The reign of the eighth khan, Borak, the son of Sookur, the son of Kamgar, the son of Chughtaie, the son of Chungeez Khan.

On the death of Mobarik Shah in the year 663 Hejri, Borak Khan was raised to the throne, with the concurrence of all the princes, ameers, and ladies of the royal family; the office of his cup-bearer was held by Ameer Eechul Noyaun; the princes and ameers of the Chughtayan race performed the customary genuflections (the kowtow), and the troops and subjects of Borak Khan devoted them­selves to his service. In his time Ameer Eechul Noyaun Birlas proceeded to Azurbijan to Tokzur Ooghul the son of Chughtaie Khan. When Borak Khan had established himself on the throne a quar­rel arose between him and Kaidoo Khan, the son of Ghazi Ooghul, the son of Ooktaie Khan, and after many battles fought between them, they made peace on the following conditions:—that Kaidoo should give up to Borak the countries of Irak and Khorasan, as they were well qualified for both summer and winter quarters. After this, in the year 666, Borak Khan despatched Musaood Beg,* the son of Yulwaj Bokhari, on a mission to Abu­kai Khan, the son of Hulako, the son of Tooli, then king of Persia, speciously to court his friend­ship, but in secret to act as a spy and collect infor­mation respecting the state of that kingdom, and also regarding Tokzur Ooghul, the brother of Borak Khan, who was in Goorjistan, or Georgia, and to whom Eechul Noyaun went to obtain intel­gence respecting the advance of the Chughtayan army. Musaood Beg, agreeably to the orders of Borak Khan, proceeded on his mission; and to provide against accidents, at every stage placed relays of horses, and men to take care of them. When the news of the arrival of Musaood Beg reached Tubreez, Khwajeh Shums-ud-deen the dewan went out to meet him, and alighted from his horse to pay him respect; Musaood Beg, however, did not alight, and in addition to this insult he said con­temptuously, “Art thou the Sahib Dewan?— thy name certainly sounds better than the names of the others.” The dewan, greatly offended, made no answer to this interrogation.

When Musaood Beg visited the king he took his place above all the ameers of Iran; but seeing he was looked on with suspicion and dislike by the chiefs of the state, on the third day he demanded permission from Abakai Khan to return home; on his quitting the presence, he immediately mounted his horse and proceeded on his journey, and assisted by the relays of fresh men and horses he had left on the road, he made such haste that in four days and nights he reached and crossed the Jihoon. The ameers of Tubreez, when they saw that Musaood Beg had departed, reported to the sultan that he came as a spy, and that it was not safe to allow him to return. The sultan, therefore, immediately despatched horsemen after him to bring him back wherever they found him: he had, however, so sped on his way that no one overtook him. When Musaood Beg returned to Borak Khan he detailed all he had learned at Tubreez, and Borak Khan immediately assembled a large army, and in the year 667 Hejri marched towards Khorasan, to subdue the kingdom of Iran. When Borak Khan had passed the Jihoon, Mullik Shums-ud-deen Koort arrived as an ambassador, with offers of submission, but changed sides, and was received into the service of Borak Khan, to whom he promised the possession of the throne of Iran. It is related that at that time the governors of Khorasan were the Prince Tubeen Oghul, the son of Hulako Khan and Arghoon Akai Awirat. When the troops of Borak Khan arrived at Nisha­poor the armies of Iran and Tooraun met, and a bloody battle followed. In this battle Tubeen Oghul and Arghoon were defeated and obliged to flee to Irak. The following is a description of the battle, as nearly literal as can well be made.

When the booljoonghar, (which in Persian is called yuzak, and in Oighoor Toorki, kurawul), or advance of Borak Khan’s army, saw that of Prince Tubeen Oghul, the only question and answer asked and returned was with the edge of their swords. While the two advanced parties were thus engaged, the brave men of the booroon­ghar (which in Arabic is called mukdumut il jysh, and in Oighoor Toorki eerawul and munkulai, i. e. the advanced guard), galloped to the assistance of the kurawul and drew breath with their swords.

The munkulaie being now warmly engaged, their shouts reached the skies. On both sides the oonghar and joonghar, or the Mymuneh and Mysureh (the right and left wings), the bravest of the brave among the Moghools of Iran and Too­raun, charged, and intermixed with each other, and the slain fell in heaps—indeed the carnage produced a resemblance of the day of resurrection. The troops of Khorasan cut off the heads of the Moghools, as if they had been so many kites, and they began to waver, when, of a sudden, the ook­choonghar of the Moghools (which is called sakeh), arrived from the rear, and making their spears their standards, pressed their horses on to the charge. At this time also the boostoonghar (which is called Ajnaya and Kumeen, i. e. the rear-guard), of Borak Khan made its appearance, and Borak Khan charged into the midst of the mêlée, and penetrated even to Prince Tubeen Ooghul. This charge and his distinguished bravery decided the victory, and the troops of Khorasan first wavered and then fled.

Prince Tyubeen Ooghul and Arghoon Agha having witnessed the defeat of their army, were of necessity obliged to retire, and they turned their horses’ heads towards Irak.

When these chiefs retreated, the troops of Borak Khan took their fill of slaughter and plunder, as is the custom of conquerors, and Khorasan remained one year under the authority of Borak Khan.

When Abukai Khan, the son of Hulako, who was king of Irak, Iran, Azurbijan, and Khorasan, heard that Borak Khan had taken possession of the province of Khorasan, he saw no remedy but to march an army to oppose and dispossess him. He accordingly marched with a large army from Irak and Azurbijan towards Herat, by the road of Rai; at Rai he was joined by prince Tubeen and Arghoon Agha Awirat, who had proceeded by a different route to Tubreez, and not having found him, had followed his army to Rai. At this place the troops were arranged in order, and then marched to Herat, and halted in a place called Julgae, in the vicinity of which the troops of Borak were encamped; and near the town Ashkgiwan the two armies met, and forming in order of battle, the embers of contention were blown into a flame. Borak Khan took the imme­diate command of the oonghar or right wing of his army, and fell upon the joonghar, or left, of Abukai Khan, with such vigour that he totally defeated it, and it retired to seek support from the oonghar or right wing; when, however, it arrived near the right wing, the whole of the army of Abukai Khan fell into confusion and fled. At this time Subtaie Noyaun Oighoor, who belonged to the left wing of the army of Abukai Khan, alighted from his horse and sat down on an eminence, and said, “The man whose foot is not firm in the battle, may the God of the heavens and the earth punish him. I take the soul of the great Chungeez Khan to witness that I will devote my life at this spot.” At hearing these words of Subtaie Noyaun, the troops of Abukai Khan, receiving them as a good omen, halted, and those who had before fled returned to the charge. Abukai Khan also made a brave charge at the head of his troops, and was well seconded by them, and Marghawul Bahadoor, who was one of the chief officers of Borak Khan, was killed, and a sanguinary struggle took place over his body for its possession: in fact, since Mars first drew his sword, to prosecute in relent­less war the destruction of mankind, such a battle never was fought. It is related that the battle continued with the utmost fury the whole day, and at night the armies separated, and retired to their respective camps. Borak Khan now retreated in the direction of Mawurunneher, and when he arrived at Bokhara he was converted to the Mussulman faith, and received the title of Sultan Ghiaus-ud-deen. A short period after this he was seized with a disease,* and was obliged to be carried about in a litter; in 668 Hejri, he visited Kaidoo Khan, the son of Ghazi Ooghul, the son of Ooktaie Khan, and was poisoned by a cup of sherbet given to him by Kaidoo. The period of his reign was six years. Borak Khan had three sons, Dooda Chichun, Booria, and Hoolao.

The ninth khan, Pyke Khan, the son of Hoola Shiramoon, the son of Sarian, the son of Chugh­taie Khan, the son of Chungeez Khan.

Pyk Khan (the son of Hoola Shiramoon) was a prince of such power and greatness, that the revolving heavens reverenced him, and the sun from the throne of his glory passed over him with deference and respect.*

The tenth khan, Toktimoor, the son of Kudaghi, the son of Toori Balkan, the son of Chughtaie Khan. It is related that this prince was a very just and righteous man.

The reign of Dowa Chichun, the son of Borak Khan, the son of Sookur, the son of Kamgar, the son of Chughtaie Khan.—Dowa Chichun Khan was a prince well qualified for the throne. In his reign, the chief ameer and agent, or vuzeer, was Ameer Alungeez Noyaun, the son of Eechul Noyaun, the son of Kurachar Noyaun, the son of Sooghoo Chi­chun, &c. Dowa Chichun preserved, with Ameer Alungeez Noyaun, the conditions of the treaty made between Kurachar Noyaun and Chungeez Khan, and Kacholi Bahadoor and Kubul Khan, denomi­nated the Al-tumghaie of Toomneh Khan. Agree­ably to the articles of this treaty, a written agree­ment was signed by each, and the rules and customs of their forefathers strictly observed. This prince reigned thirty years, and by the able management of Alungeez Noyaun, the aloos of Chughtaie Khan was preserved in prosperity, peace, and happi­ness. Dowa Chichun had twelve sons: their names were—Soorghud Ooghul Jyookur, Abookur, Eel­khwajeh, Eelchu Gudaie, Kureejook, Iyoomkun Oghul, Booran, Toormshere, Esau Booka, Kubk, and Gunjuk.

The twelfth khan was Gunjuk, the son of Dowa Chichun Khan.—Historians relate, that Gunjuk Khan, the son of Dowa Chichun Khan, was a very able and just prince, and his reign prosperous. When Gunjuk Khan was firmly established on the throne, he observed that the children of Kaidoo Khan, the son of Ghazi Ooghul, the son of Ooktaie Khan, did not perform the requisite duties of their government, or preserve the boundaries of their territory with the care and firmness necessary, and that they seemed to require his protection. For this reason he despatched an army into their territory, and during the confusion caused by this invasion reduced most of them under his authority, and added them to the aloos of Chughtaie.

The thirteenth khan, Talikoo Khan, the son of Kudaghi, the son of Toori, the son of Baikan, the son of Chughtaie Khan.—This prince was also a man of great ability and power; he was also very just and generous.

At his death, the fourteenth khan, Esun Booka Khan, the son of Dowa Chichun, ascended the throne. He was also celebrated for his justice and hatred of oppression.

The fifteenth khan, Kubuk, the son of Dowa Chichun, the son of Borak Khan, &c.—Kubuk Khan was also a just prince. In his time the science of government attained great perfection, and his military actions and regulations raised him to the pinnacle of greatness. The fame of his justice reached all parts of the earth. In his time the Kubbutul Islam, or city of Balkh, which had been in ruins, and a field of reeds from the time of Chungeez Khan, was rebuilt. Of the actions of this worthy prince it is related, that one day he was riding out for exercise with his servants, and that in a cave near the road, he discovered a number of human bones. On seeing these, he pulled up his horse and remained in thought some time, and then said to his atten­dants, “Do you know what these bones have been saying to me?” His attendants, being sur­prised at the question, remained silent; when he, answering himself, said, “They are the bones of men barbarously murdered, who cry to me for ven­geance.” He then, like a king, determined to find out how they came there, and immediately sum­moned the huzara, to whom the land appertained, and ordered him to examine as to whom these bones, found in his jurisdiction, belonged. The sirdar, or chief of the wehcheh, or tribe, whose yoorut or encampment was near this place, was therefore seized and examined, and it was discovered that three years previous, a karwaun had arrived there from Khorasan, and that this tribe had murdered the whole of the persons composing it, and had seized their property, and that some part was still in their possession. When this fact was established, the khan ordered the murderers to be apprehended, and the property collected, and despatched a messenger to the chief of Khorasan, that he might search for and produce the heirs of the murdered men. On their being found, they were sent to the khan, who immediately delivered up the property he had collected, with the mur­derers, into their hands. When this prince died he was buried in the country of Koorshi, and a splendid monument was raised over him.

The sixteenth prince was Eelchukdaie, the son of Dowa Chichun Khan, the son of Borak Khan, lineally descended from Chughtaie Khan. Eel­chukdaie, the son of Dowa Chichun, was a wise and virtuous prince.

The seventeenth khan, Dowar Timoor, the son of Dowa Chichun, the son of Borak Khan, &c.— Dowar Khan was a valiant, just, and munificent prince.

The eighteenth khan, Toormeh Shere, the son of Dowa Chichun.—Toormeh Shere was a just and magnificent prince. He was a Mussulman, and in his time the idolatrous doctrine of the plu­rality of the godhead was burnt up by the ardent rays of the true faith. The aloos or tribe of Chughtaie, in his fortunate period, was enriched by the inestimable wealth of Islam; and independent of the enjoyment of the blessings of this world, was qualified for eternal happiness in the next. In the performance of the duties of the religion of Mohummud, and in the exaltation of the faith of Ahmud, he exerted himself to the utmost. The professors of the Mussulman faith, in his time, enjoyed perfect prosperity. Among the events of his reign is the following: He marched an army to the conquest of Hin­doostan, and having penetrated to the gates of Delhi, plundered that country of every thing he could carry away with him. When he encamped with his army at Delhi, the King of that country sent him some valuable presents out of the city as a paishkush by his chief ameers, and offered his submission. The khan therefore marched from Delhi towards Gujurat, and plundered Somnaut and Surat, and returned thence in safety to his own country laden with spoil. Some time after this, his cousin Pooran, the son of Dowar Timoor, who was not a Mussulman, associated with cer­tain Moghools who had not yet been converted to Islamism, assembled an army in Hubbeh, and in the year 728, in the environs of the pleasant town of Kush, at Koozi Mendak, put Toormeh Shere to death, and he was buried in one of the villages of Samurkund.

The nineteenth khan, Arjukam, the son of Ool­jaitoo Sultan, who was descended from Tooli Khan, the son of Chungeez Khan.—Pooran Khan, the son of Dowar Timoor Khan, the son of Borak, the great-grandson of Chughtaie Khan, strained every nerve to maintain himself in the sovereignty. He was not, however, successful, although from his power or treachery he put to death many of the princes and ameers of the house of Chughtaie Khan, as Doorchi Khan, the son of Eelchukdaie, and his atabeg Ameer Jadoo, &c.

The twentieth Khan, Jungatoo Khan, the son of Jyoom Keen, the son of Dowa Chichun, the son of Borak Khan, &c.—Jungatoo Khan was the relief and resource of the oppressed, but in his anger he was dreaded for his severity; at other times he was a pleasant man. He was murdered by his brother.

The twenty-first khan, Yussoo Timoor Khan, the son of Jyoom Keen, the son of Dowa Chichun, &c. &c.—Yussoo Timoor Khan was esteemed a great prince, although he put his brother to death. It is related that after Yussoo Timoor rebelled against his brother Jungatoo Khan, and put him to death, he assumed the sovereignty of Tooran, and behaved in a manner that showed his exalta­tion could not be permanent, and that he was mad, or something very like it. As an instance of this, it is said he cut off the breasts of his own mother, under pretence that she had advised him to rebel against his brother Jungatoo Khan, and that he had murdered him at her instigation.

The twenty-second khan, Ali Sultan, one of the descendants of Ooktaie Khan Kaan, the son of Chungeez Khan.—Ali Sultan conquered Yussoo Timoor Khan, and without any other claim usurped the throne; this man plundered the treasury of Yussoo Timoor and his forefathers, and in the universal confusion and depredation, the treaty between Kubul Khan and Kacholi Bahadoor, which was denominated the Altum­ghaie of Toomneh Khan, and the renewed treaty, signed by Chungeez Khan and Kurachar Noyaun, with the last treaty framed between Dowa Chichun and Alungeez Noyaun in conformity to those above-mentioned, were destroyed. In his time it appears the Moghools intermarried with the people of the country.

The twenty-third khan, Mahummud, the son of Poulad Ooghul, the son of Kurjook Khan, the son of Dowa Chichun, the son of Ghiaus-ud-deen Borak Khan, &c.—Mahummud Khan was worthy of the kingdom, he being a just man; he allayed the troubles and remedied the disorders of the last reign.

The twenty-fourth khan, Kazan Sultan, the son of Yussoor Ooghlan, the son of Oorooktimoor Khan, the son of Toktimoor, the son of Kudaghi, the son of Baikun, the son of Chughtaie Khan.

Kazan Sultan Khan, the son of Yussoor Oogh­lan, ascended the throne in Mawurunneher, in the year 733. At that time the king of Persia was Sultan Aboo Saeed, the son of Ooljaitoo Khan, &c. Three years after the death of Sultan Aboo Saeed, other khans of the Chungeez family were seated on the throne of Persia, as Arpa Khan (the son of Soosa), Moosa Khan, Mahummud Khan (the son of Boo Tughluk), Toghaie Timour (the son of Soori), Saki Beg (the daughter of Ooljaitoo Sultan), Jehan Timoor Khan (the son of Alafreng, of the race of Hulako Khan), Suliman Khan and Noushirwan Khan; all these were contemporaries with him. The conquest or reduction of the aloos of Chughtaie Khan, by Ameer Kurghun, took place also in the reign of Kazan Sultan, and that great conqueror Ameer Timoor Goorkan was born in his time; the words “My glad tidings have given to the expecting world what was promised,”* and “The star of victory has risen to its meridian,” were verified. The actions of Kazan Sultan Khan, and the other khans who reigned, after him, over the aloos of Chughtaie, will now be detailed. From the com­mencement of the reign of Chughtaie Khan, the son of Chungeez, and his children and descendants, to Kazan Sultan, was one hundred and nine years.