When the news of this calamity reached his son at Chunár, the Afghán nobles unanimously seated him on the Masnad. He assumed the title of Sher Sháh, and all the sipáhís and nobles renewed their oaths of allegiance. They represented that if they were now to go out and demand vengeance for the death of 'Adalí, the Mughals would spread over Hindustán, and subjugate the whole country. They should first of all conquer Jaunpúr, and having repulsed the Mughal armies from that quarter, after that, please God! they would inflict condign punishment upon Sultán Bahádur. With this intent, having first read the fátiha, the son of 'Adalí set forth, with 20,000 cavalry, 50,000 infantry, and 500 elephants, to capture Jaunpúr. At that time Khán Zamán held the government of that place under Akbar Bádsháh, and conceiving himself quite unable to cope in the open field with so large a force, he collected all the means necessary for defensive operations, and suffered himself to be invested without opposition. The Afgháns, seeing the distress of the Mughals, crossed the river Sye, on which Jaunpúr is built, in full force. Hasan Khán Bachgotí and Rukn Khán Lohání leading the advance, made an immediate attack upon Khán Zamán; who, putting his trust solely on Him who could defend him in the hour of need, sallied from the fort, with 4000 cavalry, and fell upon the Afgháns. Fortune had so far entirely deserted the latter, that their splendid army of 20,000 cavalry and 50,000 infantry fled before the 4000 Mughals in such a crippled state that not a vestige of them remained. Immense booty fell into the hands of Khán Zamán. The son of 'Adalí adopted the life of a recluse after this signal calamity, and no one knew anything further about him.

The tribe of Afgháns was dispersed—some became fakírs, and some attached themselves to Míán Sulaimán Kirání. The Míán styled himself Hazrat 'Álí, and brought the greater portion of Bengal under his sway. Kings and other chiefs sent offerings to him, and Akbar Bádsháh offered no opposition to his claims. On the death of Sulaimán, his eldest son Báyazíd succeeded his father. This prince, being of a haughty disposition, not only neglected to imitate his father in his kindly method of treating his self-sufficient Afgháns, but did his best to distress and humiliate them. He showed a desire of getting rid of his father's courtiers. On this account, several of the nobles joined themselves with the son-in-law and nephew of Hazrat 'Álí, the latter of whom, by name Hasú, was of weak intellect, and put Míán Báyazíd to death. Míán Lodí, a grandee of Míán Sulaimán, who held the chief authority in the State, gained over the Afgháns, and raised Dáúd, the youngest son of Hazrat 'Álí, to the throne, with the title of Dáúd. Dáúd Sháh, having opened the door of enjoyment, indulged in intoxicating drinks, and thus sowed the seeds of dissension. He would often repeat this verse:

“If my father is dead, I am the guardian of the world!
I am the inheritor of the crown of Sulaimán.

He then proceeded to attack Jaunpúr with his Afgháns, and despatched Lodí before him with an innumerable force. Lodí first attacked Zamánia, which had been built by Khán Zamán. It was reduced to a desert, and no signs of cultivation remained. Mun'im Khán quitted Jaunpúr, and when he saw that the Afghán army was large, and the Mughals few in number, he opened, by way of augury, the Díwán of Khwája Háfiz, who is called the Lisánu-l Ghaib, or “tongue of the inscrutable,” and found this verse:

“O King, amongst the beautiful, render justice to the grief of
my loneliness,
My heart is sorely distressed through your absence, it is time
that you should return.”

Mun'im Khán* sent this couplet, together with an account of what had occurred, to King Akbar, who despatched an immense army to Mun'im Khán's assistance, and also followed it in person. Dáúd Sháh arrived in Mungír from Bengal, and there he allowed unjustifiable suspicions to enter his head. Many persons en­deavoured to impress on him that Lodí would certainly try to make Táj, the nephew of Hazrat 'Álí, king, because Lodí had been long attached to that family, and had, moreover, betrothed his own daughter to him. Dáúd Sháh caused his own cousin Yúsuf to be slain at Mungír, and became very suspicious of Lodí.

When Lodí perceived the evil disposition of Dáúd, he made peace with Mun'im Khán, and expressed a wish to be taken to King Akbar. Jalál Khán Sádhaurí, and Rájú, surnamed the “Black Mountain,” deserted Lodí, presented themselves before Dáúd, and related what had happened. Dáúd Sháh then opened his father's treasury to the army, and, by the advice of Gújar Khán, addressed a farmán to Lodí, in which he said, “You are in the place of my father Míán Sulaimán. All my power depends on your wisdom and valour. My army, treasury, and artillery are all at your command. Endeavour by all the means in your power to put this race of Mughals to shame.” When Lodí learned the contents of this farmán, his heart was moved by the soft and flattering words of Dáúd, and he again joined his party. Thus deceived Lodí left the Mughals, and allied himself to Dáúd, who being a young and hasty man, possessed of but little sense, desired to kill him, and thought that his doing so would be beneficial to the State. After a short time, Dáúd wrote to Lodí, and told him that he required his presence imme­diately, as he wished to consult him on some important business, and that he must come quickly, accompanied only by his two vakíls. On receiving this letter, Lodí said to his friends, “I perceive an odour in this summons which portends no good to me.” Having said this, he went to Dáúd, who at first treated him with great respect, but afterwards determined to imprison him, which he effected by treachery. * * * Dáúd Sháh thoughtlessly listened to the advice of Katlú, who recommended the death of Lodí, and causing that pillar of the State to be put to death, he thus destroyed his empire with his own hands.

A still greater dispersion of the Afgháns took place after the murder of Lodí, and Mun'im Khán took advantage of the opportunity to advance against the Súba of Bihár. Sháh Akbar proceeded from Ágra to Patna, the inhabitants of which place he put to the sword. Sháh Dáúd remained a few days in the fort of Patna. At last Katlú gave him some narcotic draught,* put him into a boat, and then escaped with him on the river Ganges. At this period Akbar captured many elephants. Many Afgháns, who were with Gújar Khán, were drowned in the Panpan river, about two kos from Patna. Akbar pursued Dáúd as far as Daryápúr, and returned from thence, having first laid the foundation of a mosque in that place; whilst Mun'im Khán, accompanied by the best officers, continued the pursuit of Dáúd. Several encounters took place between Sháh Dáúd and Mun'im Khán. My heart urges me to give a detailed relation of these events, but I must be brief. At last Dáúd and Mun'im Khán made peace, and met at Mun'im Khán's tents, confirming the truce by the grasping of hands.

The changeful climate of Bengal caused the plague to break out in the Mughal army which remained at Gaur; many distinguished officers gave up their lives into the hands of the angel of death. Mun'im Khán also died of that epidemic.* Sháh Dáúd again issued forth after the death of Mun'im Khán, in whose place Khán Jahán Khán was appointed governor. War again broke out between these two chiefs; and on the 15th day of the month Rabí'u-s sání, in the year of the Hijra 988,* the army of the Mughals being firmly determined either to slay Dáúd or fall themselves, met him in the battle-field; where, after many valiant rencontres, the Kálá Pahár, or “Black Mountain,” who led the advanced guard of the Afgháns, was repulsed and slain. The Afgháns were then put to flight.* Dáúd Sháh Kirání was brought in a prisoner, his horse having fallen with him. Khán Jahán, seeing Dáúd in this condition, asked him if he called himself a Musulmán, and why he had broken the oaths which he had taken on the Kur'án and before God. Dáúd answered that he had made the peace with Mun'im Khán personally; and that if he had now gained the victory, he would have been ready to renew it. Khán Jahán ordered them to relieve his body from the weight of his head, which he sent to Akbar the King.*

The date of this transaction may be learnt from this verse.— Mulk i Sulaimán zi Dáúd raft (983 H., 1575 A.D.).

From that period the dominion of Hindustán departed from the tribe of Afgháns, and their dynasty was extinguished for ever. In lieu of which arose the star of Akbar Sháh's supremacy over the whole country.