[Sir H. ELLIOT in his introductory remarks on Al Bírúní's geographical chapter, observed that before the time of that writer “the whole of Upper India was a perfect terra incognita, and the Arabians knew much less of it than Pliny and Ptolemy.” The geographical extracts at the beginning of this volume, fully prove the justice of this observation. Multán, Mansúra, Alor, and other places of note in the valley of the Indus, were visited by their early travellers, and the ports upon the coast, especially those about the Gulf of Cambay, were also known from the reports of their mariners. All beyond this was vague, and evidently drawn from hearsay inform­ation. Their scanty knowledge is farther shown by the identity of much that was written on the subject. Sulaimán and Ma'súdi drew their information from the same or very similar sources; and a great part of Istakhrí's and Ibn Haukal's description is verbatim the same, so that there can be no doubt that one copied from the other. In Bírúní we have ample evidence of a much wider knowledge, not always accurate, not always intelligible at the present time, but still showing that he had acquired, either by personal travel or by dili­gent investigation, a fair general knowledge of the topography of Hindustan, and even of parts beyond.* Idrísí gives a full compila­tion from the works of his predecessors, with some additional matter from sources now lost to us, but he does not appear to have used the writings of Bírúní, and his work is blemished by many false spellings.]

[Sir H. Elliot endeavoured to identify and fix the position of several of the most important and interesting of the places men­tioned by the early geographers and historians, and some additions have since been made, chiefly from sources unpublished at the time when his original volume appeared. The following is an index of the notes:—

The Balhará 354 Rahmá, Ruhmi 361
Juzr or Jurz 358 Kashbín 361
Táfan 360
Agham—The Lohánas 362 Kajuráha 383
Alor 363 Kállarí, Annarí, and Ballarí 384
Amhal, Fámhal, etc. 363 Kandábel, Tárán, Budha, Baizá 385
Armabel 364 Kannazbúr 389
Askalanda 365 Mandal, Kíraj 390
Bániya, Bátiya 367 Manjábari 391
Bhambúr 368 Minnagara 392
Bráhmanábád, Mansúra, Mahfúza 369 Narána 393
Nírún, Sakúra, Jarak 396
Debal, Karáchí, Thatta, and Láhorí-bandar 374 Sadusán 401
Hala-kandi, the Hellenes, Pindus 379 Sámúí, Tughlikábád, Kalá-kot 401
Jandrúd 380 Sindán, Subára, Saimúr 402
Kaikánán, Kaikán, Kákars 381 Túr, Muhatampur, Dirak, etc. 403