The reign of Hulako Khan, also called Eel Khan, the son of Tooli Khan, and the first king of Persia of his race.

It is related, that when Mungo Khan appointed his younger brother Hulako to the government of Persia, he ordered every ten families to furnish two men* towards the formation of an army for his brother. On this occasion also, Mungo Khan and his brethren each gave an entertainment to Hulako, who quitted them with much sorrow and reluctance.

On the 2d Rubbiel-avul 651 Hejri, Hulako took leave of Mungo Khan and joined his army, where he prepared for his expedition to Persia. It is related, that one thousand (nuftundauzan)* fire-workers and engineers (munjuniki), accompanied his army.

On the 24th of Shaban of the same year he commenced his march, leaving his eldest son Tumgha Oghul, in charge of his affairs and pos­sessions. On his arrival at Samurkund, in 653 Hejri, he encamped in the Field of Roses, and Musood Beg gave him an entertainment which lasted forty days; at this place, his brother Yasa Oghul died.

In the month of Zi Huj of the same year he marched to Kish, where he was met by Arghoon Agha Awirat from Toos, and Mullik Shums-ud-deen Kirayut, from Herat with presents.

In Showal of the year 653-4, Hulako passed the Jihoon on a bridge of boats, and remained for the winter at Surghan Kishlu Munshi; he then marched thence to Kuhistan, Dartoon, and the dependencies of that country, which were occu­pied by the Mulahideh, or Ismaelites, and ordered an indiscriminate slaughter of that people; he next marched to Irak, and by the last day of Showal 654 Hejri, the government of the Mulahideh was abolished. The prince Khorezm Shah, who was residing in the castle of Maimoon Duj, of Dur­bund, was also taken prisoner, and despatched to Mango Khan; he was, however, from some change of policy, recalled to deliver up some other forts, and murdered on the road returning.

It is related, that when the fort of Maimoon Duj of Durbund was besieged, and one day before the prince Khorezm Shah was taken, Nusur-ud-deen Toosi* who resided in that fort, for some reasons which are detailed in other his­tories, let himself down from the walls and gave himself up to Eel Khan or Hulako, and was received by him with every mark of favour. The next day the fort was taken and Khorezm Shah made prisoner.

After the capture of these forts, Hulako marched towards Baghdad, where he conquered the Caliph Motasim Billah, the last of the Abbassides, and made him and his four sons prisoners, and in 656 Hejri put them all to death; he also slaughtered all the inhabitants of Baghdad. It is said hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children, were destroyed in this massacre.

In the month of Rumzan 657 Hejri, Hulako marched towards Syria, and on the road appointed his son, Bishmoot, to superintend the siege of the city of Myafarikeen, and marched himself to Nisibin. After the capture and destruction of that city, he next marched to Aleppo or Haleb, in which place he left not a man alive. When the people of Damascus heard of Hulako’s arrival at Aleppo, they despatched messengers to him, and offered their submission. Hulako, to try whether they were sincere, despatched Kunooka Noyaun to Damascus, where he was received with every demonstration of respect. At this period, intelli­gence arrived of the death of Mango Khan, the son of Tooli Khan; and Hulako, on hearing it, became exceedingly distressed in his mind, and, having committed the charge of Syria to Kunooka Noyaun, prepared to return to his own country.

A short time after this Syfe-ud-din Furdooz, who was king of Egypt, marched with an army to Balbek, to attack Kunooka Noyaun, and after a short struggle Kunooka was made prisoner, and with many of his Moghools put to death.

Hulako, on hearing of this disaster, immediately prepared to revenge the injury done him, but was prevented by the rebellion of certain of his rela­tions. Prince Bishmoot, the son of Hulako, who had been appointed to the siege of Myafarikeen after a siege of two years took that place, and having made prisoner the chief, Mullik Kamil, despatched him to Hulako, by whom he was put to death with every circumstance of cruelty; Bishmoot after this marched to Mardin, where Mullik Saeed, the chief of that country, made his submission. Bishmoot, however, put him to death, and appointed his son, Mullik Muzuffur, chief in his place.

Bishmoot from this place returned to his father.

Hulako Khan in the latter part of his life enter­tained a great opinion of the talents of his eldest son, Bukai or Abukai Khan, and, therefore, resigned the charge of the countries of Irak, Mazin­deran and Khorasan into his hands; he also com­mitted the countries of Diarbekir and Diari Rubeeah to the charge of Boodun Noyaun; the cities of Room, or Romelia were given to Moeen-ud-din Purwaneh. Syfe-ud-din Tubukchi, who was his vuzeer, was put to death, and Shums-ud-deen Mahummud Joini was substituted in his place; the government of Sheerauz being given to his brother, Alauddin Ata Mullik, the author of the history called Jehan Kusha. In the time of Hulako all pub­lic commands and notifications were given in the name of Mango Khan, who was the king of Aligh Yoorut, but the collections were wholly intrusted to Ameer Arghoon Aka, of the tribe of Awirat, who was also governor of Persia. Hulako made Tubreez his capital, but in the winter resided at Bazankushlak, a particular account of which will be found in the Jehan Kusha. The death of Hulako the son of Tooli Khan, occurred in the night of the 19th of Rubbiel-Akhur, 663 Hejri, or eet eel Toorki, at the village of Jufikur, depending on Tubreez, and he was buried in a fort on an iso­lated hill to the north of Tubreez; his age was forty-eight solar years, and he reigned between eight and nine years; he had eleven sons,—Abu­kai, Tumgha Ooghul, Bishmoot, Mungo Timoor, Tyubeen Ooghul, Nekodar Ooghul, Sukuneh, Turughaie, Tuboochin, &c.

Abukai Khan was the eldest son of Hulako, and by command of his uncle, Kowilai or Kuhlai Khan, the son of Tooli Khan, he ascended the throne in the month of Rumzan, 663 Hejri. Hulako Khan was fond of architecture, and erected many temples and fine palaces; he was also a great patron of learning. Of his works in aid of science, may be mentioned the astronomical obser­vatory at Maragheh, near Tubreez, which was built by his orders by the celebrated Nussur-ud-deen Toosi, and the astronomical tables* formed from that observatory are to this day called the Tables of Eel Khan; a description of this observatory will be found in many histories.