The Character of their Troops.

It is well known that, from the time of Adam to the present day, no kings have possessed troops equal to those of the Turks; none ever existed so patient in suffering and calamity, and so obedient and grateful in prosperity; so attached to their chiefs both in private and in public; so contented with their stations and degrees, whatever they may be, in life; or so brave and so expert in the use of their arms. The Turks are also famous for the readi­ness with which they adapt themselves to circum­stances, whether in war or peace; they also carry all their necessary utensils and arms into the field with them, and if any are deficient, they are punished; their women are also trained to assist their husbands in all things.

When any expedition of importance is to be undertaken, the chiefs of the oolooses or tribes com­municate the details to the ameers of thousands, and these again to those of hundreds, and so on; all are expected to provide their own resources. If an army is to be assembled, an order is given that so many thousand men are to be ready at a certain place and time, and it is not possible, under their regulations, that there should be any deviation from the order; and however distant may be the army from the Khan, all exertion is made to conform to his orders, and those are severely punished who neglect them. A single horseman is sent, who, if such be his orders, cuts off the offender’s head. No man can quit his tribe without permission; and if he does, no one can protect him, as both would certainly be publicly executed for the offence.

Goor Khan is the title of the kings of Kara Khatai, and signifies ‘lord of lords;’ the Goor Khans are descended from the chief inhabitants of Khatai. It is related that, before the rise of Chungeez Khan, eighty persons (some say a mul­titude) left that country from some dissensions existing among them, and proceeded to the coun­try of the Kurkeez, where they were opposed by that tribe, and were obliged to deviate in their course to Aimeel, where they built a city; and a great number of Turks and other tribes joining them, it is said that city at length contained forty thousand houses. At that time, in the city of Balasaghoon,* which the Moghools call Khan Baligh, or the beautiful city, there reigned an Ameer, who was descended from Afrasiab, but who was a weak prince, and the tribes of Turks, in conse­quence, frequently attacked and plundered his country.

When this prince heard of the power of Kara Khatai, king of Aimeel, he sent ambassadors to him and requested he would visit Balasaghoon and take it under his protection, that it might be relieved from the ravages of the Kurligh and Kunkuli tribes. Goor Khan, the king of Aimeel, at his request, accordingly repaired to Balasa­ghoon,* and having dispossessed the descendant of Afrasiab, at last poisoned him, and seated himself on the throne of the khans of Balasa­ghoon; after which, he reduced the robbers who plundered the country to obedience, and sub­dued the country of Kashghur and Khotun; he also reduced the tribes of Paish Baligh and Kur­keez, who had before opposed him. He then attacked Mawurunneher and Ferghauna; and the kings of Mawurunneher, who were the ancestors of the great Sultan Osman, submitted to his rule. He also defeated Sultan Sunjur at the gate of Samurkund, in the year 536 Hejri, agreeing with the Aiteel of the Toorks. Sultan Sunjur fled to Balkh, as will be found in the histories of that period. Goor Khan after this conquered most of Turkistan, Mawurunneher, &c.; and he also despatched a considerable force from Boor to plunder Khorezm, which it did effectually; and Aitseez, the chief of Khorezm, also offered his submission, besides presents and cattle, and agreed to pay him one thousand dinars yearly as a tribute. Goor Khan dying about this time, his queen, Kurneik, assumed the chief authority. The brother of Goor Khan, however, displaced her, and reigned under the title of Goor Khan. About this time Ail Arslan, the son of Aitseez Khorazm Shah, died, and Sultan Shah, the son of Ail Arslan, ascended the throne in his place. Turkash, the brother of Sultan Shah, however, opposed him and fled to Kara Khatai; and, with the aid of Goor Khan, returned and con­quered Khorezm, and Sultan Shah fled. Turkash ascended the throne on the 22d Rubbi-is-sani, in the year 568 Hejri, or the Turkish Loo-eel.*

Koshluk, the son of Naimanuk Khan, after the death of his father, sought refuge with Goor Khan; and, after remaining with him some time, observing that the ameers of Goor Khan to the east­ward had advanced their feet beyond the carpet of submission, and had rebelled against Chun­geez Khan, and that Sultan Osman, of Samur­kund, had also manifested enmity towards him; he addressed Goor Khan, and requested he would give him a force, that he might take advantage of these circumstances, assemble his tribe, and try to recover his father’s territory. Goor Khan, seduced by his representations, unfortunately for himself, agreed to his proposition, and dismissed him with the title of khan.

Koshluk accordingly assembled his scattered tribe, and the fame of his expedition having spread to all parts, most of the troops of Kara Khatai connected with him, joined him. When he arrived near Aimeel and Kialik, Tokhtughan, the chief of the Mukreet, who had fled from Chungeez Khan, also joined him, and he now being powerful, agree­ably to the adage, “power is sure to make men rebellious,” plundered the country, and committed great ravages: he also quarrelled with his patron, Goor Khan.

Sultan Mahummud Khorazm Shah, (who, after the death of his father Tukash, returned to Khorezm, and ascended the throne of that kingdom on the 25th Shawal, 596 Hejri, agreeing with Bije Eel Toorki,) being offended and ashamed that Goor Khan had demanded tribute from him, although the tribute had been paid by him and his fathers before him for many generations, also despatched a vukeel to Koshluk Khan, with a message, that he was about to attack Goor Khan, and recommending Koshluk to follow his example. These two princes, therefore, made an agreement, that if the sultan should first succeed in conquering Goor Khan, he was to take posses­sion of the country from Kashgar to Khotun; and if Koshluk should first succeed against Goor Khan, he should possess the country to the river Fusa­kut. They therefore advanced against Goor Khan; but Koshluk being first in the attack, a battle was fought by him with Goor Khan, in which he (Koshluk) was defeated.

When Sultan Mahummud Khorazm Shah advanced with his army to attack Goor Khan, and arrived at Bokhara, that city surrendered to him, and he thence marched to Samurkund. Sultan Osman, called the King of kings,* the chief of that city proceeded to meet Sultan Mahummud, he being offended with Goor Khan for his having refused him his daughter in marriage: he, therefore, ten­dered the sultan his alliance and obedience, by striking money and reading prayers in his name. Sultan Mahummud affianced his daughter (whose name was Khawind Sultan) to him; and leaving a relation of his, named Toortuboor, in Samurkund, marched with Sultan Osman towards Goor Khan, who on hearing of their movement directed Taneko, the commander of his army stationed at Tiraz, to prepare to oppose them. Sultan Mahummud crossed the river Sihoon by a bridge, which he afterwards destroyed, that his army might have no hopes of retreat. When he arrived at the desert of Eelash, Taneko met him with a numerous army; and on Friday, the 7th Rubbe-ul-avul, 607 Hejri, the troops on both sides being prepared for battle, the sultan directed his army to await until prayers had been read from the mimber, or pulpit, and then charge; in the hope that, by the efficacy of prayer, the Most High, the giver of victory, might afford them his divine assistance. As soon as the tukbeer and prayers were read, therefore, they charged; and the battle, although bloody, was not doubtful. The troops of Goor Khan were defeated, and Taneko wounded and taken and sent prisoner by the sultan to Khorezm, with an account of his victory. Boorak Hajib of Kara Khatai (an account of whom will be found in the History of Kirman) was also taken in this battle, with his brother Hameed, the son of Poor, and both were brought before the sultan; and, after some time, Hameed was exalted to the amarut, or was made an ameer; and his brother to the office of hajib, and therefore called Boorak Hajib. Sultan Mahummud, after this victory, was called Sekundur Sani, or the second Alex­ander. He after this marched to Otrar, the chief of which city submitted, and was pardoned, and allowed to retain his property on condition he should remove with his family to Nussa; and on his departure the sultan appointed Ainan Jowk, a relation of his mother’s, to command at Otrar, and then returned by Samurkund to Khorezm, where he directed that Taneko, the chief of Goor Khan’s army, should be put to death, and that his body should be thrown into the Sihoon.