[THE author of this work, Yahyá bin Ahmad bin 'Abdu-llah Sirhindí,—or Síhrindí, the older form of the name which he uses,—wrote this work, as Firishta tells us, with the express object of recording the events of the reign of Mubárak Sháh, whose name he has given to the history. The work commences with the reign of Muhammad Sám, the founder of the Ghorí dynasty, and the only copy of the MS. available terminates abruptly in the middle of the reign of Sultán Saiyid Muhammad, in 852 A.H. (A.D. 1448); how much, if any, later the history ex­tended, we have at present no means of deciding. In his Preface the author informs us that he wrote this work in the hope of pre­senting an acceptable tribute to his sovereign, for “no more worthy offering can be made to a king than a record of the achievements of his predecessors.” Up to the time of the accession of Fíroz Sháh, he acknowledges his obligations to “various histories;” from and after that period he wrote upon “trustworthy infor­mation and personal observation.” As to his own position and connexions he is quite silent.

Yahyá has no claims to be ranked as an historian, but he is a careful, and apparently an honest chronicler. His work is the source of all our knowledge of the Saiyid dynasty. Nizámu-d dín Ahmad refers to the Táríkh-i Mubárak-Sháhí as an autho­rity in his Preface to the Tabakát-i Akbarí, and his whole account of the Saiyid period is a mere reproduction of the statements of that work, very often copied verbatim. Badáúní acknowledges his obligations to the work, and follows it very closely, but he uses language of his own, and but rarely copies from his predecessor. Firishta twice refers to this history, and he often borrows its very words. So Yahyá is not only a con­temporaneous writer, but the only original authority available upon the times of the Saiyids.

The MS. in Sir H. M. Elliot's library is a copy that was made for him, and bears no statement as to the original from which it was taken. A note of Sir Henry's in another place seems to show that he received a copy of the work from Madras. The MS. is in a fair handwriting, but it is full of errors, the production of a mere scribe, who brought no special knowledge or intelligence to bear upon his work. It is deficient in a few places, but this is probably owing to the original MS. having here and there lost a leaf. As the work is thus defective and ends abruptly a few years before the extinction of the Saiyid dynasty, the Tabakát-i Akbarí has been called upon to repay a portion of its obligations. The missing pages have been supplied from that work, and from it the translation has also been carried down to the close of the Saiyid rule, completing at once this historical era. The translation is the work of the editor. The MS. is a small octavo consisting of 263 pages of thirteen lines in a page.]

Reign of Sultán Fíroz Sháh.

[In the year 753 H. (1352 A.D.), on the 3rd Jumáda-l awwal, Prince Muhammad Khán was born in the capital (shahr). * * In this same year (the Sultán) founded the masjid-i jámi' near the palace, and the college at the top of the hauz-i kháss; * * and Kiwámu-l Mulk Makbúl, náíb-wazír, became wazír of the State, and received the title of Khán-i Jahán. * *

In the year 755 H. (1354 A.D.), the Sultán marched with an army against Lakhnautí, leaving Khán-i Jahán at the capital in charge of all affairs of State. * * When he reached Kúrakhúr, Adí Singh waited upon him, and offering a tribute of twenty lacs of tankas in cash and two elephants, was received into favour. On the 28th Rabí'u-l awwal, he arrived at the fort of Ikdála, and some hard fighting ensued. The Bengalís were defeated, and many were slain. Saha Deo, their leader, with several others, was killed. On the 29th of the month, the army march­ing from that place, encamped on the banks of the Ganges. Ilyás Hájí was shut up in the fort, and on the 5th Rabí'u-l ákhir, he marched out with his countless Bengalí followers and forces. The Sultán marshalled his army, and as soon as Ilyás Hájí beheld it, he was dismayed and fled. The army (of the Sultán) made the attack; the canopy and forty elephants were captured, and innumerable horsemen and infantry became food for the sword. For two days after the Sultán remained en­camped, and on the third he marched for Dehlí. Some months afterwards he founded the great city Fírozábád.

In the year 756 H. (1355 A.D.), the Sultán proceeded to Díbálpúr, and conducted a stream (júí) from the river Satladar (Sutlej), for a distance of forty kos as far as Jhajjar. In the following year he brought the stream of Fírozábád from the mountains of Mandatí (sic) and Sirmor, and having thrown into it seven distinct streams, he conducted it to Hánsí. From thence he led it to Aráman, and there he built a strong fort, which he called Hisár Fírozah. Below the palace (kúshk), he dug an extensive tank, and filled it with the waters of that canal. He formed another canal from the Khakhar (Khagar), to the fort of Sarsutí, and from thence to Harbí-khir.* There he built a fortified place which he called Fírozábád. He brought another canal from the river Jumna, and threw it into the tank of that city, from whence he carried it on farther.

In the month of Zí-l hijja, on the day of the 'Íd-i azha, in the year before named, a robe of honour and a diploma arrived from the Khalífa al Hákim bi amr-illáh Abú al Fath Abú Bakr Abú al Rabi' Sulaimán, the Khalífa of Egypt, confirming on (the Sultán) the territories of Hindustán. * * *

In the year 759 H. (1358 A.D.) * * * an army of Mughals came into the neighbourhood of Díbálpúr, and Malik Kabúl, Lord of the Bedchamber (sar-burdah-dár), was sent against them. Before his forces the Mughals retreated to their own country. * * At the end of this year, Táju-d dín Betah, with several other amírs, came from Lakhnautí to Court as envoys, bringing with them presents and tribute, and they received a gracious reception.

In the year 760 H. (1359 A.D.), the Sultán marched with a large army against Lakhnautí, leaving Khán-i Jahán in Dehlí and Tátár Khán as Shikkdár at Multán, (to guard) the Ghazní frontier. When the Sultán reached Zafarábád, the rains came on, so he halted there. Here he was waited upon by Malik Shaikh-záda Bustámí, who had left the country by royal command. He brought a robe of honour from the Khalífa,* and the Sultán being graciously disposed towards him, granted him the title of 'Azam Khán. Saiyid Rasúldár, who had come with the envoys from Lakhnautí, was now sent back thither, and Sultán Sikandar again sent him to Court with five elephants and rich presents. But before he arrived, 'Álam Khán came to Court from Lakh-nautí, and he was told (by the Sultán) that Sultán Sikandar was foolish and inexperienced, and had strayed from the path of rectitude. The Sultán at first had no desire to draw the sword against him; but as he had not discharged the duties of obedience, he must now understand that the Sultán was marching against him.

After the rainy season, the Sultán proceeded towards Lakh-nautí, and on the way Prince Fath Khán received the insignia of royalty, such as elephants. A coin was struck in his name,* and tutors were appointed for him. When the Sultán reached Pandwah, Sultán Sikandar shut himself up in Ikdála, where Sultán Shamsu-d dín, his father, had before taken refuge. On the 16th Jumáda-l awwal, 761 (5th May, 1360), the Sultán sat down against Ikdála, and passed some days in besieging it. The garrison perceived that they could not withstand the assailants, so they were compelled to capitulate, and seek for peace by sending elephants, treasure, and goods as tribute. On the 20th Jumáda-l awwal, the Sultán marched from Ikdála on his return, and when he reached Pandwah, Sultán Sikandar sent him thirty-seven elephants and valuable offerings as tribute. By successive marches he reached Jaunpúr, and the rains coming on he rested there. After the rains were over, in the month Zí-l hijja of the same year, he marched with his victorious army by way of Bihár to Jájnagar. Orders were issued that the baggage animals (lashkar-sutúr), women, horses out of condition, and weak men should not proceed.* Malik Kutbu-d dín, brother of Zafar Khán the wazír, was left behind with the elephants and baggage at Karra. The Sultán then marched. When he reached Sikra,* he attacked it, and the Ráí took to flight. There Shakr Khá-tún, daughter of Ráí Sádhan, with Adáyah,* was taken prisoner. The Sultán placed her in the palace of his daughters. When he advanced farther, he left Malik 'Imádu-l Mulk one stage behind with the prisoners and baggage. At this place Ahmad Khán, who had come up from Lakhnautí, joined the Sultán in the hills of Ranthor,* and was received with honour. The Sultán then proceeded to the city of Bánárasí, which was the residence of the Ráí. Having left the Máhánadí, the Ráí had fled to Tilang. The Sultán pursued him for one day's march, but when he found that the Ráí was far in advance, he returned. In this neigh­bourhood he hunted. Ráí Bír Bhándeo* sent some persons to sue for peace, that his people might not be killed. The Sultán, according to his wont, turned aside, and (the Ráí) sent in thirty-three elephants and rich offerings as tribute. From thence the Sultán fell back and hunted in Padmávatí and the elephant fields, where he killed two elephants. Afterwards he marched on to Karra, and from Karra he proceeded to Dehlí, which he reached in Rajab, 762 H. (1361 A.D.), and entered as a conqueror.