Of the Moghools.

Of all the tribes inhabiting the north-eastern part of Asia, the Moghools are, I believe, the most noble as well as the most numerous. The limits of their dominion, before the time of Chungeez Khan, have been above very roughly estimated. In his time the whole of Northern Asia fell under his authority, and it is very remarkable that his descendants, or those of branches of his family, have, to this day, maintained or recovered their authority in the limits marked out by his enterprize and valour. As some proof of this, I beg leave to cite the following authorities.

According to the History of China, by De Guignes, fils, Genghis Khan, or Timoochin, called by the Chinese Tay-tsou, reigned in China in 1206. His son, Ooktaie Khan, named by the Chinese Tay-tsong, reigned there in 1228.

There can be little doubt but that the present race of Tatars reigning in China are descended from the tribe or family of Chungeez Khan; the Manchus, or Manshoors, are acknowledged Moghools.*

Timoor Goorkan, or the great Tamerlane, was, I believe, the eighth in descent from Kurachar Noyaun, the cousin of Chungeez Khan; the present Emperor of Dehli is, therefore, of the same family.*

The origin of the Osmanlies of Stamboul, or Constanti­nople, is disputed,—but they, I believe, ascribe to them­selves the same origin with Chungeez Khan; they do not, however, appear to be favourites with the Moghools, and some, as the author or compiler of this work, deny their claim.

The inhabitants of the vast regions denominated Tartary by Europeans, and Tooraun by the Persians, are called Tatars, under which appellation the Moghools themselves are included; that of Toork is apparently common to all.

On this subject the author of the Histoire Généalogique des Tartars, says: “Quand j’ai dit cy-dessus p. 24, que depuis que Genghis Khan se rendit maistre de tout le nord de l’Asie, le nom des Turcs, s’est perdu chez la nation que nous appellons présentement les Tartars; cela s’entend par rapport à leurs voisins * * * et non par rapport à eux mesmes, puisque ils conservent toujours entre eux celuy des Turcs, prétendant,” &c.

Now, to explain satisfactorily the confusion which reigns in the terms Tatar, Moghool, and Turk, is certainly dif­ficult: but it may be useful to state, that the Persian and European historians confound the two former, although by this history they are separate tribes, whereas in their own country they are all called Toork.

The Moghools, or Monghuls, the Manchus, or Man­shoors, and the Jugatai or Chugatai Tatars, as they are diversely called, are considered by some authors as different tribes; I believe, however, they will be found all Moghools, and at the same time Toorks. But a more convinc­ing proof that they are all the same, will perhaps be found in the language they speak, the Toorki, which, allowing for some difference of dialect, is spoken from the Bosphorus to the wall of China.

The author of this History affects to consider the Rus­sians,* Hungarians, Bulgarians, Alans, Kirayuts or Croats, and Poles, as branches of the Toork or Tatar family, they being the children of Sclav, Koomari, or Gomer, and Roos, the sons of Japhet.

More modern authors, however, go much further, and say that the greater part of Europe and Asia was peopled by these same Moghools or Tatars.

The following are a few selections from different authors, in proof of their almost universal paternity:

1st. That the origin of the Chinese is Tatar, or Toork, there can be little doubt.*

2d. Mr. Marsden has somewhere expressed his opinion that the Malays and the other Polynesian tribes had origi­nally emanated from that great Officina Gentium, Chinese Tartary.*

3d. According to Strahlenberg, the Huns are Oighoor Tatars. It appears that in ancient times they separated into two nations, called the Unn Oighoors, and Nokos Oighoors. The Finlanders and Courlanders are said to be descended from the Huns.*

4th. The Circassians, Georgians, and Kurds, are derived from the Tatars or Moghools.*

5th. The Sarmatians and Germans were originally Scythians, or Tatars, and the Franks also were originally Toorks.*

6th. The Kings of Hungary, and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, are supposed to have descended from Shiebani Khan, the grandson of Chungeez Khan.*

To this list may be added, the Hungarians, Lithuanians, Esthonians, the ancient Prussians, the Laplanders, Cour­landers, &c.