We have spoken elsewhere of the origin of the Sammahs

The Sammah Jáms or rulers of Sind.

and their going to Kachh and gaining a firm footing there. We have also seen how the Súmrahs were driven away from Sind. The field was now clear for the Sam­mahs, the original residents who took possession of the country and raised their headman and chief, Unar, to the throne with the title of Jám as has been mentioned.

It was in 752 A.H. (1351 A.D.) that Jám Unar son of

Jám Unar bin Bábínah.

Bábínah was proclaimed the ruler of Sind. In a very short time Jám Unar was sufficiently strong to attack Sehwán. Malak Ratan, a Turk, was at that time the governor of the place, on behalf of the king of Dehlí. He came out to meet Jám Unar and defeated him in a battle; but the next day Jám Unar returned to fight with redoubled force. He defeated Malak Ratan, who accidentally falling from his horse fell into the hands of his enemy, who cut off his head with a blow. The fort of Sehwán was then soon taken. On returning to his capital Jám Unar began to lead a luxurious life. One day while he was drunk, information was received of some rising at a short distance. The Jám deputed his agent Káhah son of Tamáchí to put down the rebellion. As Káhah himself was in an intoxicated state, he was soon taken prisoner by the mob. Jám Unar was so busy in his profligacies that he had no time to think of his agent’s release. Naturally Káhah was much annoyed at his master’s want of sympathy. He managed to effect an escape, and leaving the side of Jám Unar for good, came to Bakhar and joined Alí Sháh and Malak Feróz Tartars, and bring­ing them to Bahrámpur got Jám Unar killed. Some say that Alí Sháh and Malak Feróz had already started from Bakhar to be avenged on Jám Unar for his taking the fort of Sehwán and killing Malak Ratan. After 3 days, however, the Sammahs killed Káhah and Malak Feróz, Alí Sháh having already gone back to Bakhar. Jám Unar reigned for 3 years and 6 months. He was succeeded by his brother Júnah.

Jám Júnah came to the throne in 755 A.H. (1354 A.D.)

Jám Júnah bin Bábínah.

He soon appointed some of his kins­men to carry on warfare in different quarters of the country, in order to bring the whole of it under his subjection. They crossed the river at Tattá* and began to lay waste the villages at the borders of Bakhar. Twice or thrice engagements took place between the Sammahs and the Tartar forc s of Bakhar. These ended in the defeat of the Tartars, who were obliged to leave Bakhar and go to Uch. On their departure Jám Unar lost no time in taking possession of Bakhar. About this time Sultán Aláuddín, the king of Dehlí, deputed his brother Ulugh Khán to be the ruler of Multán, and the latter sent his generals Malak Tájuddín Káfúrí and Tátár Khán against Sind. But before this invading army arrived in Sind Jám Júnah expired, after a reign of 13 years.

Jám Júnah was succeeded by his nephew Jám Tamáchí.

Jám Tamáchí bin Jám Unar and Jám Khairuddín bin Tamáchí.

Meanwhile the army of Sultán Aláuddín arrived in the vicinity of Bakhar, reconquered that fort and prepared to go to Sehwán. A fight took place between them and the Sammahs, in which the latter were defeated and Jám Tamáchí with his whole family was taken prisoner and carried to Dehlí, where he had to live for many years and where he got many children.

In the absence of their ruler, the Sammahs lived quietly round about Tharrí under Jám Tamáchí’s brother Bábínah son of Jám Unar, as their headman.* After some years, Khairuddín son of Jám Tamáchí, who in his infancy had gone with his father to Dehlí, was after his father’s death permitted to return to Sind and be the chief of his tribe. Accordingly Jám Khairuddín came and took the helm of the government of his father’s country.

In a short time Sultán Muhammad Sháh Taghlak came to Sind viá Gujrát, in pursuit of the rebel Tághí, as has been mentioned above.

Muhammad Sháh wanted to see Jám Khairuddìn, but the latter avoided meeting him, as he had for years remained a prisoner with him. Shortly afterwards, Muham­mad Sháh died in the vicinity of Tattá and was succeeded by Feróz Sháh, who hastened to Dehlí without tarrying in Sind. Jam Khairuddín followed him up to Sann near Sehwán and then returned to his capital and commenced ruling the country quietly and justly. An example of his justice may be given here.

It is said that one day, going with a cavalcade, he hap­pened to pass through a desert, where he saw a heap of human bones. He halted there for a few minutes and remarked to his followers that the bones were appealing to him for a just enquiry into their case. He at once sent for an old man living in a neighbouring village and by making minute enquiries from him and others came to know that some seven years before that a party of travel­lers coming from Gujrát to Sind had been robbed and murdered by a certain band of robbers. He then secured some of the property of which they had been robbed, together with the robbers. He sent the same to the ruler of Gujrát in order that the robbers be punished by him and the property returned to the heirs of the owners.

At his death Jám Khairuddín was succeeded by his son

Jám Bábínah bin Jám Khairuddín.

Bábínah. Soon after this change, Sultán Feróz Sháh invaded Sind after completely subjugating Gujrát and some other parts of Hindustán. Jám Bábínah pre­pared to meet him in an open field. For three months Feróz Sháh carried on this warfare and then being troubled by mosquitoes and floods and strong winds, he returned to Gujrát and other open plains to spend the rainy season there. Then he came back with a stronger force and the fighting again commenced. At last Jám Bábínah was taken prisoner and the whole of Sind fell into Feróz Sháh’s hands. The Sultán returned to Dehlí with the prisoner. There the Jàm remained for some time in the service of the king, and pleased his captor to such a degree that he gave him a dress of honour and sent him back to Sind as a ruler. After a rule of 11 years in all, Jám Bábínah breathed his last.*

Jám Tamáchí was the successor of his brother Jám

Jám Tamáchí bin Jám Khairuddín.

Bábínah. His was a very peaceful reign which lasted for 13 years.*

Jám Saláhuddìn was the successor of his father Jám

Jám Saláhuddín bin Jám Tamáchí.

Tamáchí. He put down revolts in some parts of the country, by sending forces in those directions and punished the ringleaders. Some of these unruly bands fled to Kachh, to which place Jám Saláhuddín pursued them, and in every engagement that took place he defeated them and ultimately subjugated them. After a reign of 11 years* and some months, he departed from this world.*

After Jám Saláhuddín’s death the nobles of the state

Jám Nizámuddín bin Jám Saláhuddín.

put his son Jám Nizámuddín on the throne. His first act of kindness was the release of his cousins* Sikandar, Karn and Baháuddín and Ámar, who had been placed in captivity by the advice of the ministers. He appointed every one of them as an officer to discharge administrative duties in different places, while he himself remained in the capital, superintending the work done by them and other officials in different quarters of the country. Before long, however, his cousins, very ungratefully made a conspiracy among themselves and stealthily coming to the capital attempted to seize him. But Jám Saláhuddín learning their intention in time, left the place at the dead of night with a handful of men and made his escape to Gujrát. In the morning, men were sent after him, but before any information could be brought about him, the people summoned Alísher son of Jám Tamáchí who was living in obscurity, and raised him to the throne. Meanwhile Jám Nizámuddín also died in his flight and his cousins too being disappointed in every thing, lived roving lives.

Jám Alísher was a wise man and a brave soldier. He

Jám Alísher bin Jám Tamáchí.

ruled the country very discreetly and in his time the people were all at ease in their minds. This prince is said to have been very fond of going about on moonlight nights. Tamáchí’s other sons Sikandar and Karn, and Fateh Khán son of Sikandar, who had brought ruin on the last Jám, were now conspiring against Jám Alísher. They were therefore looking for an opportunity to fall upon him while he was out enjoying the moonlight as usual. They spent their time in the forests in the vicinity of the town. One Friday night, on the 13th of the lunar month, they took a band of cut-throats with them, and with naked swords attacked Jám Alísher who had come out in a boat to enjoy the moonlight on the quiet surface of the river and was returning home. They killed him, and red-handed they ran to the city, where the people had no help for it but to place one of them, Karn, on the vacant throne. The reign of Jám Alísher lasted for 7 years.

As might be imagined, the nobles of the state were

Jám Karn bin Jám Tamáchí.

not in favour of this bloody prince. Perceiving this, Jám Karn determined to slay some and capture others. With this object in view he invited a large number of people to an entertainment. Among these came a few persons with the secret object of assassinating him. While Jám Karn was going to his closet these men assaulted him and killed him. This occurred on the first or second day of his accession.

Jám Karn was succeeded by his nephew Jám Fateh

Jám Fateh Khán bin Sikandar.

Khán. He ruled quietly for some time and gave satisfaction to the people in general.

About this time, Mirzá Pír Muhammad one of Amír Taimúr Kúrkán’s* grand sons came to Multán and conquered that town and Uch. As he made a long stay there, most of the horses with him died of a disease and his horsemen were obliged to move about as foot-soldiers. When Amír Taimúr heard of this, he sent 30,000 horses from his own stables to his grand son to enable him to extend his conquests. Mirzá Pír Muhammad, being thus equipped, attacked those of the zamndárs, who had threatened to do him harm and destroyed their household property. He then sent a messenger to Bakhar calling the chief men of the place to come and pay respects to him. But these men fearing his vengeance left the place in a body and went to Jesalmer. Only one solitary person, Sayyed Abulghais, one of the pious Sayyeds of the place, went to visit the Mirzá. He interceded for his town-people in the name of his great grandfather, the Prophet, and the Mirzá accepted his intercession. They say that on a previous night the Prophet Muhammad had appeared to him in a dream and pointing at Sayyed Abul­ghais, who was standing near him, had recommended him to his kindness as his child, and that after 11 days the Sayyed came to visit him in an open darbár, where he recognized him and embracing him seated him by his side. At the time of the Sayyed’s departure Mirzá Pír Muham­mad gave him a horse and some other presents, and granted him the parganah of Alór as a jágír.

Mirzá Pír Muhammad soon went to Dehlí, which place he took and where he was crowned as a king by the nobles of the state. Multán remained in the hands of Langáhs, and Sind in those of the Sammah rulers as before.

In short, Jám Fateh Khán reigned successfully for 15 years and some months, and then left this world.

Three days before his death, while he was lying on

Jám Taghlak bin Sikan­dar.

death-bed, Jám Fateh Khán seated his brother Taghlak on his throne. Jám Taghlak was fond of hunting and he left his brothers to administer the affairs of state at Sehwán and Bakhar. In his reign some Balóch raised the standard of revolt in the outskirts of Bakhar, but Jám Taghlak marched in the direction and punished their ring-leaders and appointed an outpost in each parganah to prevent any future rebellion of the kind. He died after a reign of 28 years.

Jám Sikandar, the late Jám’s son, was a minor when he

Jám Sikandar bin Jám Taghlak.

succeeded his father to the throne. The governors of Sehwán and Bakhar, therefore, shook off their yoke, and prepared to take offensive steps. Jám Sikandar was obliged to march out from Tattá to Bakhar. When he came as far as Nasarpúr, a man by name Mubárak, who during the last Jám’s reign had made himself celebrated for acts of bravery, proclaimed himself king under the name of Jám Mubárak.* But as the people were not in league with him, he was driven away within 3 days and information sent to Jám Sikandar, who made peace with his opponents and hastened to Tattá. After a year and a half, he died.

Jám Sikandar was succeeded by Jám Ráinah. This man

Jám Ráinah. *

lived in the outskirts of Kachh in the reign of Jám Taghlak, having left Sind on the 6th of Jamádi-ul-awwal, 758 A.H. (1356 A.D.). By his kind behaviour he had become a leader of a large number of men in that quarter. When he heard of the death of Jám Sikandar he came to Tattá and informed the people that he had not come for the throne, but to assist his countrymen in the protection of their persons and property; that he did not consider himself worthy of such a high and responsible post, and that he was ready to pay homage to anyone who would be elected by them to be their ruler. But as there was no better claimant to the throne, the people with one voice selected Ráinah to be the Jám of Sind.

Within a year and a half after his accession to the throne, Jám Ráinah completly secured the whole of Sind from the sea-shore to the town of Kájrelí and Kandelí (or Kandí) in the parganah of Máthelah.*

In the ninth year of his reign, one Sanjar, who was one of the king’s chief attachés, treacherously endeavoured to obtain the crown. So he entered into a league with some other courtiers, and on the occasion of an entertain­ment, he mixed poison in a cup of liquor and administered the same to Jám Ráinah, who died after three days from its effect.

On Ráinah’s death, Sanjar became the Jám of Sind.

Jám Sanjar.

He is said to have been a very hand­some person, and on that account was constantly attended by a large number of persons, who took pleasure in remaining in his company. It is believed that before his coming to the throne, a pious fakír had been very fond of him; that one day Sanjar informed him that he had a very strong desire to become the king of Tattá though it should be for not more than 8 days; and that the fakír had given him his blessings, telling him that he would be the king of the place for 8 years.

Jám Sanjar ruled the country very wisely. Under no ruler before this had the people of Sind enjoyed such ease of mind. He was very fond of the company of the learned and the pious. Every Friday he used to distribute charities and had fixed periodical allowances for those who deserved the same. He increased the pay of responsible officers. One Kází Maarúf, who had been appointed by the late rulers to be the Kází of Bakhar, was in the habit of receiving bribes from the plaintiffs as well as from the defendants. When this fact came to the notice of Jám Sanjar, he sent for the Kází and asked him about it. The Kází admitted the whole thing. “Yes” said he “I do demand something from the plaintiffs as well as the defendants, and I am anxious to get something from the witnesses too, but before the case closes, they go away and I am disappointed in that.” Jám Sanjar could not help laughing at this. The Kází continued “I work in the court for the whole day and my wife and children die of hunger at home, because I get very little pay.” Jám Sanjar increased his pay and issued general orders for the increase of every government post of importance. After a successful reign of 8 years Jám Sanjar died in 896 A.H. (1490 A.D.)

On the 25th of Rabí-ul-awwal Jám Nizámuddín was

Jám Nizámuddín (alias Jám Nindó) bin Bábínah.

elected to the throne by the joint counsels of all the wise and pious men of the place as well as of the military people. He was known by the nick-name of Jám Nindó.*

In the beginning of his reign Jám Nizámuddín was very fond of literature and often spent his time in libraries. He was a very obliging man and an industrious person. He was very regular in his prayers and was very religious. In his days mosques were always full at the time of prayers. Shortly after his accession, he went from Tattá to Bakhar, where he spent about a year, during which time he extirpated the freebooters and robbers, who had annoyed the people in that part of the country. He filled the fort of Bakhar with plenty of provisions and then left the place in charge of his house-born slave Dilshád and himself returned to his capital, where he reigned quietly for long long years. In his time the people enjoyed every sort of comfort and rest. Even travellers could travel through different parts of Sind without any one doing harm to their person or property. He contracted friendship with the ruler of Multán and the two often used to correspond with and send presents to each other. He visited his stables regularly every week and passed his hand over the forehead of his horses and said “O lucky beings, I do not wish to ride you in order to fight with others. On all the four sides of us we have Mussalman rulers. May God never give us any cause other than in accordance with the religious law, to go elsewhere, or others to come here, lest innocent blood of Mussalmans be shed and I be ashamed in the august presence of God.”

In the last part of Jám Nindó’s reign, a Mughul army under Sháhbeg came from Kandhár invading the town of Ágrí, Ohándukah, Sindichah and Kót Máchián. Jám Nindó sent a large army* which arriving at the village known by the name of Halúkhar, defeated the Mughuls in a single pitched battle in which Sháhbeg’s brother Abú Muhammad Mirzá was killed and the Mughuls fled back to Kandhár* and never made their appearance again during the reign of Jám Nizámuddín.

Jám Nizámuddín was very fond of the company of learned men, with whom he often took pleasure in discussing literary subjects. A learned man of Shíráz, Jaláluddín Muhammad Duábí had come from Persia to Sind and had sent his two worthy pupils Mír Shamsuddín and Mír Muín to Tattá in order that they should arrange for his sojourn there. Jám Nizámuddín learning the intention of the Persian savânt ordered some good houses to be fitted up for his reception and sent his two pupils with a large sum of money for expenses of the journey, ordering them to bring the learned man. But before their arrival their master had died. Mír Shamsuddín and Mír Muín therefore came back to Tattá and took up their abode at the place. After some time Jám Nizámuddín died after a splendid reign of 48 years*.

Jám Nizámuddín was succeeded by his minor son

Jám Feróz bin J á m Nizámuddín.

Jám Feróz. Owing to his minority, Daryá Khán, whom the late Jám had called his son, came forward as his guardian. In fact it was through the exertions of Daryá Khán and other chief courtiers of the late Jám that Jám Feróz was put on the throne against the attempts of Saláhuddín, a grandson of Jám Sanjar, who was the first claimant to it. Being thus disappointed Saláhuddín went about inciting people to revolt and causing some other mischief. Ultimately he went to Gujrát to live with his son-in-law Sultán Muzaffar.*

Jám Feróz was a young man, and as from the commence­ment the management of the state affairs was in the hands of his guardian he spent his time in his harem and seldom went out. Whenever he went out he gave him­self up to the enjoyment of the songs and dances of dancing girls and the jokes of jesters. In his time the Sammahs and their Kháskhelís (slaves) troubled the ordinary people very much, and if Daryá Khán checked them they spoke ill of him. Daryá Khán was therefore obliged to resign his post and to come to Káhán, which was his Jágír. In that village lived the most learned men of the time, Makhdúm Abdul Azíz Abharí, Maoláuá Asíruddín Abharí and his son Maoláná Muhammad. They had come from Herát in 928 A H. (1521 A.D.) when king Ismáíl was expelled. These savants had since been teaching the ignorant and improving the manners and morals of the people in general. Maoláná Asíruddín was well read in the religious law and had written many books on history and other learned sciences. He had written commentaries on many difficult books. He died also at Káhán where his tomb is still visited by people.

In short, owing to the misbehaviour of Jám Feróz and his disregard of state affairs, the people wrote a letter to Saláhuddín informing him that Jám Feróz was often indifferent to their wishes and wants, that Daryá Khán, who was the best manager of affairs had also left him and gone to Káhán and that it was a good opportunity for him to come. When Saláhuddín got this letter from the people of Tattá, he showed it to Sultán Muzaffar, king of Gujrát, who sent him with a large army to Tattá. He arrived near the place after hurried marches and crossed oyer to the town. Meanwhile the people managed to take Jám Feróz out of the town by another way. Thus Jám Saláhuddín quietly went and occupied the throne. The Kháskhelís captured Jám Feróz and would not release him until they got a large sum of money. His mother then brought Jám Feróz to Daryá Khán at Káhán, where in his presence he repented of his past doings and asked his pardon. Daryá Khán remembered his old privileges and determined to move in the matter. He began to collect an army and soon the people of Bakhar and Sehwán assembled under Jám Feróz’s standard. The tribes of Balóch also turned towards him.

Having thus arrayed his forces Daryá Khán proceeded to meet Jám Saláhuddín. The latter wanted to anticipate his adversary, but his wazír Hájí advised him to remain where he was and to depute him to go and fight with his enemy. Jám Saláhuddín agreed to this proposal. Shortly after this the battle commenced and many a brave soldier was killed on both sides. After all Daryá Khán was defeated and his army fled. Wazír Hají, while still on his horse, wrote a letter to his master informing him of his victory. As it was night, he could not pursue the flying forces of the enemy. The messengers with the letters fell into the hands of Daryá Khán, who instantly prepared other letters of a different nature on behalf of wazír Hají containing the news of the defeat of Saláh­uddín’s army and the advice that as the enemy was strong, he (Saláhuddín) should leave Tattá with his family and children and that he would meet him at the village of Cháchikán.* On receipt of these letters, Jám Saláhuddín left the place and crossed the river on the 9th of Ramazan without waiting to break the fast, which he had observed in that holy month. He was thus finally defeated and deprived of his kingdom. The period of his reign was 8 months. Latterly when the Jám met Hají wazír and the latter reproachingly enquired the reason of his abruptly leaving his capital, Jám Saláhuddín produced the letter he had received and showed it to him. Hají in Surprise denied the fact of having written it. They at once understood that Daryá Khán had played the trick. For this they felt much annoyed but it was too late now and they suffered great remorse.

Daryá Khán pursued them to several stages, and then returning, he brought Jám Feróz to Tattá on the holiday of Ramazán Íd and offered joint prayers at the public prayer-ground. From that time Jám Feróz continued to reign quietly for several years.

Though Jám Feróz reigned undisturbed now, he enter­tained secret fears of Daryá Khán. As a precautionary measure he enlisted in his service Kíbak Arghún and a large number of men belonging to the tribes of Mughuls, who had during his reign, left Sháhbeg Arghún and came to Tattá. Jám Feróz gave them the quarter of the town, called Mughal-Wárah to live in. He secretly flattered himself for his policy in securing the services of intrepid men to check Daryá Khán, but he never for a minute imagined what ruin these very men were destined to bring on him. For, it was through some of these men that Sháhbeg Argún was induced to invade and conquer Sind in 926 A.H. (1519 A.D), which resulted in the displace­ment of the Sammah dynasty of rulers by that of Arghún. The account of this invasion will be given in Chapter VIII.