The author of this work, Shaikh Rizku-lla Mushtákí, was born in 897 H., and died in 989 H., (1492-1581 A.D.).* In the body of the work he names his father Shaikh Sa'du-lla. He speaks of himself in his preface as having associated from early youth with the most learned men of his age, and having greatly benefited by their colloquies. From them he used to hear several extraordinary relations of bygone times, which, together with what he had derived from the exercise of his own powers of observation, he used to recount for the instruction and edification of his friends. They were so much struck with the marvels he related, and the value of his communications, that they would bring him pen and ink, and beseech him to record in a more permanent form the result of his researches; and at last, upon a particular friend of his suggesting that the author should compile an historical work for the advantage of those who were partial to such inquiries, he undertook the task, and we have the result in the Wáki'át-i Mushtákí.

He is spoken of in terms of high commendation by Shaikh 'Abdu-l Hakk and Shaikh Núru-l Hakk in the Táríkh-i Hakkí and the Zubdatu-t Tawáríkh. He is styled uncle by both these writers;* but as 'Abdu-l Hakk was the father of Núru-l Hakk, he must necessarily stand in a remoter relation to one of them. He is represented as a great traveller, as having mixed with many celebrated men, as an eloquent and learned man, consistent and pure in his conduct, much devoted to spiritual exercises, and especially in the doctrines and practices of Súfi-ism, fully acquainted with the history of politics of his time, and his conversation as very engaging and replete with wit, repartee, and anecdote. In his Persian compositions he styled himself Mushták, in his Hindúí Rájan. He possessed the rare accomplishment at that time of considerable knowledge of the Hindúí language. He quotes several distichs in the course of his history, and “his Paimában Job Niranjan and other treatises in Hindí* are celebrated throughout the world.” He had eight brothers, all possessed of rare qualifications; and as far as his grand­nephew can be understood, it would appear that their contem­poraries were unanimous in ascribing to them the merit of having effected a considerable improvement in the popular language of the country. The family appears to have had a bias towards historical composition; for, independently of the two works noticed above, our author's grandfather, by name Shaikh Fíroz, who is said to have excelled equally with his pen and sword, wrote an heroic poem upon the war between Sultán Bahlol and Sultán Husain Sharkí. 'Abdu-l Hakk mentions that he had it in his possession, but had lost it, leading us to infer that it was very scarce. Shaikh Fíroz died in 860 H. (1456 A.D.).* He appears to be entitled to a portion of the saint­ship which attaches to the name of his grandson, for he was much devoted to spiritual exercises, indulged in visions and ecstasies, and was especially learned in the doctrines and practices of Súfi-ism. His religious preceptor was Shaikh Muhammad Miskín, who resided at Kanauj, and was much revered by his credulous disciples. It is related of him that when his house was destroyed by fire, a store of rice was burnt along with his other goods. “It matters not,” said he, “the harvest of us who are scorched (with fire as well as the light divine) will not all be destroyed,” and threw the grain upon the ground, when lo! every seed of the grain, when they came to reap it, was found to be double. When this marvellous produce was brought before Sultán Sikandar, he devoutly thanked God that such men were produced in his time.*