From day to day the brave assailants carried their attacks closer to the fort on every side, and a great number of them suffered martyrdom, for the fort was very strong, and made a most ex­cellent defence. Orders were given for digging ditches and for constructing sábáts,* and nearly 5000 builders, carpenters, stone­masons, smiths, and sappers were collected from all parts. Sábáts are contrivances peculiar to Hindústán; for the strong forts of that country are replete with guns, muskets, and warlike appa­ratus, and can only be taken by means of sábáts. A sábát is a broad (covered) way, under the shelter of which the assailants approach a fortress secure from the fire of guns and muskets. Two sábáts were accordingly begun. The one which was oppo­site the royal quarters was so broad that two elephants and two horses could easily pass along it, and so high that an elephant-rider could carry his spear. The sábáts were commenced from the middle of the hill, which is a fortress upon a fortress.* The people of the fort had never seen a sábát, and were puzzled, but they endeavoured to stop the work. Seven or eight thousand horsemen and numerous gunners exerted themselves to the utmost in attacking them. And although the sábáts had thick roofs of cow and buffalo hides to protect the workmen, no day passed without a hundred men more or less being killed. The bodies of the slain were used instead of stones and bricks. His Majesty's kindness and justice would not allow any man to be pressed for the work, but heaps of rupees and dáms were scattered as hire, and each man went to work for what he could get. In a short time one sábát reached the walls, and was so high that it overlooked them. On the top of it a seat was constructed for the Emperor, from which he could see at his ease the efforts of his warriors, and from which he could also take a part in the fight if so minded. While the men of the garrison were endeavouring to interrupt the progress of the sábáts, the sappers formed several mines under the walls, and wherever stones were met with, the stonemasons opened a way through with their iron tools. Two bastions in front of the royal battery were com­pletely undermined, and, according to order, both mines were filled with gunpowder. Three or four hundred brave men of the Imperial army were posted ready armed near these bastions, to rush in as soon as the explosion took place, before the defenders could rally to resist them. Both mines were fired, and one which took effect blew the bastion from its foundations into the air, and every stone fell at a distance. A great breach was visible, and the storming party instantly rushed forward shout­ing their war-cry. A strong party of the garrison came forward to oppose them, and while the contest was at the hottest, and a great number of the faithful and of the infidels were struggling upon the other bastion, the mine exploded, and blew friend and foe together into the air, scattering their limbs in all directions.* The quantity of gunpowder used was so enormous that stones of fifty and a hundred mans were hurled to the distance of two and three kos. Many corpses also were found within a radius of two kos. Saiyid Jamálu-d dín and * * * other braves of the Imperial army perished. Vast numbers of the garrison were killed. The vast quantities of dust and smoke prevented all movement in the Imperial army for a time; stones, corpses, and limbs fell from the air, and the eyes of the soldiers were injured. The enemy, concealing their loss, showed a brave front. When the Emperor perceived the state of affairs, he exerted himself more strenuously to take the place. He ordered the sábát in front of Shujá'at Khán's battery to be pushed forward. The garrison was sore distressed, and ready to succumb, but no one had the courage to propose surrender to the Emperor. For he had determined that he would capture by storm this the strongest fortress of Hindústán, so that in future no other fortress should dare to resist the Imperial army. He took his position on the top of the sábát, and his brave soldiers kept up such a discharge from their bows and muskets that no one could escape from the place. His Majesty also had his own musket, deadly as the darts of fate, with which he killed every moving thing that caught his eye. On the 5th Sha'bán, 955, the assault was made by the Emperor's command. The walls had been breached in several places, and the signs of victory were in favour of the assailants. Jaimal, the commandant of the fortress, an infidel yet valiant, all day long struggled bravely in every part, inciting his men to fight and resist. At the time of evening prayer he came in front of the royal battery, where His Majesty, holding his musket, discharged it as often as light blazed out in the bastion. It so often happened that Jaimal was standing in that tower when His Majesty discharged his piece into a lighted place. The ball struck Jaimal in the forehead and killed him on the spot. When the men of the garrison saw their leader fall, they felt that all further resistance was useless; they gave up fighting, and after first burning the body of Jaimal, they per­formed the jauhar at their own homes. Jauhar is the name of a rite among the Hindus. When they know for certain that there is no escape, they collect their wives and children, goods and chattels, heap fire-wood around the pile, and fire it with their own hands. After the burning is accomplished, they rush into the fight, and give themselves over to death. This they esteem a great act of devotion. The great flames of the jauhar and the lull of the conflict on the bastions and walls showed the assailants that the garrison was reduced to extremity, so they began to make their way into the place in parties. Some of the boldest of the infidels, who had no wives and families, stood to their posts resolved to sell their lives. The Emperor witnessed the prowess of his warriors from the top of the sábát. Under his orders three elephants were taken through the breach into the city, and one of them, named Madkar, on that day killed many infidels, and although he received many wounds, never turned tail. The second elephant, named Jagna, was surrounded by infidels, and died of the numerous wounds he received from spears and swords. In the last watch of the night the assailants forced their way into the fortress in several places, and fell to slaughtering and plundering. At early dawn the Emperor went in mounted on an elephant, attended by his nobles and chiefs on foot. The order was given for a general massacre of the infidels as a punishment. The number of fighting men in the fortress exceeded 8000.* Some of them repaired to the idol temple, and there fought to the last. In every street and lane and bázár there was desperate fighting. Every now and then a band of infidels, having thrown away all hope of life, would rush from the temple with swords and shields towards their own homes, and so were the more easily despatched by the warriors they encountered. By mid-day, nearly 2000 had been slain. Under the favour of heaven, Zarb 'Alí Tawáchí was the only person of note in the Imperial army who was killed, which was a very marvellous fact. Those of the fortress who escaped the sword, men and women, were made prisoners, and their property came into the hands of the Musulmáns. The place being cleared of infidels, His Majesty remained there three days, and then departed, leaving the government of the country in the hands of Ásaf Khán.]

Conquest of Rantambhor (966 Rihlat; 976 Hijra=1568 A.D.).

[The Emperor then marched against Rantambhor, and en­camped before the fortress at the end of the month of Sha'bán. The place was held by Ráí Súrjan, who had bought it of Hijjáz Khán, a servant of Salím Khán (Islám Sháh). On several occasions before, rulers of Hindústán had besieged this fort for five or six years, and Súrjan Ráí, confident in its strength, stored it with necessaries and closed its gates, but he had the fact of the fall of Chitor before his eyes. The Emperor reconnoitred the fort, gave directions for the placing of batteries, closed the ways of ingress and egress, and commenced the con­struction of sábáts. Near to the fort is a hill called Ran,* which commands it; but in consequence of the height of the hill and the difficulty of the ascent, no one had as yet been able to get guns up on it. His Majesty now directed that some guns (top) and swivels (zarb-zan) should be placed on the hills, such pieces as 200 pairs of bullocks would have drawn with difficulty on heavy ground. In a few days from ten to fifteen guns, capable of dis­charging stones of fifty, forty, and twenty mans,* were dragged up the hill by the labour of porters. The first shot discharged struck the house of Súrjan Ráí, and made him very apprehen­sive. Every shot destroyed several houses, and the garrison was so frightened that all spirit of resistance disappeared. Súrjan Ráí being helpless, sent his sons Dúdh and Bhoj out to obtain terms. His Majesty, pitying their condition, promised that Súrjan Ráí should be forgiven if he came and waited on the Emperor. Joyfully the two young men returned to their father with the promise of safety. Súrjan Ráí begged that one of the Emperor's amírs should be sent to conduct him to the presence, and Husain Kuli Khán, governor of the Panjáb, was sent into the fort on this duty. On the 3rd Shawwál, Súrjan Ráí came out and waited upon the Emperor. He offered a large tribute, and gave up the keys of the fortress, which were made of gold and silver. He asked for three days' grace for his followers and people to remove their families and property out of the place, which was granted, and at the end of this time the fort with its munitions was surrendered to the royal officers. Thus this strong place was taken in one month, and was placed under the command of Mihtar Khán.]