The advance of Chungeez Khan to Iran.

It is related in the best histories extant, that Chungeez Khan marched with a well-appointed army towards Iran, in the year 615 Hejri (Toosh­kan Eel Toorki). On the route many chiefs with their followers joined him, as Arslan Khan, the chief of the Kurligh tribe, from Kialigh; also Yadakoot the chief of the tribe of Eikoor, from Paish Baligh; also Shuknak Tageen, with his tribe, from Almaligh. The Kirghiz or Kirkiz, how­ever, refused to join him, and Joje was therefore sent to coerce them. Joje marched with a considerable force, and as the rivers were all frozen over, he easily crossed them, and entirely subdued their country, and then returned to his father. As Chun­geez Khan advanced he despatched ambassadors to Sultan Mahummud, to apprize him he was coming to take satisfaction for the murder of his honest unoffending merchants and ambassadors. Chungeez Khan, about this period, despatched Ooktai Khan, and Choghtai Khan, with a great force, to attack Ghair Khan at Otrar. These ameers and their troops swam their horses across the river Sihoon, and encamped before that town. When Ghair Khan and Kurachi Saheb, the chiefs in authority there, saw the extent of the camp of the besieging army, they gave up all hopes of success; they, however, prepared to defend the city. At this time, also, Chungeez Khan des­patched Joje, and Yadakoot the chief of the Oighoor tribe, to Jund; and Alak Noyan, Sung­toor, and Bookaee, with five thousand horse, to Fusakut; Chungeez Khan, with Tooli and the rest of his army, marched to Bokhara, which city is called also Koobbut-ul-Islam.

It is said that the name of this city (Bokhara) is derived from the word Bokhar, which, in the language of the Mughs or Parsees, signifies a school or university, and the idolaters of Oighoor and Khatai call their temples Bokhar. When Chungeez arrived at Zurnook, the people of that town came out to meet him, and their lives and fortunes were spared. The people of Noor also submitted, and paid the tribute demanded, and they also were spared. Chungeez Khan altered the name of the town of Zurnook to Kutlugh Baligh, which signifies the fortunate city. He selected the young men of this town and took them on to Bokhara, where he arrived in the year 617 Hejri (or Yellan Eel Toorki), and encamped before the city. Kyook Khan, Hameed, Sooneh Khan, and Lushkur Khan, the chiefs who com­manded in the city, with thirty thousand men, that night made an attack on the Moghools: but their picquets being aware of the sortie, the besieged were defeated and many slain, and in the morn­ing, as the people of the city from the bad success of their night attack became dispirited, all the chief inhabitants and the learned came out to make peace with Chungeez Khan, and to obtain, by their submission, the safety of the people. Chungeez Khan also now entered the city to inspect it; when he arrived at the musjidi jama, or great mosque, seeing its size and grandeur, he entered it, and asked if this was the palace of the king? the people said, no;—he then asked whose it was? and they told him, the house of the Creator of the Universe. Chungeez Khan, on hearing this, immediately dismounted from his horse and went to the second step of the pulpit, where he sat down. He then addressed his men and told them there was no grass pro­curable in the fields, and he therefore desired them to empty the chests of books in the mosque, and fill them with barley and feed their horses in them, which they did, and gave their caps to the learned men who accompanied them, to hold; they then sat down and began to sing Moghool songs. After some time Chungeez Khan departed from the mosque to the Eedgah, where he sat down in the pulpit, and ordered that the people of the town should be assembled; he then told them that the displeasure of God had sent him among them to punish their wickedness; and an interpreter, being present, translated what Chungeez Khan said in the Moghool language, into the Persian language. After he had addressed them in this strain some time, he said, “What is shewn in the city requires no dis­cussion; I want to know and possess what is concealed.” The merchants and rich men on this, comprehending his object, consulted and agreed to pay ransom for their lives; a condition was, however, annexed, that they should not conceal any of Khorazm Shah’s people amongst them, but that they should be driven out of the city. It is related that, notwithstanding this condition, and that Chungeez Khan gave his yurligh, or orders, that the troops of Khorazm Shah should be expelled the city, and if any were harboured the inhabitants should be put to death; yet the people of the city concealed many of them in their houses. Some Tachiks of Bokhara, however, from malice disclosed this to Chungeez Khan, and orders were issued by him, in consequence, for a general massacre, and the whole of the inhabitants were murdered in cold blood—even ani­mals were included in the general slaughter. The Moghools after this burned the town, and filled up the ditch of the castle, which they also took and set on fire,—after putting Kyook Khan and the whole of the garrison to the sword.*