THIS is the most copious history of Sind which we possess, inasmuch, as besides containing an account of the Arabian con­quest, it brings the annals of this country down to the time of its incorporation into the Moghul empire in the time of Akbar.

The work, which is sometimes called Táríkh-i M'asúmí, is divided into four chapters.

The first chapter contains an account of the events which led to the conquest of Sind by the Arabs, and closes with the death of Rájá Dáhir, though it professes to carry the history down to the Khalífa Hárún.

The second chapter, after omitting all notice of the two centuries which elapsed between Hárún and Mahmúd of Ghazní, gives an account of Sind under the Emperors of Dehli, and of the Súmra and Samma dynasties, after the invasion of Tímúr. The author mentions at the close of the chapter that he was in­duced to give an account of the Súmras and Sammas in detail, because it was to be found nowhere else. But his own is much confused from his inattention to dates.

The third chapter is devoted to the history of the Arghúnia dynasty, including an account of Síwí, Kandahár, &c.; of some celebrated holy men, judges, and Saiyids, and of the kings of Multán. It also contains an account, in more than usual detail, of the Emperor Humáyún's operations in Sind and the desert, after his flight from Ágra.

The fourth chapter contains a tedious relation of the mode in which Sind fell under the power of Akbar upon the capitulation of Mírzá Jání Beg of Thatta, in A.D. 1592. We have also oc­casional notices of the interference of the Firingís in the affairs of Thatta. As the author was contemporary with this event, he enters into very minute particulars, which are, however, for the most part, uninteresting. Amongst his own personal ex­periences, he describes an interview he had with the Emperor Akbar, who bestowed on him three villages in Jágír, in the district of Bhakkar.

Muhammad M'asúm, who gave himself the poetical title of Námí, was born at Bhakkar, in Sind, and was the son of Safáyí Husainí, an inhabitant of Kirmán. [He was a man of consider­able attainments, and he rose to some distinction in the service of Akbar and Jahángír. His knowledge of history was highly esteemed in his own day. He was also a poet of some repute, and an excellent caligraphist.*] His history of Sind was written in A.D. 1600, for the instruction and improvement of his son, named Mír Buzurg, in order that, “by reading it he might learn what good men of old did; that he might discriminate between right and wrong; between that which is useful and the reverse, and might learn to follow the paths of virtuous men.”

The only work quoted by him as an authority is the Chach-náma, which he abridges in his first chapter, relating to the Arab conquest of Sind. He is credulous and delights in recount­ing miracles of saints, but he gives no legendary lore like the Tuhfatu-l Kirám. Mír M'asúm and his work have been noticed by several writers: by Badáúní (under article “Námí”) by Haidar Rází, the Ma-ásíru-l Umrá, the Tuhfatu-l Kírám, Bágh-Mání and Mirát-i Daulat 'Abbási.*

[Copies of this history are common.* There are two in the British Museum, one of which was transcribed from a copy made from the author's own autograph. There is another in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society, which has been fully described by Morley in his Catalogue; a fourth in the Library of the East India Office, and there is a copy in Sir H. Elliot's Library which was written for him in 1852. This copy and that of the R. As. Soc. have been used for the following translations, and are referred to as MSS. A. and B.]

[At the end of Sir H. Elliot's copy, there is a brief history of Sind in “three distinct chapters.” It is written in the same hand and bears the same date as the rest of the MS. Though occupying only nineteen pages, it gives a summary of the history of Sind, to the end of the last century—from Ráí Síharas, down to Ahmad Sháh Dúrání. The author's name is not given, but the contents are generally in accordance with the history of M'asúm.]

This work has been translated by Capt. G. Malet, late British Resident at Khairpúr, but so literally, as not to be fit for pub­lication in its present shape. [There is a copy of this trans­lation in Sir H. Elliot's library, which, on examination, is found to contain matter that is entirely absent from all the five MSS. above specified. One long passage quoted hereafter, relates to the Súmra dynasty, the history of which is involved in considerable obscurity. The additional names it supplies, receive some support from the “Tuhfatu-l Kirám,” but nothing corroborative has been found in the other Sindian histories. There is some apparent similarity between the general style of the history and that of the additional matter. Like Mír M'asúm, the writer always employs some figurative expression for the death of a prince, but this is a practice very common among historians, and the style may have been designedly imitated, so that the resemblance affords no evidence of authenticity. The general concurrence of the MSS. and the authority of the British Museum MS. is sufficient to stamp the passage as an interpolation—though there appears to be some authority for its statements. Morley, in his Catalogue, notices an interpolation in the MS. of the Royal Asiatic Society, which comes in abruptly within a few lines of the end of the history. He says, “After this, in the present MS. there is an account of Dúda, who was ruler of Thattha in the time of Násiru-d dín Mahmúd, King of Dehli, occupying six pages. In the East India House MS. (No. 43) this is omitted; the history ending immediately after the capitulation of Jání Beg, and stating in four lines that he died in A.H. 1011 (A.D. 1602), and was succeeded in his govern­ment by his son Mírza 'Ásí. The MS. in the British Museum (Addit. No. 16,700), agrees with that of the East India House in this respect,” and with Sir H. Elliot's. Dúda is the name of one of the princes given in Malet's additional passage, but the matter of these pages differs from his.]

Sir H. Elliot's copy contains 290 folios of fourteen lines each, and of these about forty-five have been translated.


Account of the Samma dynasty.

IT has been already related how Sultán Mahmúd came from Ghazní, and after capturing the fort of Multán, brought the country of Sind under his authority, and sent his officers to govern it. After the death of Mahmúd, the sovereignty passed to his offspring, and the government (of Sind) devolved upon 'Abdu-r Rashíd Sultan Mas'úd. This prince gave himself up to the pursuit of pleasure, and heeded not the duties of government; so the people on the distant borders began to reject his authority and throw off the yoke of obedience. At that time the men of Súmra assembled in the vicinity of Tharí* and raised a man named Súmra* to the throne. He had passed a long time as the head of the tribe of Súmra, and he cleared the country of disaffection. This man formed a connection with Sád, a powerful Zamíndár in those parts, and married his daughter. She bore him a son named Bhúngar, who on the death of his father succeeded to the hereditary states, and died after an active reign.

His son named Dúdá then inherited the throne, and reigned for some years. He extended his authority to Nasrpúr, but died in the flower of his age. He left an infant son name Singhár and a daughter named Tárí, who for a time carried on the government and kept the people under her control. When Singhár came of age he himself assumed the government, and looked after the affairs of the revenue and the State, punishing all men who were disaffected and rebellious. He directed his efforts against the country of Kachh and extended his sway as far as Mánik Bai.* Some years after this he died, leaving no son; but his wife, named Hamún, carried on the government in the fort of Dahak, and she deputed her brothers to govern Muhammad Túr and Tharí. A short time after this the brethren of Dúdá, who were hidden in that neighbourhood, came forth and opposed the brethren of Hamún. One of them, named Pitthú,* a descendant of Dúdá, was supported by a body of followers. He overthrew all those who set up pretensions to the throne, and established himself in the sovereignty. After reigning some years, he died, when a man named Khairá carried on the business of the State, and made himself remarkable for his virtues. He reigned for some years to the time of his death.