[Praise of God and the Prophet.]

* The First Chapter contains the history of the reign of Sher Sháh Súr. The Second relates the history of the reign of Islám Sháh, son of Sher Sháh Súr. The Third Chapter concerns the history of the princes who were descended from Sher Sháh, and who, subsequent to Islám Khán, laid claim to the sovereignty, and struck coin and read the khutba in their own names; and who dethroned the son of Islam Sháh.

I, the humble sweeper of the threshold of the dweller in the palace the Second Alexander, the author of the history of the reigns of the Afgháns—'Abbás, son of Shaikh 'Alí Sarwání— write by order of the Emperor Akbar.

Account of the reign of Sher Sháh Súr.

I derive my information from trustworthy Afgháns, skilled in the science of history and in rhetoric, who accompanied the king from the beginning of his fortunes to the end of his reign, and were employed in his confidential service. I have written also what I have well ascertained from others. Whatever was opposed to the information thus acquired, and could not stand the touchstone of truth, I have rejected.

When Sultán Bahlol, of the family of Sáhú-khail, of the tribe of Lodi Afghán, possessed the throne of Dehlí, there were many persons in the various kingdoms of Hind who struck coin, and had the khutba read in their own names, and who were hostile to him.

Sultán Mahmúd bin Sultán Ibráhím Sharkí possessed the throne of Jaunpúr, Sultán Mahmúd Khiljí reigned in Málwá, Sultán Kutbu-d dín in Gujarát, Sultán 'Aláu-d dín Ahmad Sháh in the Dekhin, and Sultán Zainu-l 'ábidín in Kashmír; but the names of the rulers of Bengal* and Tatta are not known to me. The ruler of Multán was Shaikh Yúsuf, the spiritual successor of Shaikh Makhdúm Baháu-d dín Zakariyá Kuraishí. As long as Sultán Bahlol remained within the great city of Dehlí, the capital, no one of these Sultáns placed the foot of presumption in the plain of opposition.