg from Kandhár, who went and took Marw making Parindahbeg, the governor of the fort on behalf of the Sultán, a prisoner. Sultán Husain returning from Astarábád and feeling unprepared to fight against his son, deputed an envoy to him who again brought about reconciliation between them. By this, Balkh was ceded to Badíuzzamán, who went to that part of the country, Zunnún and Sháhbeg returning to Kandhár after leaving Sístán in the hands of Zunnún’s brother Sultán Alí Arghún.

In 908 A.H. (1502 A.D.) in response to the secret messages of some of the rebels of Sístán, Sultán Husain Mírzá sent another son of his with a large army to Sístán. This prince came to Uk, where Zunnún and Sháhbeg met him with their hordes of Tarkhán, Arghún, Takdarí and Hazáráh tribes from one side, and Sultán Alí with his sons from another. The prince, being thus pressed hard, left the battlefield and fled back to Hirát. Amír Zunnún returned to Sístán successfully and thence he went to Kandhár.

About this time, Ulughbeg Mírzá son of Abú Saíd

Zunnún’s son Muhammad Mukím takes Kábul but soon surrenders to Báber Mírzá.

Mírá who held Kábul, died and was succeeded by his minor son Abdur­raúf Mirzá, who was soon attacked and killed by some of the rebel chiefs. Considering this a favourable opportunity, Zunnún’s younger son Mírzá Muhammad Mukím Argtún, collected an army of Hazárah and Takdarí men, invaded Kábul, brought it into his possession and married Ulughbeg’s daughter. He dismissed the Kábul chiefs and courtiers and began to live there at his ease.

In the beginning of 910 A.H. (1504 A.D.) Báber Mírzá (No. 17) came to Kábul from Samarkand. Muhammad Mukím not being able to meet the enemy in the open field, defended himself in the fort, to which Báber laid siege. Soon Muhammad Mukím surrendered on condition of his being pardoned and was honourably dismissed by that prince to go to his native place.

In the beginning of the next year, Muhammad Khán

Iuvasion of Muhammad Khán Shaibání and death of Amír Zunnún.

Shaibání Uzbak (of the fifth branch of Changez Khan’s children) invaded Khurasán with an army “more numerous than ants and locusts.” Badíuzzamán Mírzá hearing of the enemy’s approach sent for Amír Zunnún and other friends for consultation and help. Zunnún wrote to his son Sháhbeg to keep a strict watch on Kandhár and asked his other son Muhammad Mukím to remain at Dáwar and his brother Sultán Ali to be at Sístán in order to defend those places in case the enemy turned to them. He himself came to the camp of Badíuzzamán Mírzá. By this time the Uzbak army crossed the river Amúyah and was met in the open field by Amír Zunnún and several other princes and chief men of Khurásán. A pitched battle was fought in which brave warriors on both sides were killed. But as the Uzbak army was four times more in number than the Khurásánese, the latter fled to their respective places except the brave Zunnún, who notwithstanding the attempt of the enemy to take him alive as a prisoner, died sword in hand, fighting on foot to the last.

After their father’s death Sháhbeg and Muhammad

Sháhbeg succeeds his father.

Mukím went to Kandhár, where they remained in mourning for some time. Sháhbeg was elected as his father’s successor by the tribes of Arghún and Tarkhán. Encouraging his forces to remain active as before, he watched the opportunity of making up matters with the enemy. Muhammad Khán Shaibání after conquering Khurásán had turned his steps to Kandhár. Hearing of his approach Sháhbeg and Muhammad Mukím sent an envoy to him yielding allegiance to him and recognising him as their superior. Muhammad Khán Shaibání was very much pleased with them, and after sending 3 horses, a tent and some dresses of honour to the two brothers, he returned to Khurásán.

In 923 A.H. (1517 A.D.) Muhammad Báber Mírzá came

Zunnún’s sons Sháhbeg and Muhammad Mukím fight with Báber.

with a large army after conquering Kábul and Ghazní, to bring Kandhár and Dáwar into his possession. Sháhbeg and his brother advanced to meet him. A battle was fought in which the two brothers were defeated and put to flight. Kandhár and Dáwar with all the treasures collected by Amìr Zunnún fell into Báber’s hands, who distributed the treasures among his chiefs and leaders and appointed his brother Násiruddín Mírzá as governor of Kandhár. He himself returned to Kábul and captured Muhammad Mukím’s daughter Máhbegum. But after a short time Sháhbeg and his brothers brought a large force against Násiruddín, retook Kandhár and drove him to Kábul. Soon after this Muhammad Mukím’s life came to its close.

When Sháhbeg came from Kandhár Shál, several

Sháhbeg takes Siwí.

tribes of that province flocked to his standard. He now marched straight against Siwí and took that fortified town. The people in the fort fled to Fatehpur, which was about 100 miles from Siwí towards Sind. Sháhbeg marched against Fatehpur. Here he was met by the sons of Pír Walí Barlás, the ruler of Siwí, with two or three thousand men of the Balóch tribe and others. A battle was fought in which Sháhbeg was successful. Some of the people were killed and others fled to Sind. Sháhbeg returned to Siwí, where he spent some time quietly, constructing several buildings, planting several gardens and laying the foundation of a fort. He then returned to Kandhár. This was about the year 925 A. H. (1519 A. D.).

While at Kandhár Sháhbeg was much pressed by his brother’s wife, the mother of Máhbegum to get her back her daughter from Kábul, where she had been confined by Báber. To succeed in this attempt, the following arrangement was made. A woman by name Daolat Katah who had been attached to the family, was sent to Kábul with instructions to assist Máhbegum in her escape. Daolat Katah came to Kábul like a stranger, managed to visit Máhbegum, brought Máhbegum one day on some pretext to a place outside the town, where she was carried away by a party of men appointed by Sháhbeg for the purpose. She was safely brought to Kandhár, only her little daughter Náhídbegum, a child of 18 months was left behind.

In 917 A. H. (1511 A.D.) when Sháh Ismáil Safawí,

Sháhbeg taken prisoner but released by his slave.

king of Persia,* conquered Khurásán and Muhammad Khán Shaibául Uzbak was defeated and killed, terror spread through­out the country. Seeing two powerful heroes in the field viz: Sháh Ismáíl on one side, and Báber on another, Sháhbeg Arghún had no other alternative but to make peace with them. He therefore sent some men with rich presents and submissive messages to Báber, who gave him pardon and on his coming to visit him, received him with honour and distinction. After spending some time with the king, when Sháhbeg was returning to Kandhár, he was taken prisoner at the hint of the king and thrown into the fort of Zafar. Mehtar Sanbul, a slave of Sháhbeg’s, coming to know of this, determined to set his master at liberty. He came to the town of Zafar and opened a shop of a confectioner near the gate of the fort and began to visit the men in the fort on the pretext of selling sweatmeats. He got an opportunity of seeing Sháhbeg and settling with him the means of his escape. One night he concealed some men in his shop and going to the fort distributed in the usual way some sweatmeats in which he had mixed some intoxicating drug. The result was, that soon all the occupants of the fort fell asleep or remained unconscious. Mehtar Sanbul with two other men scaled the wall of the fort, went in to Sháhbeg and brought him out safely, though in the attempt he lost a tooth by an accidental fall. Sháhbeg and his men took fleet horses that had been posted for them and gallopped hard for some days, and ultimately came to his own territory, safe and sound, though they had been pursued for a short distance.

Since the abrupt and unceremonial departure of Sháhbeg

Sháhbeg leaves Kandhár and goes to Sind.

Báber was contemplating an invasion of Kandhár, but he was detained for some time by the affairs of Badakhshán and Transoxania. After he settled those, he marched against Kandhár. Sháhbeg determined to defend himself in his fort and began to make preparations accordingly. Soon his spies informed him that the enemy was coming with a large force. Sháhbeg prepared to meet him outside, but fortunately Báber fell sick and could not immediately take any active offensive steps. Con­sidering this a favourable opportunity, Sháhbeg sent some presents through some en voys and concluded peace with the king, who returned to Kábul. Sháhbeg now came to Siwí and there laid his plans for his future movements. He was sure that Báber entertained bad feelings towards him and would very probably march against Kandhár again next year, and take it. He therefore, in the beginning of winter, sent about 1,000 men from Siwí to Sind, in order to secure a new sphere of action for himself. This force entered Sind for the first time, on the 17th of Zíkaad 920 A.H. (1514 A.D.) and laid waste the country about the place, securing a large booty, by removing about 1,000 camels working in the water-wheels and in other ways. After remaining there for a week they returned. Next year 921 A.H. (1515 A.D.) sure enough Báber came to Kandhár and laid siege to it. Several battles took place. Famine and plague also broke out, which compelled the combatants to conclude peace and Báber returned to Kábul. In 922 A.H. (1516 A.D.) Báber again invaded Kandhár, but before any fight commenced, it was settled between the envoys of the two princes that from the next year Kandhár would be given up into the hands of the chiefs appointed by Báber. Báber therefore returned to his capital and Sháhbeg went to Shál and repaired the fort of the place, as well as the strongholds of Siwí.

Next year 923 A.H. (1517 A.D.) as already arranged,

Kandhár taken by Báber.

the keys of the fort of Kandhár were given to Báber. The next two years Sháhbeg spent in Shál and Siwì inactively. Then he again made a predatory excursion within the frontiers of Sind. Coming to Sístán, he was confronted by Daryá Khán the adopted son of Jám Nindó (Nizámuddín) the then ruler of Tattá. A fight took place between the Sindís and the Mughuls in which many warriors were killed on both sides. After all the Mughuls went back to their native country and the Sindís came to Tattá. About the close of that year 925 A.H. (1519 A.D.) Jám Nindó died and was succeeded by Jám Feróz as has already been mentioned.