An Account of the Customs of the Moghool Tribes, and the Yasaie, or Regulations of the great Chun­geez Khan.

As the Almighty, blessed be his name! had bestowed more knowledge of the affairs of this world on Chungeez than on any of the sons of Turk, the son of Japhet; he (Chungeez), in his wisdom, instituted certain regulations in his judgment fitted for all cases and circumstances, and he also devised punishments for all offences. Among these, the fine for the murder of a Mussulman was fixed at forty (balish* or) pieces of gold. The fine for a man of Khatai was estimated at the price of an ass.

Before the time of Chungeez, the Moghools do not appear to have had any written language: Chungeez Khan, therefore, directed them and their children to learn the Oighoor character. The orders or regulations of which we speak are written in that character in the records called Shub Ashob, and they are also called the Great Code of Regula­tions.* This book was deposited in the treasury, and was so highly esteemed by the Turks, that they never departed from its authority.

When the tribes and families of the Moghools first joined Chungeez, their customs were loose. By these regulations, however, theft and other crimes were checked and eradicated.

Whenever Chungeez Khan wrote to the kings and princes of his time, his style was formed after the manner of the Ancients, for he never regarded the extent of their kingdoms or their power, but in all cases, the spirit of his address was this: “If you join and obey us, your lives will be spared; if you do not, the fault is not with us; God only knows what may be the consequence.” These words were expressed in affectation of a pious reliance on the result, and after that, for whatever befel them, they themselves were answerable.

Chungeez Khan, being attached to no religion in particular, was entirely divested of the rancour and hostility with which one sect generally regards another. The religious of all sects were therefore received by him with equal deference and respect, particularly as he considered their mediation with the Deity in his favour as highly efficacious.

As the territory of Chungeez now became very extensive, and as intelligence from remote parts was constantly arriving, and moreover, as an immediate and constant communication with them was indispensable, he stationed relays of horses at different places, and provided for their subsistence, and that of the men attached to them, from each Toman.

At each stage, also, the horses were registered, that expresses might be sent by the different agents and ambassadors without delay; and also that his subjects and troops might not sustain annoyance or injury.*