One morning, Bandagí Míán Ládan Dánishmand went to the Khán Jahán, and when he asked him what brought him there so early, he answered that he wished to eat khichrí, but that he thought he could not have it prepared in time; he had therefore thought of some rich man in whose house he could find it ready. He remembered the Khán, and immediately came to him. The Khán said that he never ate khichrí, but other things were being made ready; if he liked khichrí, it should be prepared for him. The Míán answered, “The same difficulty exists here: while you are getting it ready, the time for eating it will have passed. The Khán said, “While it is getting ready I will send for some sweetmeats for you from the bázár.” The Míán said, “Very good, but tell the man to bring the money to me. I will direct him what he should bring.” When the money was brought, the Míán said to the man, “Give it to me, and you go and prepare the khichrí.” In short, when it was ready, and the Míán had finished it, he said he had eaten too freely, and it would be very troublesome for him to stand the motion of a litter. The Khán asked, “Why do you go in a litter, have you no horse?” He replied that a horse which goes uneasily is worse than a litter, and that his horse had very unpleasant paces. The Khán said, “I will give you one of my own horses which goes very easily.” The Míán exclaimed, “Why should I not ride if there be such a horse at my disposal!” The Khán ordered his men to bring a certain horse, and it was brought just as it stood in the stable, with only its clothing on it. He ordered it to be made over to the Míán, who said, “In consequence of my belly being so full, I complained of the litter; but now a greater difficulty has arisen, for I never can ride a horse with a naked back.” The Khán smiled, and sent for a saddle, which was brought and put on the horse. The Míán then asked whether he was to keep the animal at his house, or send it back. “Keep it at your house,” replied the Khán. The Míán said there was nobody to take care of it. On this he was told that a servant should be employed on monthly wages for the purpose. The Míán again asked what it ate, and was told that it always ate pulse, coarse sugar, and clarified butter. The Míán said, “Where are such things to be got in this poor man's house?” So these were were also ordered to be given to him. Again he said, “When this saddle becomes old, another will be required, and new clothing will also be needed when the old is worn out.” He was told to take away those articles also. He then said, “It would be very trouble­some to send the horse-keeper every day for its food; it would be a great favour if you were to grant me a village, the income of which will do for all these expenses at once, viz., the wages of the groom and the horse's food, and its saddle, and its clothing, and its green fodder.” This request of his was also complied with, and a village was granted him in the district of Badáún. On his taking leave, he said he had taken his dinner and received a horse and a village, but the litter-carriers who had brought him there had got nothing. On this some money was given to them, and then at last the Míán took his departure. Such was the generosity of Khán Jahán Lodí!

When he died, his son, whose name was Ahmad Khán, neither got the title of Khán Jahán nor his father's rank. Míán Zainu-d dín and Míán Zabaru-d dín were two officers of the deceased Khán Jahán, and his army and parganas were given over to their charge. A royal farmán was also sent at the same time to the address of Zainu-d dín, informing him that these privileges were granted by His Majesty of his own free motion, and not in consequence of Zainu-d dín's connexion with Khán Jahán Lodí. From that time Zainu-d dín took the muster of the army, and had charge of the parganas. The jágír of the archers was maintained, to be enjoyed by them. To Ahmad Khán, son of Khán Jahán, a tract was granted from the district of Kaithal, in the name of his mother, besides an annual allowance of one lac of tankas for the purchase of horses, one lac of tankas for his clothing, and another lac for betel-leaves and other miscellaneous expenses. * * *

Míán Zainu-d dín.

I shall now mention some of the moral qualities of Míán Zainu-d dín, in order to show that the officers of those days were so excellent that even divines of the present age are not equal to them. He rose so early that he bathed and read all his prayers and performed all his religious duties before sun-rise. In the daytime, he read the ten divisions of the Kur'an, standing all the time on his legs. He went over seventeen divisions of that book every day, and never sat down while he was performing this duty. He also read one of the takmílas of Ghausu-s Saklain, and the whole of Husn-i Hasín, besides other miscellaneous prayers, and went through five hundred different postures of devotion, all standing. From midnight till noonday he was always employed in worship. During this time he never spoke on worldly subjects; if there was anything necessary to be done, he directed his servant to do it by signs. While he was taking his meals he discoursed on scientific subjects. He dined always with learned and religious men, and took a little rest after his dinner. In the afternoon he used to speak on secular subjects, and give directions respecting household business, and other matters which it might be necessary for him to speak of. After this, he again attended his prayers, and performed other religious duties. He then read the evening prayers, repeating them much oftener than is enjoined by his religion. He did not obtain leisure from these religious performances till four hours and a half of the night had passed; and then he sat a little with his friends, and took as a supper some fruit or rice boiled in milk. Having done this he retired to his chamber. None of his servants of either sex neglected to read their prayers. Whenever he brought any slave from the market, he first placed him under the care of a tutor, in order that he might learn his prayers and become acquainted with the precepts of the Muhammadan law, till which time he gave him no employment. On Friday nights, from the time of evening prayer, if there was any Hindu in his assembly, he turned him out, and would not even look on the face of a Hindu during that night. One day three persons came from the Sultán to call him, but he would not go; and it was reported to His Majesty that although three men had been sent for Míán Zainu-d dín, yet he had not chosen to come. The Sultán replied that it was Friday night, and he will not come; he may be called after he has done with his prayers. He kept fast on Thursdays and Fridays, besides the common fasting days. He never neglected these duties in any season—summer or winter. He always attended public prayers on Fridays, even if he was ten kos off. His kitchen was so large that food was given to every one three times a day, whether he belonged to his own people or was a stranger, and from whatsoever place he came. In the month of Ramazán, rice boiled in milk was given to every applicant in the evening, when they broke fast, and also early in the morning. Whatever any person wanted to eat was given to him.

Every year he called all his relations, male and female, from Dehlí to Ágra, to see them. On their departure he asked them all what they wished to have, and gave them what they asked. Whenever, by way of charity, he paid the expenses of a marriage ceremony, whether the bridegroom was his relation, neighbour, or a stranger, he gave the bride money, clothes, a bed with its appurtenances, and also a pálkí if she were of sufficient rank. In short, he did all that is required of a father. If any guests came into the house of those who lived on his estate, he sent all kinds of food for them from his own kitchen in such quantity that not only was it sufficient for them, but for their servants also. During the anniversary days of the Prophet's death (may peace be to him!) food of the value of two thousand tankas was daily prepared during the twelve days. On the first and last day of the festival, victuals of all kinds, and of good flavour, and halwá were prepared in large quantities, at the expense of four thousand tankas. It should be considered what would now be the value of four thousand tankas of those days. At last, when Sultán Sikandar died, he lost his Government. Ahmad Khán, son of Khán Jahán Saiyid, and he both continued without any employ­ment; and they had saved no money to live on. Still many people continued faithfully to serve him, and he also continued benevolent to all, according to the extent of his means; but he was often in want of money to meet his expenses.*