Arslán Sháh, having opened the doors of humility and low­liness, sent his mother, who was the sister of Sultán Sanjar, to him, with 2000 dínárs and many valuable presents, and pro­posed a reconciliation. The Sultán evinced a desire to return, but Bahrám Sháh, not content with what had passed, prevailed over him to such a degree as to persuade him to set out for Ghaznín. When the victorious army was encamped about one parasang from Ghaznín, Arslán Sháh drew up his army in order of battle, for the purpose of opposing the king of Khurá-sán. His forces consisted of 30,000 cavalry, numerous infantry, and 160 elephants. When the brave heroes on both sides had finished contending with sword and spear, through the prosperity of the courage of Abú-l Fazl, ruler of Sístán, the Ghaznivides were defeated. Sultán Sanjar, having entered Ghaznín on the 8th of Shawwál 510 A.H. (1116-7 A.D.), prevented his victorious troops from pillaging and plundering the city. He remained forty days in Ghaznín, appropriated all the treasures of the descendants of Subuktigín,* and gave over the realm to Bahrám Sháh, he himself hoisting his standard for Khurásán.

When Arslán Shah heard that Sanjar had gone away, he led out a numerous army from the confines of Hindustán, and marched towards Ghaznín. Bahrám Sháh, unable to oppose him, hastened to Bámiyán, and implored the aid of Sultán Sanjar, who again turned his reins towards Ghaznín. Arslán Sháh abandoned the capital of his dominion,* and being seized by the troops of Sanjar who went in pursuit of him, was taken before Bahrám Sháh, who having put him to death in the year 512 A.H. (1118-19), became thus fully established in the Sultán-ship. Arslán Sháh reigned for either three or four years. But God knows everything!

Sultán 'Aláu-d daula Bahrám Sháh.

The title of Bahrám Sháh was Yamínu-d daula, according to the belief of Hamdu-lla Mustaufí: but the Rauzatu-s Safá gives it as Mu'izzu-d daula. He was a prince possessed of bravery in war, was a magnificent monarch, and courted the society of learned and literary characters. During his reign he several times carried on war against the infidels of Hind, and subdued many of the forts and cities of that kingdom. In the latter days of his reign, “'Alaú-d dín Husain Ghorí” led an army to Ghaznín, and caused Bahrám Sháh to fly towards Hindustán. 'Aláu-d dín then appointed his own brother, whose name, ac­cording to one account, was Súrí, and according to another Sání, as governor of the city, and himself returned to Ghor. Bahrám Sháh again hastened to Ghaznín, and having defeated the brother of 'Aláu-d dín Husain, he seated him on a cow and paraded him round the city.

When 'Aláu-d dín Husain heard of this, he hastened towards Ghaznín, thirsting for vengeance; but before he could arrive there, the hand of fate folded up the roll of the life of Bahrám Sháh. The Rauzatu-s Safá gives the year 547 A.H. (1152-3), as the date of the death of Bahrám Sháh, but Hamdu-lla Mustaufí fixes that event at 544. According to the first authority, his reign lasted thirty-five years; according to the second, only thirty-two years.*

Among the celebrated learned men and great poets who were contemporary with Sultán Bahrám Sháh, one was Shaikh Sanáí Abú-l Majíd bin Ádamu-l Ghazniví. In the Nafhát, the cause of the repentance of Shaikh Sanáí is thus explained. When Sultán Mahmúd had set out from Ghaznín in the winter season, for the purpose of reducing to obedience some of the country of the infidels, Sanáí, having composed an ode in praise of Mahmúd, set out for his army, for the purpose of presenting his verses to the Sultán. In the middle of his journey, he arrived at the door of a distiller, where a certain darwesh, experienced in misfortunes, was saying to his cup-bearer, “Fill a cup to the blindness of the contemptible Mahmúd Subuktigín.” The cup­bearer replied, “Mahmúd is a king and a Musulmán, who is always engaged in making war upon the infidels.” The unlucky wretch replied, “He is a contemptible man, and never satisfied; he was unable to govern what he already possessed, and still he desires to appropriate another kingdom.” The darwesh drained the cup, and said to the cup-bearer, “Fill another goblet to the blindness of the despicable poet Sanáí.” The cup-bearer replied, “Sanáí is a learned poet, endowed with an elegant genius.” The miserable man answered, “If he were a gainer by his elegant genius, he would employ himself in some business which would be serviceable to him: he has in a certain paper written several frivolous remarks which are of no use to him, neither does he know for what reason God created him.” Sanáí, upon hearing this speech, became a changed man: he awoke from his intoxi­cation of negligence, and employed himself in walking in the path of the Prophet.

From minds which can discern minute objects, the asylum of men of learning and of intelligence, it cannot remain concealed, that this story shows that the fame of Shaikh Sanáí for com­posing poetry existed during the days of Sultán Mahmúd of Ghaznín, although the Hadíkatu-l Hakíkat, which that great man composed in verses which are miracles of counsel, shows that Shaikh Sanáí was contemporary with Sultán Bahrám Sháh, that book being written in the illustrious name of that mighty king. Sultan Mahmúd Ghazniví died in the year 421, and the Hadíkat, as has been ascertained from its pages, was completed in the year 525. From looking at these two dates, in which men of learning all agree, it is evident that this story is very im­probable; but God knows everything! According to the author of the Guzída, Shaikh Sanáí died during the days of Sultán Bahrám Sháh; but according to some learned men, that event took place in the year 525 A.H. (1130-1 A.D.), which was the year in which the Hadíkat was completed.

Among the eloquent men, adorners of discourse, and among poets abounding in eloquence, Nasru-lla bin 'Abdu-l Hamíd bin Abú-l M'álí and Saiyid Hasan Ghazniví were contemporaries with Bahrám Sháh. Nasru-lla wrote the Kalíla and Damna, in the style which is now current among mankind, and dedicated it to this Sultán; and Saiyid Hasan, on the day of Bahrám's accession, composed an ode, the first line of which is as follows:

“A voice came from the seventh Heaven,
That Bahrám Sháh was the king of the world.”

In the Táríkh-i Guzída it is written, that when Saiyid Hasan went on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Muhammad, the best of men (and upon whom let there be peace and benedictions!), he made a translation of a panegyric which had been written in honour of his Holiness, and read the verses before the Prophet's splendid sepulchre. When he arrived at this verse, viz.—

“I have not boasted of being among your descendants,
But have only made a slight encomium, oh, my beloved!
Send me out from thy presence a robe of honour,”

—a hand holding a cloak stretched itself out from the vault, and said, “Take it, O my son.” But God knows everything!

Sultán Khusrú Sháh.

On the death of Bahrám Sháh, his son Khusrú Sháh,* with the consent of all the nobles, succeeded to the throne; but having received repeated information of the approach of 'Aláu-d dín Husain, he fled towards Hindustán. Husain Ghorí entered Ghaznín, and showed not the slightest mercy, murdering the inhabitants, pillaging, burning, and razing to the ground all the buildings.* He then appointed his two nephews Ghiyásu-d dín and Sultán Shahábu-d dín rulers of the country, and returned to Ghor.

According to Hamdu lla Mustaufí and some other historians, these two Sultáns, by means of cunning stratagems, seized Khusrú Sháh, and imprisoned him in a fort, where he died in 555 A.H. (1160 A.D.), and thus was terminated the rule of the Ghaznivides. In the Rauzatu-s Safá, however, it is written, that Khusrú Sháh reigned at Láhor two years after he fled from Ghaznín, and that on his death he was succeeded by his son Khusrú Malik. In the year 583 A.H. (1187-8), Sultán Ghiyásu-d dín obtained a victory at Lahor, and seized Khusrú Malik, whom he sent to Ghaznín and imprisoned.* Soon after this, all the family of the Ghaznivide kings fell into the hands of the Ghoríans, who put them to death, and depressed the standard of the dominion and of the lives of those Sultáns who had been the canons of justice!*