At the present time the imperial army consists of 475,000 Muhammadan disciplined holy warriors, whose names are re­corded by the imperial muster-master, and whose pay and rations are entered in the regulations of the deputy-victualler. They are most obedient to the orders they receive, and are prepared to sacrifice their lives for the especial sake of their religion. Four hundred war elephants * * * are kept in the royal stables, and forty swift camels * * * are employed to convey daily reports, with the greatest expedition, from and to the distant provinces of the empire. * * *

Invasion of Ma'bar.

In the month of Rajab of the year 710 H. (1310 A.D.) the ap­pointed leaders, accompanied by a select army, were dispatched to conquer Ma'bar, and some of the towns were obtained through the animosity which has lately arisen between the two brothers; when at last a large army, attended by numerous elephants of war, was sent out to oppose the Muhammadans. Malik Nabú, who thought himself a very Saturn, was obliged to retreat, and bring back his army.

Uljáítú Sultán sends an Embassy to 'Aláu-d dín.

About that period the king of the world, Úljáítú* Sultán,— May his empire last for ever!—sent two ambassadors, named Khálúya and Muhammad Sháh, to the court of Dehli, with a royal mandate to the following purport, that as the rulers of that quarter, both in the reign of the Emperor Changíz Khán, the conqueror of the world, and the most generous Úktáí Khán, had tendered their friendship and homage, and, through the language of the ambassadors, had occasionally offered their sentiments of goodwill, it is, therefore, strange that, since the imperial throne has been adorned by our auspicious accession, and the sun of the kingdom of Islám has shed its light over the world, Sultán 'Aláu-d dín has never opened the road of ancient friendship by means of an ambassador to our regal court, nor sent a message conveying tidings of himself or congratulations to us; it is, therefore, expected that he will henceforth be willing to apply him­self to strengthen the foundations of regard and free intercourse. In connection with this embassy it was also intimated that the Emperor asked in marriage one of the Princesses from behind the veil of the kingdom of Dehli.*

Sultán 'Aláu-d dín, notwithstanding all his bravery and con­quests, and abundant treasures and obedient armies, combining in himself all personal accomplishments and worldly advantages, was a tyrant, and never used to hesitate at slaughter, burning, restricting the privileges of the army, or reducing the allowances of his servants, and was quite overcome by his disposition to­wards temerity and oppression. As a proof of this he ordered the ambassadors to be imprisoned, and several* of their attendants to be trodden under the feet of elephants, and thus he submerged the jewel of his good fame; for to bring trouble on an ambassador is, under every system of religious faith, altogether opposed to the principles of law, social observance, and common sense. With respect to law, an ambassador receives his credentials without even the suspicion of criminality; with respect to social observance, the oppressor and the oppressed, friend and foe, peace and war, are all equally in need of embassies and communications: with respect to common sense, it is abundantly evident that the killing of one man, or even ten, entails no infirmity or injury on a kingdom. Inasmuch, therefore, as 'Aláu-d dín, free to do as he chose, was guilty of a deed from which danger might have resulted, and without any cause exhibited his enmity, he must be considered to have acted contrary to what a peaceful policy and sound prudence dictated.

Continuation of the history of the Kings of Ma'bar.

Kales Dewar, the ruler of Ma'bar, enjoyed a highly prosperous life, extending to forty and odd years, during which time neither any foreign enemy entered his country, nor any severe malady confined him to bed. His coffers were replete with wealth, inas­much that in the treasury of the city of Mardí there were 1,200 crores of gold deposited, every crore being equal to a thousand* laks, and every lak to one hundred thousand dínárs. Besides this there was an accumulation of precious stones, such as pearls, rubies, turquoises, and emeralds,—more than is in the power of language to express. (Here follows a long string of reflections upon the instability of worldly wealth and grandeur.)

This fortunate and happy sovereign had two sons, the elder named Sundar Pandí, who was legitimate, his mother being joined to the Dewar by lawful marriage, and the younger named Tíra Pandí, was illegitimate, his mother being one of the mis­tresses who continually attended the king in his banquet of pleasure; for it was customary with the rulers of that country that, when the daily affairs of the administration were over, and the crowds that attended the court had gone to their respective homes, a thousand beautiful courtezans used to attend the king in his pleasure. They used to perform the several duties pre­scribed to each of them; some were appointed as chamberlains, some as interpreters, some as cup-bearers, and day and night both the sexes kept promiscuous intercourse together; and it was usual for the king to invite to his bed that girl upon whom the lot should happen to fall. I have mentioned this in illustration of their customs.

As Tíra Pandí was remarkable for his shrewdness and intre­pidity, the ruler nominated him as his successor. His brother Sundar Pandí, being enraged at this supercession, killed his father, in a moment of rashness and undutifulness, towards the close of the year 709 H. (1310 A.D.), and placed the crown on his head in the city of Márdí.* He induced the troops who were there to support his interests, and conveyed some of the roval treasures which were deposited there to the city of Mankúl,* and he him­self accompanied, marching on, attended in royal pomp, with the elephants, horses, and treasures. Upon this his brother Tíra Pandí, being resolved on avenging his father's blood, followed to give him battle, and on the margin of a lake which, in their language, they call Taláchí, the opponents came to action. Both the brothers, each ignorant of the fate of the other, fled away; but Tíra Pandí being unfortunate (tíra bakht), and having been wounded, fell into the hands of the enemy, and seven elephant-loads of gold also fell to the lot of the army of Sundar Pandí.

It is a saying of philosophers, that ingratitude will, sooner or later, meet its punishment, and this was proved in the sequel, for Manár Barmúl, the son of the daughter of Kales Dewar, who espoused the cause of Tíra Pandí, being at that time at Karám-hattí, near Kálúl,* sent him assistance, both in men and money, which was attended with a most fortunate result. Sundar Pandí had taken possession of the kingdom, and the army and the treasure were his own; but, as in every religion and faith, evil deeds produce a life of insecurity, a matter which it is unneces­sary to expatiate upon, he, notwithstanding all his treasures and the goodwill of the army, was far from being happy and prosperous, entertaining crude notions, and never awaking from his dream of pride, and at last he met with the chastisement due to his ingratitude, for in the middle of the year 710 (1310 A.D.) Tíra Pandí, having collected an army, advanced to oppose him, and Sundar Pandí, trembling and alarmed, fled from his native country, and took refuge under the protection of 'Aláu-d dín, of Dehli, and Tíra Pandí became firmly established in his hereditary kingdom.

While I was engaged in writing this passage, one of my friends said to me: “The kings of Hind are celebrated for their pene­tration and wisdom; why then did Kales Dewar, during his life­time, nominate his younger and illegitimate son as his successor; to the rejection of the elder, who was of pure blood, by which he introduced distraction into a kingdom which had been adorned like a bride.”