The second king of Kupchak, Boorkeh Khan, the son of Joje Khan.

It is stated by historians that when Batwi died, his brother, Boorkeh, succeeded him; some say he was a Mussulman, and in some histories it is related that his mother was of the Mussulman faith, and that he refused to take the breast of any female, except that of a Mussulman woman who brought him up. When he grew up to manhood he was ordered to various parts by his brother, and on one occasion went to the Kobutool Islam Bokhara, where he fell in with a certain religious man, and by him was finally converted to Mahum­mudanism; the shaikh who converted him is said to have been Huzrut Syfe-ud-deen Bakhoorzeen, who was one of the disciples of Shaikh Nujum-ud-din Kobria. Boorkeh remained some time receiving instructions from this saint, until by his orders he returned to Kupchak by the route of Chaje Turkhan. On his march with a few troops near the river Edul, he fell in with the army of Hulako Khan, the son of Tooli Khan, and a terrible battle ensued between them; from the efficacy, however, of the prayers and instruction of his saint-like preceptor, Hulako, who was marching to invade Kupchak, was defeated and obliged to retreat and give up his intention. He therefore retired to Azurbijan, and falling sick on the road died at Tubreez; the supposition that he was killed in the battle is unfounded.

Boorkeh Khan, victorious and enlightened, returned to Kupchak, and by the decree of the Most High ascended the throne of that country, and sum­moned his subjects to adopt the Mussulman creed. He reigned eight years, that is, from 654, or Looe eel, to 662 Hejri, or Suchkan eel Toorki, at which period he was seized with a disease called kolunj, or dropsy, and died.

He was succeeded by Sayin Khan,* third king of Kupchak.

In the most respectable histories his descent from Joje Khan and his actions are detailed at length, but as this is merely an abridgment of the Shajrat ul Atrak we shall only say, there is nothing found concerning him in that work; we, however, can state that he was a prince of great good qualities, and very liberal.

The fourth king, Moonga Timoor, the son of Toghan, the son of Batwi. It is related, that when Sayin Khan died in the city of Seraie, or as it is called Seraie Huk, Moonga Timoor Khan, the son of Toghan, the son of Batwi Khan, succeeded him. This Moonga was called also Kilik Khan, and is reported to have been a just, able, and liberal prince; in fact he is said to have been the redresser of wrongs and the terror of the tyrants and oppressors of his time.

The fifth king of Kupchak. On the death of Moonga Timoor, Bussoo Munga Khan (who is also called Toka Begi), his brother, ascended the throne.

Sixth king; Toktaie Khan, the son of Moonga Timoor Kilik, the son of Toghan, the son of Batwi Khan, succeeded his uncle in the sovereignty of Kupchak.

The seventh king; Ourung, the son of Toghrul, the son of Kilik, the son of Toghan, &c.

On the demise of Toktaie Khan, Huzrut Sultan Mahummud Ourung Khan, the son of Toghrul, &c., who was chief of the Ooloos of Ourung, by the command of the Most High ascended the throne in the year of the Hejri 712, Oota eel Toorki. It is said that for eight years he remained with his tribe in the country of Orfa, depending on the territory of Kupchak, the air of that district agreeing best with him, and the country abounding with game; at the expiration of eight years, in the year 720 Hejri, Akook eel Toorki, he was converted to the Mahummudan faith by Huzrut Kootoobul Owlia Zungi Ata; the Syud changed the name Ourung Khan, given him by his parents, to Sultan Mahummud Ourung Khan; most of his tribe were also converted with him. The account of these conversions will be found in the Mukamaut of Syud Ata. Syud Ata, after the accession of this prince and his tribe to the true faith, by the inspiration or direction of the Most High, caused them to remove towards Mawurunneher, and those who refused to obey Syud Ata, and remained unconverted, were denominated Kilmak, which signifies stationary; and those who accompanied Syud Ata and the Sultan to Mawurunneher were called after their king Ourung;—when they arrived in Toorkistan the Turks there, from their common descent and consanguinity, also entered the tribe of Ourung; —the whole of those who accompanied Syud Ata and their chief Ourung, from Oorfa or Arka, are the disciples of that saint; and this is their dis­tinguishing mark, that those who are not his disciples came before or after him to Toorkistan. Sultan Mahummud Ourung reigned thirty-eight years, and died in the year 750 Hejri, Pars eel Toorki.

The eighth king, Jani Beg, the son of Sultan Mahummud Ourung, the son of Toghrul, the son of Toktai, the son of Toghan, the son of Batwi, the son of Joje.—On the death of Mahummud Ourung, his son Jani Beg ascended the throne, and after making arrangements for the govern­ment and regulation of his tribe, he marched with a large army by the route of Durbund to Tubreez. At that time no king of the seed of Chun­geez Khan reigned in Iran: Ashruf, the son of Timoor Tash, the son of Choban Suldooz, of the race of the Suldooz chiefs, was king of Tubreez; he was extremely avaricious and a great tyrant.

When Jani Beg arrived at Tubreez, Mullik Ashruf was unequal to oppose him and his ooloos, and therefore retired towards Nukhchewan: he was, however, pursued by the Ourungians and taken prisoner by them; and Jani Beg, being a Mussulman and a just prince, put him to death, in retaliation for the cruelties he had committed, and freed the people from his tyranny. Jani Beg kept his army in such order, that although it was very numerous, no instance of violence or oppres­sion occurred while he remained at Tubreez; he, however, seized all the treasures of Ashruf. One of the poets of the day wittily said, “Did you see what that ass Ashruf did? He took the load of oppression on his own shoulders, and left the gold to Jani Beg.”* On the Friday following hisentrance into Tubreez, Jani Beg attended the public prayers at the mosque of Alishah. Jani Beg after this subdued Azurbijan, and as he ruled with justice and was the patron of literature, Molna Sad-ud-deen Tuf­tazani, in the year 756, dedicated the abridg­ment of the Tulkhees to him. It is said, that Jani Beg was a righteous man and a great encourager of learning; when he had completed the subjection of Tubreez he appointed his son Pirowi Beg Sultan to the government of that country, and returned to the desert of Kupchak, to Seraie his capital, where he died; he was succeeded by his son Pirowi Beg, the ninth khan, or king of Kupchak.

When Jani Beg died, his son Pirowi Beg was established on the throne of Tubreez; he, how­ever, on hearing of his father’s death, returned to Kupchak, where he assumed the sovereignty and reigned until his death, when he was succeeded by the tenth khan, Keeladi or Keeldi Beg Khan; he was a just and upright man.

The eleventh, or Nowroze Khan; this prince ascended the throne by falsely pretending he was one of the descendants of Jani Beg.

The twelfth, or Churkus Khan; this prince was also taken by the ameers of Kupchak (for political purposes), to be of the descendants of Jani Beg; he was succeeded by Khidr Khan, the thirteenth sovereign of Kupchak.

The fourteenth khan, Murdo Khan, the son of Khidr Khan.

The fifteenth, Bazarchi Khan.

The sixteenth, Tokaie Khan, the son of Shahi.

The seventeenth khan, Togluk Timoor, the nephew of Tokaie Khan; this prince, during his reign, conducted two expeditions to the conquest of Mawurunneher; he was at length carried off himself by the chupuwuls of death, and was suc­ceeded by his brother, Moraud Khwajeh, the eighteenth khan.

The nineteenth khan, Kutluk Khwajeh, the son of Shahi, and the brother of Tokan Khan.

The twentieth khan, Aroos, or Ooroos Khan.

The twenty-first, Toktai Bae, or Bè, the son of Ooroos Khan; he was a mild and just prince.

The twenty-second khan, Timoor Tuluk, the son of Ooroos Khan.

Twenty-third khan, Toktumish.

It is related, that on the death of Timoor Tuluk Khan, Toktumish Khan was raised to the throne of his forefathers by the aid of the Sahib Kiran Ameer Timoor Goorkan. During the first part of his reign Ameer Timoor Goorkan continued his fast friend, but latterly, from the advice of interested persons, their friendship was converted to enmity and hostility, and several battles were fought between them. Toktumish in all these was defeated, par­ticularly in the last engagement, in which how­ever the troops of Toktumish made a stand in the field for several days. It is reported of this battle, that on every onset the right wing of the Sahib Kiran Ameer Timoor’s army defeated the left wing of the army of Toktumish, and the right wing of Toktumish’s army defeated the left wing of Ameer Timoor. After this had occurred, several days following, Toktumish consulted with his ameers, and altered the disposition of his army; as the whole of his left wing was broken and dispirited, he ordered Yughli Bai Bahadoor Beh­reeni, who was the chief of the tribe of Bahreen (whose ancestors had been the chiefs of that tribe from the time of Aghooz Khan), and belonged to the right wing, to take his post with his tribe in the left wing the next day, and accord­ingly the next morning Yughli Bai Bahadoor Behreeni, with the whole of his ooloos and eel or tribe, took his station on the left. As the left wing of Toktumish was, however, dispirited, and afraid of the right wing of Ameer Timoor’s army, at the first charge they were broken and dis­persed, and Timoor’s general commanding the right wing, Ameer Osman (who was the fifth in descent from Kurachar Noyan), pursued them with such vigour that of the left wing of Toktumish, only Yughli Bai Bahadoor and his tribe remained. It is related, that on that day Yughli Bai had taken leave of his children and family, and that he took his station on horseback, with a spear in his hand, under the togh (the tail of the mountain cow) or standard, and that he directed his horse’s legs should be secured by a chain. Osman, in the pursuit, charged up to the division of Yughli Bai Bahadoor, and a terrible struggle ensued between them, and many were killed and wounded on both sides. The two chiefs at length engaged in single combat, but as Yughli Bai’s horse was embar­rassed by the chain he fell down: the two chiefs having fast hold of each other at the time, and being heavy with their armour, they fell together to the ground. It happened, however, that Ameer Osman fell uppermost, and, therefore, having the advantage, he succeeded in cutting off the head of Yughli Bai. On seeing this, a shout burst from both armies, and the whole of the combatants turned their sole exertions to the possession of the head of Yughli Bai, the one side to retake and the other to retain it; and in this struggle the slain fell in heaps; the army of Ameer Timoor, how­ever, suffered the least, while the loss of their opponents was incalculable. The body of Yughli Bai Bahadoor it is said was, after the battle, found covered by the bodies of seven hundred young men of his tribe, all clad in black armour, and each with a kitas (tail of the mountain cow) suspended from his horse’s neck. Their loss may be estimated from this circumstance. From that day the tribe of Bah­reen, in the koor, assemblies, or durbars of the Ourung kings, have always taken their station (Ooroon) to the left, which is called by the Moghools Joonghar, and by the Turks Syool-ghool. Otherwise, before this period, they took their station to the right, with their brethren, the tribes of Kunkurat, Neiman, Jullair, Ooleshun, &c. (The right is called by the Moghools Oon­ghar, and by the Turks Oonkool.) This battle is the cause, at this time, of the diminution of their number, for they were originally twice the num­ber of the tribes of Kunkurat and Neiman. In the Chughtayan histories it is related, that after the death of Yughli Bai Bahareeni, Huzrut Sahib Kiran Timoor added the title of Bahadoor to Meer Osman’s name, and also called him Nihung Giri, or the Seizer of the Crocodile. It is said that after this battle Toktumish had no power to make any further opposition to Ameer Timoor, and some say that his defeat was caused by the treachery of his ameers, who were in league with Ameer Timoor.

The twenty-fourth- king of Kupchak was Timoor Kutlo, the son of Timoor Beg Oghlan.

On the death of Toktumish Khan, Timoor Kutlo Khan, the son of Timour Beg, who had been in the service of Ameer Timoor, was seated on the throne; he was succeeded by the twenty-fifth khan, Shadi Beg, a wise and good prince; on his death he was succeeded by his son, Pou­laud or Foulad Khan.

The twenty-seventh khan, Timoor Khan, the son of Timoor Kutlo Khan, the son of Timoor Beg Oghlan.

Twenty-eighth, Julal-ud-deen, the son of Tok­tumish Khan.

Twenty-ninth, Kureem Purdi Khan, the son of Toktumish Khan.

It is related in the histories of the Turks, that on the death of Julal-ud-deen, his brother Kur­reem Purdi Khan, ascended the throne.

Thirtieth, Kyook Khan, the son of Toktumish.

Thirty-first, Chugur or Jugreh Khan, the son of Toktumish.

Thirty-second, Jubur Purdi or Perovi Khan, the son of Toktumish.

Thirty-third, Syud Ahmud Khan.

Thirty-fourth, Durveish Khan, the son of Ilahi Ooghlan.

Thirty-fifth, Mahummud Khan. The period from the first of the sons of Joje to the accession of this prince was two hundred and ten years, that is from the year 621, or Suchun eel, to the year 831 Hejri, or Oot eel Toorki.

Thirty-sixth, Dowlut Purdi, the son of Tashti­moor.

Thirty-seventh, Borak Khan, the son of Kur­chook.

Thirty-eighth khan, Ghiaus-ud-deen, the son of Shadi Beg Khan.

Thirty-ninth, Mahummud Khan, the son of Timoor Khan, the son of Timoor Kutlo Khan, the son of Timoor Beg Ooghlan. From the period of Joje Khan, to the accession of Mahummud Khan, the son of Timour Khan, two hundred and forty years had elapsed; this is the period of a kirani owsut or medium kurun, estimated by the move­ments of the heavenly bodies; but God only knows the truth of this.