Sultán 'Abdu-r Rashíd.

According to the Rauzatu-s Safá, this 'Abdu-r Rashíd* was the son of Mas'úd bin Sultán Mahmúd; but according to the author of the Guzída, he was the son of Sultán Mahmúd bin Subuktigín, and his patronymic was Abú Mansúr, and his surname Majdu-d daula. 'Abdu-r Rashíd had been confined by the order of Maudúd in a fort which was between Bust and Ghaznín, and 'Abdu-r Razzák, after he had heard of the death of Maudúd, moved to Sístán, and hastened towards that fort, and placed 'Abdu-r Rashíd upon the throne, the officers of the army yield­ing their allegiance. 'Abdu-r Rashíd then moved towards Ghaznín, and 'Alí, without either couching lance or striking a blow with the sword, betook himself to the desert of flight.

When 'Abdu-r Rashíd had fully established his authority in Ghaznín,* he sent Tughril the chamberlain, who was Maudúd's wife's brother, and in whom he had great confidence, with 1000 cavalry, all of them brave soldiers, to Sístán; and Tughril, having overcome Abú-l Fazl and Beghúí Saljúkí, in a short time obtained the entire command of that kingdom; and imbued with the idea of rooting out the shoots of the prosperity of 'Abdu-r Rashíd, he marched towards Ghaznín. When he arrived within five parasangs of the city, 'Abdu-r Rashíd discovered his deceit and treachery, and fled to one of his forts. Tughril entered Ghaznín, sent letters and messengers threatening and intimi­dating the kotwál of the fort, until the garrison, getting dis­trustful, delivered over to him 'Abdu-r Rashíd* and all the descendants of Mahmúd; upon which Tughril, having murdered all the princes, forced against her will the daughter of Mas'úd, the son of Sultán Mahmúd, into the bonds of marriage. It was from this circumstance that he was surnamed Tughril Káfir-i Ní'amat (i.e. the ungrateful).

When Jarjír, who was one of the chief men among the nobles of Ghaznín, and who was then residing in Hindustán, heard of these shameful proceedings, he set his mind on getting rid of such an ungrateful wretch, and forthwith wrote letters to the daughter of Sultán Mas'úd, and to the grandees of Ghaznín, blaming and finding fault with them for conniving at the base actions of Tughril. Instigated by reading these letters, a band of bold men, who hated Tughril in their hearts, advanced one day with the foot of courage to the throne where Tughril was sitting, and cut his body in pieces with the wound-inflicting sword.* After this event, Jarjír having arrived at Ghaznín, took Farrukhzád out of prison,* where he had been incarcerated by Tughril, and made him king. According to the Rauzatu-s Safá, Farrukhzád was the son of Mas'úd bin Sultán Mahmúd; but according to Hamdu-lla Mustaufí, he was the son of 'Abdu-r Rashíd.*

Sultán Jamálu-d daula Farrukhzád.

When Farrukhzád placed the crown of sovereignty on his head, he committed the administration of affairs to Jarjír, and it was about the same time that Dáúd Saljúkí, having obtained intelligence of the change which had happened in the prosperity of the Ghaznivides, hastened towards Ghaznín. Jarjír went out to oppose him with an army, and Dáúd was defeated, after he had fought his best with sword and arrow. The people of Ghaznín seized an immense quantity of plunder. After this, Farrukhzád, with a well-equipped and victorious army, exalted his triumphant standards towards Khurásán; and Kulsárik, having come out on the part of the Saljúkíans to meet him, became, along with many others, the victims of the powerful decree of fate. When Jákar* Beg Saljúkí heard of this, he sent his son Alp Arslán to encounter Farrukhzád. The Saljú-kíans on this occasion were victorious, and took prisoners many of the chief men of Ghaznín; upon seeing which, Farrukhzád clothed Kulsárik in a robe of honour and set him free. This example was followed by the Saljúkíans with regard to their prisoners. Farrukhzád reigned six years, and died of colic in the year 450 H. (1058-9 A.D.)*

Sultán Zahíru-d daula Abú-l Muzaffar Ibráhím.

On the death of Farrukhzád, Sultán Ibráhím* adorned the throne of sovereignty with his beneficent presence. He was a prince of such piety and devotion that he joined together Rajab, Sha'bán and the blessed Ramazán, and fasted three months in the year. He was occupied during the days of his power in spreading the carpet of justice, and in looking after the welfare of his subjects, and he was always exercising his energies in distri­buting charities and doing good works. Sultán Ibráhím entered into a reconciliation with the Saljúkíans, and it was agreed that neither party should entertain designs against the other's kingdom; Sultán Malik Sháh Saljúkí giving his own daughter in marriage to Ibráhíṃ's son, whose name was Mas'úd.

After he had strengthened the foundations of reconciliation and friendship, Sultán Ibráhím several times led his army to make war on Hind,* each time returning victorious to Ghaznín. Sultán Ibráhím died in 492 H. (1098-9 A.D.), according to Binákití and Hamdu-lla Mustaufí, and according to the same account he reigned 42 years;* but other historians say that Ibráhím died in 481 H. (1088-9 A.D.) But God knows all things!

Among the poets who were contemporary with Sultán Ibráhím, the chief were Abú-l Farah and Arzakí. Among the poems composed by Abú-l Farah there is an ode which he wrote in praise of 'Abdu-l Hamíd, the opening lines of which are as follows: “'Abdu-l Hamíd Ahmad 'Abdu-l Samad gave order to wisdom, liberality, and to the dues of justice.” Arzakí was surnamed Afzalu-d dín; he came originally from Hirát, and the book called Alfiya wa Shalfiya* was composed by him. In the Baháristán it is written that the cause of his writing this book was as follows.* This verse upon the qualities of wine was the production of his genius:

“Oh cup-bearer, bring red wine, the thought of which
Makes the mind a tulip bed, and the eye a rose garden.
If at night a fairy should come within your rays,
She would not be concealed from the eyes of men;
More fragrant than amber, deeper coloured than the carnelian,
Brighter than the stars and purer than the soul.”

Sultán Mas'úd III. bin Ibráhím.

His surname, according to Hamdu-lla Mustaufí, was 'Aláu-d daula; but according to the account which is written in the Rauzatu-s Safá, it was Jalálu-d daula.* All historians agree that Mas'úd reigned for sixteen years after his father,* and according to the Táríkh-i Guzída he departed to the world of eternity in the year 508 H.* (1114-15 A.D.), and that same history declares that, after the death of Mas'úd, his son Kamálu-d daula Shírzád ascended the throne.* But, after the lapse of a year, in 509 H., he was murdered by his own brother, Arslán Sháh. Other historians, who have come afterwards, have mentioned Mas'úd without any reference to Arslán Sháh: but God knows everything!

Sultánu-d daula Arslán Sháh bin Mas'úd.

When Arslán Sháh became King of Ghaznín, he appointed 'Abdu-l Hamíd bin Ahmad to the office of prime minister, and having seized his brothers, threw them into prison. One of his brothers,* Bahrám Sháh, managed to flee away and went to his uncle Sanjar, who at that time ruled in Khurásán on the part of his brother Muhammad bin Malik Sháh. Sultán Sanjar hoisted his standard for Ghaznín, in order to help his nephew. On his arrival at Bust, the ruler of Sístán, Abú-l Fazl, joined him with a powerful army. Arslán Sháh sent a numerous and powerful army to give battle to the Sultán, which ended in many of the Ghaznivides being slain by the army of Khurásán, and the rest escaping the sword by running away in a shameful manner to Ghaznín.