THESE letters exhibit the private life and sentiments of this Prince, so they should be allowed a place in his history. The following account is given of them by Elphinstone in his History (p. 673).

“There are three collections of his letters. First, the Kalimát-i Taiyibát, published by one of his chief secretaries, 'Ináyatu-llah; second, the Rakáim-i Kará'im by the son of another secretary; and third, the Dastúru-l'Aml Ágáhí collected from all quarters thirty-eight years after his death. The first two collections pro­fess to be merely the rough drafts or notes which he wrote with his own hand for his secretaries. Most of the third collection have the same appearance. They are without dates or order, and are often obscure, from their brevity, and our ignorance of the subjects alluded to.”

One set was indifferently translated many years ago by Mr. Eales in Calcutta, and a few Extracts have been published in the Asiatic Annual Register, vol. iii.

Instead of three sets of these letters, there appears to be more than four.

The first of them has the following passage in the Preface: “Be it known to all learned men, that this book named Ruka'át-i 'Álamgír, and surnamed Kalimát-i Taiyibát, has been compiled from the epistles written by Muhíu-d dín Muhammad Aurangzeb, King of Hindústán. The expression Muhín púr khiláfat wa Farzand Sa'ádat tawam has been used in this book for the eldest son of the King, Sultán Muhammad Mu'azzam, surnamed Sháh 'Álam. Sometimes the expression Sa'ádat tawam has also been applied to his second son, Sultán Muhammad A'zam Sháh; but the term Farzand-i'Alí Jáh is only used for the eldest. By the term Birádar-i ná-mihrbán is meant the King's elder brother, Dárá Shukoh. The expressions Farzand-záda-i'azíz and Farzand-záda bahádur are respectively intended for Muhammad Mu'izzu-d dín, the eldest son of Sháh 'Álam, and for Muhammad Bedár Bakht Bahádur, the son of Sultán Muhammad A'zam Sháh Muhín-púr. The words Farzand-záda 'azímu-l kadr are used for Muhammad 'Azímu-d dín, the second son of Sháh 'Álam. The expressions Umdatu-l Mulk Madáru-l Muhám and án fidwí are peculiar to Asad Khán, who was honoured with the title of Amíru-l umará after the death of Sháyista Khán. The term Khán Fíroz Jang is the abbreviated title of Ghází'u-d dín Khán Fíroz Jang. Nusrat Jang is the title of Zú-l Fikár Khán. Mirzá Bakhshí is intended for Mirzá Sadru-d dín Muhammad Khán Safawí. Mír-átash for Tarbiyat Khán, and the single word Hamíd for Hamídu-d dín Khán.”

The name of the compiler is not mentioned. This Kalimát-i Taiyibát has been lithographed at Lucknow in 8vo., and contains 67 pages, 17 lines to a page. It is in extensive demand.

The Rakáim-i Karáim is a somewhat smaller collection, and consists of 48 octavo pages of fifteen lines to a page. It com­prises letters written by the Emperor to Mír 'Abdu-l Karím Khán, father of the compiler; and out of compliment to him, the son called the collection by the name of Rakáim-i Karáim. The following is extracted from the Preface: “I Saiyid Ashraf Khán Mír Muhammad Husainí do myself the honour of collect­ing the epistles of the great King 'Álamgír, which were written to my father 'Abdu-l Karím Amír Khán, and of arranging them in the form of a book, which I denominate by the title of Rakáim-i Karáim, as that expression is in a manner connected with the name of the late 'Abdu-l Karím. I much regret the loss of most of the Emperor's epistles, which were either despatched to their several addresses without being copied in my father's office, or were destroyed through the ignorance and carelessness of his attendants. However, those which have remained un­injured are most dear to me.”

The Dastúru-l'Aml Ágáhí appears from the following passage in the Introduction to have been compiled under the orders of Rája Ayá Mal. “The dependents of the King 'Álamgír have collected the celebrated epistles from that monarch to the different princes and nobles, into several pamphlets, without arranging them in the form of a regular book; but at the request of Rája Ayá Mal, one of his learned servants collected the detached pamphlets into one volume in the Hijra year 1156 (1743 A.D.), and denominated the work Dastúru-l'Aml Ágáhí. As the style of these epistles was rather difficult to be understood by every one, since the King was very fond of figurative language, the compiler takes the opportunity of giving in this Preface the real meanings of the peculiar expressions used by the King.” Then follows the explanation given in the Extract from the Kalimát-i Taiyibát.

It appears that another collection had been previously made under the same direction, and that another name is given to that collection. The fourth collection is called Ramz wa Isháraháe 'Álamgír, and bears the name of the compiler, of which in the case of the Dastúru-l 'Aml wa Ágáhí we are left in ignorance. “The correspondence of the Emperor 'Álamgír appears at first sight to consist of ordinary epistles, but in reality they convey the best instruction to kings, and the most useful kind of information to nobles and courtiers. They may be considered harmless friends to all, whether they love retirement or take delight in society. Originally they did not form a regular book, but at the instigation of the celebrated and learned Rája Ayá Mal, Budh Mal, surnamed Rám, collected them and formed a book in the year 1151 A.H. (1738 A.D.).

There is another collection bearing the name of Ádáb-i 'Álamgírí. This is composed of letters written by Aurangzeb to his father, sons, and officers. They were collected by Munshíu-l Mamálik Shaikh Abú-l Fath, and were arranged and formed into a book by Sádik, entitled Ná-tamám, a resident of Ambála. The work is noticed in the Catalogue of the Mackenzie Collection (vol. ii. p. 135). [There are several Extracts of this work among Sir H. M. Elliot's MSS., and there is a copy in the British Museum.]