Of the Expedition of Alak Noyaun to Fusakut and Khojund.

As has been before mentioned, Alak Noyaun was ordered to proceed to Khojund and Fusakut, and when he arrived at the latter place, he found that the chief Aneeko Mullik, with a large force, had entered the town from Kultean, and was prepared to defend it,—the attack and defence, however, only lasted three days, for on the fourth the garri­son asked for quarter; they were, however, with the inhabitants, their wives and children, taken out of the city and murdered, as usual, by the vil­lainous Moghools, in cold blood: and after the plunder of the city the Moghools marched to Kho­jund. Mullik Timoor, who was famous for his bravery, was at that time chief of Khojund; he had built a fort in the river of Khojund, or Sihoon, where two branches of the river met, and this fort was garrisoned by one thousand chosen and trusty men; he also took his station in it, well prepared for the siege. As the engines of the Moghools did not reach the fort, the young men of Khojund were carried thither as artisans, and the Moghools called for aid from all the countries they had subdued, until fifty thousand workmen of their dependants and twenty thousand Moghools were assembled. The former were divided into tens and hundreds, and one Moghool was allotted to eighteen Tachiks; the Tachiks were employed in filling the river with earth. Mullik Timoor had made twelve decked boats, which were covered with wet blan­kets and a composition of earth and vinegar, to pre­vent their being injured by fire or arrows. These boats were every morning despatched, six on one side and six on the other, and having ports or windows, did great service during the siege; when, however, the garrison became distressed for provi­sions, he prepared eighty boats of the same kind for their escape, and leaving all their property, their wives and children, in the fort, they embarked, and sailed down the river; the Moghool army following and attacking them from the banks. When the boats arrived at Fusakut they found a chain had been laid across the river, to prevent their passing; they, however, broke it on the first onset, and after passing Fusakut, landed at the first convenient place to retire to the desert, —the Moghools, however, still followed them, but were kept at bay by Mullik Timoor; but, after some days’ pursuit, the greater part of Mullik Timoor’s men were killed and wounded, and all their baggage taken; the Moghools still pursuing him, and his few followers at length being all killed or taken, he alone remained, with no other means of defence than three arrows. In this plight, he was attacked by three Moghools, one of whom he blinded with one of his arrows, and the two others having seen many examples of his bravery and strength, and being appre­hensive of the same fate, at length quitted him and returned. Mullik Timoor after this went to Khorezm, and having collected a force returned to Kusb, near which place he joined Sultan Mahummud Khorazm Shah, and told him it was absurd to oppose the Moghools, as their numbers and courage precluded all chance of success; this still more increased the fears and apprehensions of the sultan.

When Alak Noyaun had conquered Khojund, he returned to join Chungeez Khan, and arrived in his camp after the destruction of Samurkund.

Chungeez Khan, hearing of the beauty, popula­tion, and strength of the city of Samurkund, and of the numerous garrison that defended it, imme­diately marched to subdue Mawurunneher, with a multitude of workmen from Bokhara and its vicinity; he, however, left detachments of troops to besiege the forts of Duboos and Siripul. Chungeez Khan, on his arrival at Samurkund, encamped at the Kodik Seraie, and spent two days in recon­noitring the walls of the city. On the third, how­ever, the chiefs of the city, Imtiaz Khan, Shaikh Khan, Bula Khan, Alut Jan, &c. with a large force made a sortie, and a battle ensued, in which the troops of Mahummud Khorazm Shah displayed the greatest gallantry and devotion. The killed were numerous on both sides, but a number of Moghools were taken prisoners and carried into the city.

The next day Chungeez Khan ordered his troops to occupy the gates and ditch of the town, so as to prevent the horse from making another sortie. That day the fight was maintained from the walls with great spirit, but the garrison became alarmed at the execution done by the engines of the Moghools, and they in consequence divided into two factions, one of which was for surrendering, and the other for defending the city.

At night, therefore, the religious men of the city assembled, and went out to make terms with Chungeez Khan, who received them with kind­ness, and gave them hopes of his favour, and per­mission to return to the city. Peace being in a manner made, at the time of prayers the gate of the Nimaz Gah, or place of prayer, was opened, and the Moghools allowed to enter, and they plundered the city all that day and night with­out intermission, and drove the whole of the inhabitants, men, women, and children, with the exception of the families of the religious men above-mentioned, into the fields, and then sacked the city, and killed all those persons they found concealed in it; the lives of the rest, amounting to more than fifty thousand, were spared. The garrison of the citadel still, however, remained untouched, and the next morning Aluti Jan, one of the chiefs of Sultan Mahummud, made a sortie with one thousand men, and attacked the Moghools, and gallantly fighting his way through the whole of the Moghool army, made his way to the sultan. The next day the Moghools attacked the citadel of Samurkund, and between the hours of prayer took it, and put to the sword the whole of the garrison, with the chiefs of the army of Kho­razm Shah, many of whom were Turks of the Kunkuli tribe; as Bursumas Khan, Toghaie Khan, Alaj Khan, &c. Of the inhabitants, about thirty thousand artificers were selected by the Moghools as slaves, and for the rest, 200,000 dinars were exacted as the price of their heads. This took place in the year Hejri 617, or Yeelan Eel Toorki.

While Chungeez Khan was besieging Samur­kund he heard that Sultan Mahummud had crossed the Jihoon at the Turmuz ford, and that he had detached most of his army to guard his forts and passes.* Chungeez Khan immediately assembled his officers, and proposed to them that the sultan should be attacked whilst his army was weak, and before he could receive any accession to his force. It was accordingly settled at this consultation that three commanders of Tomans, Jubeh Noyaun, Sowidai Bahadoor, and Tokchar Noyaun, with thirty thousand Moghools, should proceed to attack the sultan, and that they should take no rest until they had secured him, after which they were to return home by the route of Kupchak:* (this occurred in the year 617). And, to carry this plan into effect, these three accursed infi­dels marched, and destroyed every city they approached, with its inhabitants, and they also ravaged the countries they passed through so effectually, that no vestige of the population remained. In this way they passed the Jihoon to Balkh, and through the countries of Khorasan, Irak, Azurbijan, and Sheerwan; and then, returning by Durbund and the desert of Kupchak, they entered their own yourut (country), and rejoined the camp of Chungeez Khan. Their yourish (expedition) in detail is as follows: they marched first to Balkh and then to Herat, where the chief, Mullik Babuli, despatched an ambas­sador to them, and for this reason he was not molested. They then continued their pursuit of Khorazm Shah, and when their advance reached him, Tokchar Noyaun attacked his rearguard, and, although the sultan took care to inform him he agreed to be subject and obedient to Chungeez Khan, he affected not to hear or understand him; the sultan, therefore, was obliged to prepare for battle. In the engagement which followed, Tok­chur Noyaun was killed, and his troops retreated, and joined the other two ameers who were follow­ing in the rear. At the same time Jubeh Noyaun and Sowidai Bahadoor arrived at Zaweh, the inhabitants of which place shut their gates on them; but, as the Moghools were seeking Sultan Mahummud, they did not pay any attention to Zaweh, and passed on. The people of Zaweh, however, from extreme folly, no sooner saw them pass, than they threw their gates open, beat their naga­ras (kettle-drums), and followed the Moghools, abusing and reviling them. This was too much to be borne, and the chiefs of the Moghools returned, and after a siege of three days took the town, and destroyed every living creature in it. The Moghools next marched towards Nishapoor, and it is remarkable, the author says, that they never appeared to halt, but their cavalry continued always rolling on like the waves of the sea.

When Sultan Mahummud heard that the Moghools had arrived near Nishapoor, and that they did not molest any other chief, but continued solely occupied in pursuit of him, he was so struck with fear, that he now thought only of concealing him­self; he accordingly sent his women to the fort of Kuroon, and sought a place of strength to retire to himself; while he was consulting, however, what he should do, the clouds of dust raised by the Moghool horse appeared near Nishapoor, and the sultan immediately fled towards Khorasan, leaving Fukhr-ul-Moolk, Abool Mali, Katib, Jami, Zeaul Moolk, &c. to defend Nishapoor. When the sultan arrived at Rai, he hearing the Moghools were in his vicinity, repented him of his journey to Irak and retired to Kazvin. His son, Sultan Zien-ud-deen, with thirty thousand men of the troops of Irak, was encamped at Kazvin, and when he heard of the approach of his father joined him, and the same day the sultan despatched his son, Sultan Giaus-ud-deen, with his mother and women, to the duj or fort of Kuroon, and to the care of Taj-ud-deen Toghan; he also sent a messenger to Nussrud-deen Huzaurusp, who was a dependent of the former kings of Khorezm.

When Jubeh Noyaun and Sowidai Bahadoor arrived at Nishapoor, they seized every one they met and put him to the torture, to compel him to declare where Sultan Mahummud was. At this time the ambassador of Mujdul Moolk Kafi, Fureed-ud-deen, and Zeaul Moolk Rowzuni, the chief persons of Khorasan, arrived; they requested that an ambassador might be sent to them by Chungeez Khan, and despatched three persons in charge of presents, tendering their submission. Mujdul Moolk also sent a message that he was an old man and of no value, and that if they conquered the sultan he would be their slave. Noyaun, in reply, wrote to them a letter in the Oighoor character, stating that God had given Chungeez Khan the country from the east to the west; that whoever opposed him would be destroyed, and whoever obeyed him would be exalted: he then took kulavuz or tribute, and departed towards Irak in pursuit of Khorazm Shah. Jubeh proceeded to Mazindaran, and Sowidai to Toos, both destroying all who opposed them, particularly at Amul, where all the inhabitants were massacred.

Jubeh Noyaun now moved to the fort of Ellal, in which were the mother and wives of Khorazm Shah, where he was joined by many of their troops, and on the road destroyed the city of Rai, murdering all the inhabitants thereof, men, women, and children.

During this period Sultan Mahummud was seek­ing an asylum; and Mullik Nusr-ud-deen Huzarusp arrived from Kurdistan, and was received with great distinction. On being asked his advice in these difficulties, he recommended Sultan Mahummud to retire to a hill-fort between Loor and Pars,* called Boong, or Sook, where he said he could raise one hundred thousand foot, if neces­sary, to defend the passes and oppose the Moghools. Sultan Mahummud, however, saw that his object in this advice, was merely to reduce or keep in check the Atabeg of Pars; the sultan, therefore, moved to Kazvin, where he heard of the capture of Rai, by Noyaun. The sultan, with sorrow, now retired towards the fort of Kuroon Duj, but on the road most of his troops deserted him; the Toorkmans also met and attacked him and wounded his horse, but when they recognized him they allowed him to pass on with his fol­lowers.

The sultan on his route passed by Kuroon Duj; he, however, did not halt there, but pursued his way to Gélan. The Moghools, who pursued him on their arrival at Kuroon Duj, halted and immediately besieged it; but hearing the sultan was not there, they left a party to continue the siege, and one division moved off in pursuit of him. The sultan, on his arrival at Gélan, only halted there seven days; the chief of Gélan, Tolghook, however, pressed him to stay, but he was too much afraid of the Moghools to remain, and fled to Asterabad. On his arrival at Asterabad he lost all his treasure, but still continuing his route, he marched to a fort depending on Amal, and thence proceeded to the Caspian Sea, and secreted himself in one of the islands of Tusloon; but the place of his abode becoming known, he moved to the island of Abgoon. About the time of his depar­ture a body of Moghools sent by Jubeh Noyaun from Rai, arrived to search for him, but as they did not find him they returned to Kuroon Duj, in which castle were some of the wives and children of Sul­tan Mahummud. The garrison of this fort defended it well, and not a few Moghools fell before the place; at last, however, it was taken by assault, and levelled with the ground, and the treasure, wives and children, of Mahummud Shah in it, fell into the hands of the Moghools.—[The manu­script is defective here two or three lines.]—The Moghools next proceeded to besiege the fort of Eelal, which contained all the remainder of the wives of Sultan Mahummud, and, by the command of the Almighty Avenger of blood, as long as Tur­kan Khatoon (the mother of Sultan Mahummud) remained in the fort no rain fell, a circumstance which had never happened before;—the castle being provided with a number of reservoirs, which in other times were always full,—the water, however, now failed, and Nasir-ud-deen, the wuzeer, and Tur Khan Khatoon were obliged to descend and surrender themselves and their wealth to the Moghools.* The treasure taken in gold and jewels is said to have been immense. The whole of the prisoners were sent to Chungeez Khan, who, on their arrival at Samurkund, ordered that the wuzeer Nasir-ud-deen and all the male children of Sultan Mahummud, however young, should be put to death.

The unfortunate Sultan Mahummud, when he heard of the capture of his mother, wives, and chil­dren, was so smitten with grief that he became distracted, and his heart bursting with anguish, he died:—Koran, “we belong to God, and to God we must return.” It is related that the few servants who remained with the poor king were unable to procure a cloth to bury him in, and they therefore interred him in the clothes he had on when he died. This event occurred in 617 Hejri, at the island of Abgoon. Sultan Mahummud reigned twenty-one years, by the account of the author of the Tarikhi Gozeedeh.

Sultan Mahummud had seven sons; of these, sultans Julal-ud-deen, Ghiaus-ud-deen, and Rokn-ud-deen, are the most celebrated by historians.

When Chungeez Khan had taken Samurkund, and reduced the whole of Mawurunneher, he des­patched his sons, Joje, Chughtaie, and Ooktaie to root out of Khorezm all the connexions and servants of Sultan Mahummud. These princes, with an immense army, accordingly took the road to Bokhara, and thence to Khorezm. Khorezm was at that time under charge of Khumurtgeen, one of the relations of Sultan Mahummud’s mother. The original name of Khorezm is Jur­jania; but the people of that part call it Orgunj. It is related that, at the time that Kurmutgeen was chief of Khorezm, several other chiefs of Sultan Mahummud’s were also there; as Kankuli Hajib, Pehlwan Ali, &c. The nobles and learned of the city were also very numerous, and the inhabitants without number. It happened, however, that none of the princes were there, that they might take the conduct of affairs on them; and the people, therefore, gave the name of sultan to Khumurtgeen. He and they were, however, very remiss in their preparations to oppose the Moghools; for before they were completed, of a sud­den, a party of horse appeared at the gate of the city, and began to drive off the cattle. The people foolishly supposed these were the whole of the Moghool force, not thinking of the army which followed them; and, accordingly, all the horse and foot in the town poured out to attack them, and pursued them to a garden called Khorm Bagh, about a fursung from the city, when the Booroonghar becoming the munkulaie, or advanced guard, of the Moghools, charged them in front and rear at the same time. The fight was, however, steadily maintained on both sides until the sun went down, when the brave Moghools followed them even into the gate of the city; but, as night approached, they with their usual caution retired.

The next morning, the Turks advanced towards the city; and a man named Feridoon Oodi, who was an old soldier of Sultan Mahummud Kho­rezm Shah’s, with five hundred chosen men, was stationed at the gate they approached. The Moghools stood the whole of that day before the town; and the next day, Joje Khan, Chughtaie Khan, and Ooktaie Khan arrived with an immense army; and, after sending a messenger to require the city to surrender, they and their troops, like the harbingers of death, surrounded it on every side. After these preliminaries they next began to prepare their engines for the siege, and as stones were not to be found, they sharp­ened stakes and trees in place of them. As soon as they were ready, they commenced their attack, which was supported without intermission for seven months.