By advice of Súraj Mal Ját and Salábat Khán Zú-l fikár Jang, the wazír Safdar Jang brought out a young prince and raised him to the royal throne. As soon as news of this reached the city, the Emperor appointed Intizámu-d daula to be wazír, and made Hisám Khán Samsámu-d daula commander of the artillery. From that day open hostilities commenced, and Safdar Jang invested Sháh-Jahánábád. He took the old city and the houses outside the fortifications from the hands of the Játs, and plundered them. * * When the contest had gone on for six months, and numbers of men had been killed on both sides, Mahárája Mádhú Singh Kachhwáha left his country, and approached the capital in the hope of making peace. * * It was settled that Safdar Jang should retain the provinces of Oudh and Alláhábád as before, and peace was made when he received the robe of investiture.

After the retirement of Safdar Jang to his provinces, the new wazír, and Gházíu-d dín ('Imádu-l Mulk) the Amíru-l umará, endeavoured to establish some order in the State. But envy and animosity arose between them, and each one acted according to his own views and interests. Malhár Ráo and Jayapa Mah­ratta now arrived at the head of 60,000 horse, and (Gházíu-d dín) 'Imádu-l Mulk, who was expecting them, resolved to attack and punish Súraj Mal Ját for the part he had taken with Safdar Jang in plundering the environs of Sháh-Jahánábád. Intizámu-d daula, the wazír, desired to accept from Súraj Mal an offering of fifty lacs of rupees as the price of forgiveness, and to apply the money to the pay of the troops. 'Imádu-l Mulk, proud of his victory over Safdar Jang, and urged on by the Mahrattas, marched out, and besieging Súraj Mal in the fort of Kumbher, he took possession of his territory. In the course of three months Khándí Ráo, son of Malhár Ráo, was killed, and it became clear that the fort could not be reduced without heavy guns. 'Imádu-l Mulk then sent Mahmúd Khán, who had been his atálík from childhood, * * to bring up the royal artillery. * *

Intizámu-d daula had conceived the design of bringing the Mahárája, the Ráná, the Ráthor, and the Kachhwáha Rájas, whose territories and people had suffered greatly from the ravages of the Mahrattas, to form a league against these marauders. He also hoped to win Safdar Jang, who had made overtures of recon­ciliation, and with their united forces to drive the Mahrattas out of Hindústán. * * Accordingly he came to an agreement with Mahárája Mádhú Singh, Rám Singh, Safdar Jang, and Súraj Mal Ját, that as soon as the royal camp was pitched at Kol, Safdar Jang should first join him, and then the royal army should march on to Ágra. Being joined at that capital by the Rájas and the Játs, they were to commence their work of settling the country, and of driving out the Mahrattas. Accordingly the Emperor (Ahmad) and the wazír set out for Kol and Sikandra. * * On reaching the neighbourhood of Sikandra, numbers of the royal servants and of the adherents of the amírs in attendance joined the camp. Other men came in from all directions, and suitable artillery was obtained.

When the Emperor marched from Dehlí, 'Ákibat Mahmúd Khán followed. * * He went to Intizámu-d daula, and complained of the grievances he felt from want of appreciation by 'Imádu-l Mulk. Intizámu-d daula showed him great kindness, took him to the Emperor, and introduced him to the royal service. Having got leave to go out on pretence of bringing aid, he went off to the town of Khoraja. Intelligence now reached the royal camp that Malhár Ráo had gone to Dehlí with 50,000 horse, to bring one of the royal princes out of Salímgarh. The receipt of this news greatly alarmed the Emperor. * * Malhár Ráo approached the royal camp, and after consulting with 'Ákibat Mahmúd Khán, opened fire upon it with rockets and muskets. * * The Emperor, without even consulting with his friends, resolved to go off to Dehlí with Sáhiba Zamání, his mother, * * and reached the citadel with his party. * * In the morning Intizámu-d daula found that he had not more than three or four hundred men left, * * and hastened off to Dehlí with the Mahrattas in pursuit. All the artillery and camp equipage fell into their hands, and the Emperor's mother was taken, and her equipage plundered. * * Next day 'Imádu-l Mulk came up to the deserted forces, in which there was neither spirit nor power left. He consoled them, and by kindness won them to his own side. He waited on the Empress mother, to pay his respects, and make his excuses, * * and she proceeded on her way to Dehlí. 'Imádu-l Mulk and Malhár Ráo walked a few paces on foot in attendance upon her. They followed to Dehlí. When Jayapa Mahratta saw that these two chiefs had gone off, and that he alone could not effect the reduction of Kumbher, he raised the siege, and went in the direction of Nárnaul. Súraj Mal was thus relieved.

The Emperor entered the fort, and on the evening of the same day he was joined by Intizámu-d daula, * * who advised that a force should be placed under him to throw up intrenchments round the fortress. * * The Emperor replied: “Gházíu-d dín Khán 'Imádu-l Mulk is an old adherent of our house, and will not think of doing me any harm. After receiving the ex­pression of my wishes, he will not fail to effect the withdrawal of the Mahrattas. The best thing you can do is to go and keep quiet at home for a few days.” * * He accordingly retired. 'Imádu-l Mulk sent a letter to the Emperor, demanding the office of wazír, and a new distribution of offices. * * Next day he came to the presence, and was installed as wazír. * * 'Ákibat Mahmúd Khán recommended that Ahmad Sháh should be de­posed, and another prince raised to the throne in his stead. 'Imádu-l Mulk and the Mahrattas were afraid of his power, and did not see how to act in opposition, so they acquiesced. After that the lawyers were collected, and were consulted as to the de­position of Ahmad Sháh. * * On their approval, Ahmad Sháh was removed from the throne on the 10th Sha'bán, and cast into prison. * * After that they waited upon the royal princes who were in confinement, to select one to ascend the throne. But the princes were afraid, and no one consented. At length, after much trouble, Sultán 'Azízu-d dín, son of Jahándár Sháh, son of Bahádur Sháh, who during his seclusion had devoted himself to theological science, was prevailed upon to accept the crown, with the title of 'Azízu-d dín Muhammad 'Álamgír sání (II.), on the 10th Sha'bán, 1167 A.H.* Gházíu-d dín Khán 'Imádu-l Mulk was made wazír.