The history of Boozunjur Khan, the son of Alenko or Alunko, the daughter of Choyumna Khan, the son of Yuldooz, the son of Munguli Khwajeh, of the tribe of Koorlass, the descendants of the Kyaat.

From historical evidence it is established, that when Yuldooz Khan died, he left two sons, one named Ooyumna Khan and the other Choyumna Khan.

Ooyumna Khan had one son, named Dewun Beyan, and Choyumna Khan a daughter, named Alankooah, or Alunko. This lady was extremely beautiful, and at the age of fourteen she was mar­ried to Dewun Beyan, the son of her uncle Ooyumna, the son of Yuldooz, at that time chief of the Moghools. By this prince she had two sons, one named Bolkodi and the other Boljoodi. Dewun Beyan died after they had been married three years, and Alankooah succeeded to his authority over the Moghools.

It is related that Alankooah being in her chamber one night, awake, and mourning for her husband, a ray of light entered the window and illumined the whole of the apartment. This light suddenly condensed, and assumed the form of a handsome young man, who approached and entered her bed. Alankooah strove to resist him, but without effect; and after he had remained with her some time, he assumed the form of a wolf, and in that shape left her apartment. This spirit for a long time continued in this manner to visit Alankooah, who at last found she was with child, and her condition became too evident for concealment. The tribe of Moghools being exasperated at her supposed incon­tinence, reproached her in very severe terms, and Alankooah found herself obliged to assemble the chiefs, and enter into an explanation of her extraordinary case: she therefore detailed all the cir­cumstances as they occurred, and desired them to convince themselves of the truth of what she had said, by watching at her window a few nights, which they did, and at length satisfied themselves of the truth of Alankooah’s statement. Burning with rage, however, at the dishonour done to their family, they determined, the next time the spirit or wolf returned, to kill him; and accordingly, when he next came, they attacked him with their swords and knives, but found that at every blow they made at him they inflicted wounds on them­selves, and did him no harm. They therefore, with good reason, abstained from offering any further violence to the wolf, and allowed him to depart. The chiefs now admitted the veracity of Alankooah, and all reproach ceased. But the Moghools are still divided as to the nature of the man of light, as they call him; some conceiving him to be an angel, some saying the light of God visited Alankooah, and that she must be considered pure as the Virgin Mary. Some, however, stigma­tize this as an impious attempt to raise the character of Alankooah to an equality with the mother of Jesus, and say that the person who visited her was either a man or a jin (one of the genii). Alan­kooah was in due time delivered of three sons at one birth: the first was named Boorkoon, the second Bosoonghoor, and the third Boozunjur. It is said that the birth of these children occurred in the year of the Hejri 111, which is also the auspicious year in which Ameer Aboo Moslim of Meroze also manifested himself.

The author of the history of Boozunjur (the first king of this stock) calls him Saheb Kiran.

Boorkoon had two sons; one called Kubki, from whom the tribe of Kubkeen is descended; and the other Kutghan, who is the great ancestor of the Kutghan family. Bosoonghoor had two sons; one called Saljee, who is the father of the Moghool tribes of that name; and the other named Sal­jeeout, who is the father of the Saljeeout tribe.

Boozunjur had also two sons; one named Boo­kee, who is the great ancestor of all the kings of Turkistan, and the other named Tookta.

The descendants of the man of light and Alan­kooah, are called Neroon, and those who are descended from Dewun Beyan, Dulkeen. These latter have for their great ancestor, Ooyumna Khan; the children of Dulkeen are also called Oimavut.

It is related that when these three sons of Alankooah were born, the astrologers of that period predicted that they would become the fathers of many great nations, particularly Boo­zunjur Khan, who it was stated would reduce all the tribes of Moghools to acknowledge his authority and become the greatest king of his age; and after him, his descendants would be kings to the end of time.

In historical documents, it is also stated that the three sons produced by Alankooah had each at his birth a purchum* (a mole or tuft of hair) on his head; that those of Boorkoon and Bosoonghoor depended from their ears, but that of Boozunjur Khan was on the top of his head; this was under­stood as a mark of sovereignty by the learned of that time. Boozunjur also possessed another sign of royalty, which was, that in his infancy, when­ever his nurse laid him to sleep on his back, he immediately turned round and slept on his face; and it is also stated, that the bones of his neck were so rigid or inflexible, that he could not turn his head on either side without also turning his body round. Some say the bones of his neck were without joints; these are also signs of greatness. It is also said that the purchum on the head of Boozunjur Khan was the mark of his superiority, and that those on the ears of his brethren denoted servitude or inferiority.

Boozunjur Khan was the ninth lineal ancestor of Timoocheen Chungeez Khan, and the fourteenth in ascent from Ameer Timoor Goor Khan.

Boozunjur Khan is said to have excelled all his followers in hunting, wrestling, horsemanship, and in arms. When he arrived at manhood, with the consent of the chiefs of the ooloos, on the first of the month of Rubbi-il-Avul, 130 Hejri, he was seated on the Moghool throne. It is also related that he was contemporary with Aboo Mooslim of Meroze. Aboo Mooslim was born in the hundredth year after Mahummud. It is stated by historians that Boozunjur Khan was the restorer of the race of Moghool kings, which had been previously extinct or latent. He also reduced all the chiefs of the Tatars (in possession of kingly power) to sub­mit to his authority, and he was therefore called Kaan,* which signifies ‘great king.’ The Moghools are not profuse of their titles, and it is remarkable, that they are accustomed to add one name only to the ordinary appellations of their kings. It may be here remarked also of the troops of the Moghools, that they are grateful and obedient. If a chief had the command of an army of one hundred thousand men, and the king, for any fault he might commit, should send for his head, a single horse­man would suffice to bring it.

The chiefs appointed to a post dare not quit it, nor would others allow them to quit it.

Whenever Moghools are assembled, they always select one of their number to be their chief, and obey him with every mark of respect and atten­tion; but they will not be governed by any but the race of their chiefs.

Boozunjur Khan had two sons; one named Booka,* and the other named Tookta, who had only one son, named Macheen.

Booka Khan succeeded his father, and when he died was succeeded by Dootmeen his son. It is said that this prince had a very beautiful wife, named Khatoon Menooloon, who, on his death, retired to the mountains called Anosh Arki; and as she had nine sons, she demanded a daughter from each of the Moghool tribes for them. Her wealth in herds is said to have been immense.

At that period, the tribe of Jullair, of the race of Darulgeen, had increased to a great extent, and seventy kuruns* of this tribe were then encamped on the western bank of the river Kulooran. At that time, also, there was war between the tribes of Moghools and those of Khatai. The troops of Khatai at this time advanced to make an attack on the Jullair tribe, and arrived at the river Kulooran; but the river having overflowed, they could not cross, and therefore encamped on the opposite bank; the Jullair, relying on the depth of the water, taunted and ridiculed them. The Khatai chiefs and troops, however, soon made a bridge, and having crossed over the river, attacked them with such fury that nearly the whole of this tribe was destroyed, except a few who sought refuge at Anosh Arki, the residence of Menooloon. These, however, were so reduced by their misfortune as to be compelled to subsist on the sonekoon, or mountain onion; and as, from their continual dig­ging for these onions, they injured the pasturage and rendered the ground broken and uneven, Menooloon was at last obliged to sorbid their digging any more. The Jullair were deeply offended by the prohibition, and watched for an opportunity to revenge the insult they conceived was offered them; and one night an opportunity presenting itself, they treacherously attacked Menooloon’s camp, and murdered both Menooloon and her adherents; but being aware of the consequences, should her sons by Dootmeen escape, they fol­lowed them to a place where they were out hunt­ing, and having surprised these young men, they killed eight of them. Kaidoo Khan, the remain­ing son, at the time his brethren were killed, had proceeded to court the daughter of a chief of the Kinoot tribe, who was related to him, being the child of his uncle Macheen. When Macheen heard of the treachery of the Jullair tribe, he kept Kaidoo Khan with him, and despatched a vakeel to the chiefs of the Jullair to demand satisfaction of them. The chiefs made many excuses, and asserted that the wrong had been done without their privity or consent; that they were engaged in war with Khatai, and that the tribe which had com­mitted this crime resided far distant from them. The chiefs of the Jullair, however, in order to satisfy Macheen, put to death seventy of the mur­derers of Menooloon and her servants, and for­warded their families to Kaidoo Khan and Macheen, and these families remained their slaves ever after. Kaidoo Khan and Macheen Khan resided on the banks of the river Urbon.

Kaidoo Khan is the sixth ancestor of Chungeez Khan and Kurachar Noyan, and by the aid afforded him by his uncle Macheen, he succeeded his father. He dug a canal, called Juraloom, which adorned and fertilized his country; he made war frequently on the tribe of Jullair, and reigned independent. He had three sons, Boisunghoor, Churkeh Lin­koom, and Jarcheen. The son of Jarcheen was named Soojeeout, and is the father of the tribe of Soojeeout.

Churkeh Linkoom had many children, the eldest of whom was named Surokud: he succeeded to the chieftainship of his father, and the tribe of Surokud is derived from him. The next son of Churkeh Linkoom was named Tasjoot, the father of the tribe of Tasjoot. A son of Surokud, named Humeka, in his youth, fell in with a body of Tatars, and was made prisoner by them and carried to Altan Khan, the chief of Khatai. Altan Khan, from an old enmity to his family, put him to death, by nailing him to a wooden ass.

When Kaidoo Khan died, he was succeeded by his son, Boisunghur Khan, as king of the Moghools, and on his death his place was filled by his son, Toomneh Khan. This chief made some new conquests in Turkistan, and joined them to his paternal possessions. He had two wives, one of whom brought him seven sons; and the other, two sons, who were twins. The latter excelled all their brethren in strength and valour: the name of one twin was Kubul, and that of the other Kacholi. Kubul was the fifth ancestor of Chungeez Khan, and the eighth from Ameer Timoor Goor Khan.

When these young men had arrived at manhood, it happened, one night, that Kacholi dreamed he saw three stars rise on the left of Kubul Khan, one after another, and these stars having attained the meridian, declined and disappeared, when a fourth star of great magnitude, and very bright, arose from the neck of Kubul Khan, and after some time many smaller stars separated from it, which shed light over all parts of the horizon; and when the great star had set, they still con­tinued to shine with undiminished splendour. When Kacholi awakened from his dream, he found a large portion of the night was still unexpired, and therefore again composed himself to sleep, and again dreamed that seven stars rose from his neck successively, and that an eighth arose, of very large size and great refulgence; several stars also separated from this, and shed light over dif­ferent parts of the earth; and when the great stars had declined and set, the remainder still continued to illumine the heavens. When Kacholi awoke from his second dream, it was morn­ing, and he arose and went to his father, to whom he related his vision. Toomneh Khan, on hearing his recital, expressed much joy, and sent imme­diately for Kubul Khan, and when he arrived, desired Kacholi to relate his dreams again, that they might all hear them. The astrologers and sages of that period, by order of Toomneh Khan expounded these dreams: to the first they gave the following interpretation, viz. That three kings would reign successively, of the seed of Kubul Khan, but that the fourth would be the conqueror of a great part of the inhabited world; that he would have many children, who would all reign over different parts of the earth; and that their descendants, for a long period, would also succeed them in rank and power. The interpretation of the second dream was, that seven of the imme­diate descendants of Kacholi would also be rulers in a second degree; but the eighth, whose existence was denoted by the large star, would become the conqueror of the greatest part of the earth; that he would have many children, who would all be kings of different countries.

When Toomneh Khan heard this prediction, he determined to constitute these two sons his succes­sors, and Kubul and Kacholi entered into a solemn covenant, in the presence of their father, that the throne of the kaans or khans should descend to Kubul, and the command of the troops and the direction of all military affairs should devolve to Kacholi; and that this covenant should extend to all their children and descendants in the same manner. This agreement being written in the Oighoor character, all the princes of the family signed it, and it was called the Al Tumghaie.

When Toomneh Khan died, he was succeeded by his son, Kubul Khan, and Kacholi continued in friendship with him, and obedient to his commands.

Kubul Khan was a great prince, and the fifth ancestor of Chungeez Khan; his brother Kacholi filled the office of Noyan. The Turks call Kubul Khan, Alchung Khan, which signifies ‘the protec­tor and cherisher of his people,’ and all the tribes of Moghools were subject to him.

The Khan of Khatai, or the Emperor of China, hearing of the justice and power of Kubul Khan, became much alarmed, and despatched ambassa­dors to him, with a friendly message, to invite him to meet him. Kubul Khan agreed to visit him, and having constituted Kacholi, who is the third ancestor of Kurachar Noyan, his viceroy, marched towards Khatai. Altan Khan, the chief of Khatai, received him with great respect; and at an enter­tainment given on the occasion, plied him with wine, which Kubul Khan, suspecting it was poi­soned, avoided drinking.*

It is related that Altan Khan, when Kubul Khan took leave of him, presented him with a crown of gold* and a belt ornamented with jewels. The Ameers of Khatai, however, slandered him after his departure, and expressed their sorrow that so great an enemy was allowed to depart. Altan Khan, therefore, sent messengers after him to desire him to return. Kubul Khan replied, he had departed with the good-will of the Khan, and that he did not know the shokoon,* or the way, to return. When Altan Khan heard this, he became much inflamed with anger, and despatched a body of troops after him. Kubul Khan, when they approached, concealed himself in the house of one of his friends, named Saljooki, and there came to a determination to return to Altan Khan. Saljooki, however, dissuaded him from so hazardous a pro­ceeding, and told him that if he returned he would risk his life, seeing that Altan Khan no doubt entertained sinister designs against him; that he would lend him a horse which, from his speed, would certainly clear him of his enemies; Kubul Khan accepted his offer and mounted the horse, which carried him home in safety. The detach­ment of horse sent in pursuit of him by Altan Khan, however, followed him thither. Kubul Khan first ordered that they should be kindly treated, but on consulting with his chiefs, by their advice, put them all to death. Kubul Khan gave the crown and belt he had received from Altan Khan, to his brother Kacholi.

It is related that Kubul Khan had a wife of the tribe of Kunkoorat, named Kowa Kurak. This woman had three sons by him; the eldest was named Ooktun Turkak, the second was named Kowilai Khan, and the third Boortai Bahadoor. The eldest, Ooktun Khan, was exceedingly hand­some. One day, Ooktun Khan Turkak (who is the father of the tribe of Turkak), soon after his mar­riage, went out on a hunting excursion, and by accident fell in with a party of Tatars, who seized him and carried him to Altan Khan. Altan Khan, from cruelty and enmity to his family, ordered him to be put to death, by nailing him to a wooden ass.

When Kubul Khan died, his son Kowilai Khan succeeded him, and assembled a force of Moghools to revenge the death of his brother Turkak. Kowilai Khan, having completed his army, marched against Altan Khan, defeated him, and took the whole of his baggage.

It is related that Kowilai Khan was a very strong man, and that he had a remarkably loud voice; he was therefore called Kowilai Alp;* no man of his time could engage in a personal con­tention with him; in the battle with Altan Khan, he charged and cut down his toogh,* and defeated the asabah or select troop of his army, and from that circumstance the battle was gained.

When he died, he was succeeded by his brother, Boortai Bahadoor.

Boortai Bahadoor, the son of Kubul Khan, was placed on the Moghool throne by the chiefs of that nation. He was a prince of great valour, ability, and power; and after his accession, Kacholi Bahadoor, his uncle, died, and Boortai appointed his son Eroomjee in his place, as com­mander of the forces, and gave him the name or title of Birlass; all his people were thence called Eroomjee Birlass: the tribes of Birlass are said to be descended from him. Boortai Bahadoor had many sons; Yusookai Bahadoor excelled all the rest in wisdom and valour. After the death of Boortai, Busookai, or Yusookai, his son, succeeded him; in his reign, Eroomjee Noyan Birlass died. He had twenty-nine sons—of these the chief were named Esun, Aghool, Ooltan, and Sooghoo Chi­chun; the most capable of the sons of Eroomjee, however, was Sooghoo Chichun, whose ability and bravery were well known;* for this reason he was held in great esteem by Yusookai, and placed in the office held by his father Eroomjee, i. e. the command of the troops. The descendants of the other twenty-eight brothers and Yusooghoo Noyan or Chichun, became numerous; a quarrel existing between Yusookai Bahadoor and the Tatar tribes, with the advice of Sooghoo Chichun, he assembled an army and attacked them. In this campaign, the Moghools were very success­ful; they plundered the Tatar hordes and took prisoners their chiefs Timoocheen Ooka and Kara Baka.

When Yusookai Bahadoor had successfully com­pleted his expedition, and was on the road to return home, he was met by Chup Koonchi Dana, a mes­senger, who informed him that Aloon Yoonke Khatoon, his queen, had presented him with a son. It is related that this child was born on the 9th of Zi Huj, 540 Hejri (A. D. 1145), in the Turk­ish year called The Boar; and some say he was born on the 20th of Zikad, in the Tungooz-eel, 549 Hejri (A. D. 1154): but all agree that he was born with his hands and feet sprinkled with blood, a peculiarity said to have denoted his blood<-?>thirsty unsparing character. When Yusookai Bahadoor heard of the birth of his son, he was much pleased, and requested his chiefs to fix on a name to be given him. Sooghoo Chichun, on this occasion, represented that he knew from certain circum­stances, that his son was the star which was to illuminate the face of the earth, and for whose approach the learned in the histories of former times were waiting in daily expectation; that it was proper, therefore, he should give him the name of some great king, and that he should have no other name. Yusookai Bahadoor coin­cided with Sooghoo Chichun, and the Moghool chiefs assembled and determined that he should be called Timoochin, for this reason, that Timoo­chin Ooka, the king of the Tatars, taken prisoner by Yusookai Bahadoor, was the greatest prince of his time.

Yusookai Bahadoor besides Timoochin had four sons by the same wife, their names were Joji, Koosar, Kuchghoon and Oonche; their descendants are very numerous. Yusookai had by another of his wives a son named Tulkooti; this young man was inseparable from his father in the field, and in his domestic concerns: he had also several other sons, whose names are Ootgeen Noyan, Elja Noyan, Tukoot, and Rookai.

Yusookai Bahadoor died in the month of Tan­goozeel, 562 Hejri. Timoochin was then sixteen years old, and about that time, Sooghoo Chichun, the chief of the army, also died, and his sons, Byusam and Kurachar Noyan, being very young, the troops of Yusookai Bahadoor abandoned his chil­dren and joined the tribe of Taijoot. At that time, the tribes of Moghools were not under one chief, but each had a chief of its own; and they were continually fighting with each other. Timoo­chin, therefore, until he arrived at manhood, was literally the child of misfortune; but as it was ordained he should become a great man, he over­came all his difficulties.

He was continually engaged in war with the tribes of Jamooka or Jajerat, Taijoot, Kunkoorat, Jullair, Sojee, and Bek or Pyke; the tribe of Bir­lass, the sons of Eroomjee, also opposed him. At this time, Timoochin, who resided near Oonuk* Khan, contracted a friendship with him; and Soo­ghoo Chichun, the founder of the tribe of Birlass, had a son, named Kurachar, who joined Timoochin, and both depending upon the friendship which had formerly subisted between Yusookai Bahadoor and Oonuk Khan, sought protection with the latter. Oonuk Khan was the chief of the tribe of Kirayut, and a prince of great power; he was also the friend of Altan Khan, king of Khatai.

After Timoochin had served Oonuk Khan a short time, the latter became very much attached to him, and entertained so high an opinion of his wisdom, that no measures were undertaken without his advice, and at length Oonuk Khan adopted him as his son. In this high situation, he performed many great actions, and among the rest fought with Arki Kara, the brother of Oonuk Khan; and also with Oorkin and Tookta Begi, the leaders of the tribe of Makreet, and defeated them all.

In consequence of this, the tribes of Taijoot, Saljoot, Kunkoorat, Bahreen, Durman, Makreet, Jajerat, Jullair, Tatar, Jyurat, Boorkeen and Koi­keen, confederated against Oonuk Khan and Timoo­chin. It is related that at the time of their making their treaty of confederacy, they sacrificed a bull, a horse, a kooh,* and a dog, and each prayed that he who violated the articles might be put to death in the same manner: this is the most solemn form of oath and imprecation in use among these tribes.

When Oonuk Khan and Timoochin heard of this treaty, they assembled troops, and at a place called Shuhoori Naderian, a battle was fought, in which the confederates were defeated and reduced to subjection.

At this time also, Boirak, the brother of Naiman Khan, who was the chief of the Naiman tribe, made war on Oonuk Khan and Timoochin, and brought a force to attack them; he also ordered the jedehches, or magicians, to perform jedeh: this the Turks call jedeh yai eez.

The magicians, in pursuance of his orders, threw the jedeh stone (which has been before described) into water, and immediately a storm arose, which covered the plains with snow and hail. This was done to destroy the troops of Oonuk Khan and Timoochin: but the result turned out contrary to their expectations, as most of the troops of Boirak were destroyed by it. An attack was afterwards made on them at a place called Kotun, but the troops of Boirak fled without making any resistance.

Timoochin remained eight years with Oonuk Khan, and in that time performed many great actions, but from the affection manifested towards him by Oonuk Khan, the relations of that chief envied and hated him, and sought his destruction. Their machinations, however, for some time had no effect, until Jamooka, who was the chief of the tribe of Jajerat, and who of old was an enemy to Timoochin, represented to Shunkoon, the son of Oonuk Khan, the great power Timoochin had attained, and stated that he was in league with Ata­bang Khan, to wrest the kingdom of Oonuk Khan from his and his father’s hands. Shunkoon did not, at first, place any confidence in the statement, nor did Oonuk Khan give credit to it; it being, how­ever, repeated, with warnings, that if they did not take care of the son of Yusookai, it would be too late, Oonuk Khan became alarmed, and having assembled his chiefs, they all agreed to anticipate Timoochin.

It happened, however, that one of the chiefs, in private conversation with his wife, disclosed this secret, and that two boys, the name of one of whom was Badaie,* and the other Kushluk,* who were bringing milk from the herds, being under the window of the apartment, overheard the conversa­tion. These lads, being unwilling Timoochin should be injured, immediately went to him, and gave him a full account of what they had heard. Timoochin was greatly affected at the intelligence, and having imparted it to Kurachar Noyan, the same night, they left their tents standing, and fled to the mountains with their dependents. Oonuk Khan, the same night, with a large body of troops, surrounded the tents of Timoochin, and as many fires were blazing in the encampment, ordered his men to pour a shower of arrows into it; as no one, however, appeared, they entered the camp, and found it empty; and they therefore followed the track of Timoochin, and in a short time his spies informed him Oonuk Khan had arrived. Timoochin was alarmed in consequence of the small­ness of his force; however, Kowildar Noyan sug­gested to him that there was a chance of success, in occupying as a strong position an eminence in the rear of the enemy, and that the best thing they could do was to seize it and place their standard on the top of it; they therefore charged, and obtained possession of the hill. It is related that Timoochin showed such excessive bravery, and even rashness, that day, that he appeared to have devoted himself to death. The battle was fought at a place called Koolachin, and in it Shunkoon, the son of Oonuk Khan, was wounded, and a great por­tion of the tribe of Kirayut destroyed. When the troops of Oonuk Khan retreated, Timoochin also quitted the field and retired to a fountain named Balkhooni (the water of which was salt), and those troops which had before separated from him, joined him there. At this place, Kurachar Noyan repre­sented to Timoochin, that on such a memorable occasion, it was advisable he should order the names of all those persons who were present in the battle to be inscribed in his records, and that every one of them should be provided with a munsub or jageer. Timoochin greatly approved of the measure proposed by Kurachar Noyan, and their names were inscribed in the records, and each was placed in the Oonghar and Joon­ghar, which together consisted of twelve koors.* An oorooni, or place of honour, was established for each koor. 1st. The two koors of the right and left had permission to sit in the presence of Timoochin, because they were distinguished by rank and learning. 2d. The next two tribes of the right and left were stationed at the door of his durbar, and they were ordered to stand and superintend the entrance and departure of persons to and from the hall of audience. 3d. Two tribes of the right and left were stationed outside the door of the hall or durbar, where Timoochin sat. These were placed each agreeably to its rank or ooroon, and were allowed to sit. These tribes were composed of the bravest men in his army. 4th. Two koors or tribes of the left and right were ordered to take their places behind the two preceding koors, and were permitted to sit. 5th. The next two were also directed to sit in the rear of the fourth, and the two last koors of the right and left were ordered to sit behind them. Timoochin also appointed yussawals to superintend the places, and the order in which the koors were disposed. The twelve koors were also divided into six right and six left, both in the durbar and in the field. Those who were in the battle fought against Oonuk Khan, received greater honours than the rest; and the two young men, who informed Timoochin of the evil intention of Oonuk Khan, were entitled Tur Khan, which sig­nifies a chief who is not subject to base or low ser­vices, and who is in battle permitted to retain whatever spoil he takes. The Tur Khan is also privileged to enter the durbar or presence when­ever he pleases, and, until he commits nine offences, is not amenable to justice. Timoochin ordered, that for nine generations all immunities should be preserved inviolate to them. The present tribe of Tur Khan is descended from these lads, but most of the Tur Khans are of the tribe of Badaie. Those Tur Khans who belong to the ooloos of Chughtai are the descendants of Kushluk.

Timoochin, having for the present presented written patents of titles and feuds to his chiefs and army, moved to Khatai, and encamped in an ooroon* called Naroo, on the banks of a river under a mountain, in the boundary of that king­dom. He mustered his army here, and found he had four thousand six hundred horse and foot. The tribe of Kunkoorat here joined him, and as forage was abundant, he remained at this place many days. When Timoochin Khan had assembled a sufficient number of troops, he despatched a vakeel to Oonuk Khan to inquire the reason of his enmity, and several messages passed between them, and every prospect appeared of an accom­modation. Timoochin, however, on the last mes­sage, despatched a spy with the eelchee or ambas­sador of Oonuk Khan, and moved after him with all his forces. Timoochin had not advanced far, when he was met by Oonuk Khan and his troops, and a battle ensued. In this battle, Kurachar Noyan was opposed personally to Oonuk Khan, and killed his horse; and Oonuk Khan, being defeated, fled with his son to the tribe of Naiman; his wife and daughter, however, fell into the hands of Timoochin. Oonuk Khan and his son sought refuge with Tabang Khan, of Naiman, and it is said the former was there murdered by the ameers of Tabang Khan. Shunkoon, however, escaped, and fled to Kashghur, where he was seized by the tyrant of that country and murdered. The tribe of Kirayut immediately after this battle surren­dered, and acknowledged Timoochin as their chief, as did most of the chiefs of the Moghools. This event occurred in the year 599 Hejri, in the month called Tungooz-eel, and at that time Timoochin was forty-nine years of age.

Timoochin, after this, returned to his own coun­try; and the whole of the tribes of Moghools in that quarter immediately repaired to his residence, which was called Naiman Gireh, and there con­stituted him their king.

About this time, Naimanuk Khan, the king of the tribe of Naiman, being apprehensive of the power and intentions of Timoochin, prepared to oppose him, and the tribes of Awirat, Duriat, Tatar, Dukeek, Makreet, and Jamooka, joined him in his object. He also despatched a message to Alakosh Sakeen, who was the khan of the tribe of Ankout, to this effect: that another king had arisen among them; that it was impossible their interests should not clash; and that it was in the power of Alakosh to prevent the rise of this new potentate, by joining him in abridging his authority. When Alakosh received this message, being a man of sense, he despatched one of his chiefs, named Nooridash, to Timoochin. This chief informed Timoochin of the intrigues and object of Naimanuk Khan, and entered into a treaty of friendship with him; and as Timoochin was before aware of the enmity of Naimanuk Khan towards him, this information only made him the more eager to take revenge for his evil designs. He therefore assembled his chiefs and family, to consult on what plans should be adopted in this exigency. Kurachar Noyan* being present, advised him above all things to lose no time in attacking his enemy, and convinced him, that the earlier he commenced, the greater chance there was of success. Timoochin adopted his opinion, and about the middle of the month Jumad-us-sani, 600 Hejri, or the Turkish month Sunjkoon-eel, marched to attack Naiman Khan, and on their meeting at a place called Kultaki Ooktai, a bloody battle was fought, in which Naiman Khan, the son of Enanuch Khan, with almost all his chiefs, were killed. When Timoochin marched from Kultaki to attack Naiman Khan, by the advice of Kurachar Noyan and his chiefs, he arranged his troops in seven divisions. His son Tooli was appointed to the booljoonghar, and Koblai and Jubeh Noyan to the booroonghar, and also to act as the munghulai, or advanced guard. Joji was placed near the togh or standard, in the divi­sion called the ghool, or main body; the com­mand of the oonghar, or right wing, was given to Chughutai, Timoochin’s son, and that of the joon­ghar, which is the left wing, was given to the Prince Ooktai. The chieftainship of the boos­toonghar, which is called the rear division, was committed to Kurachar Noyan. Timoochin, with the kunghoors, or bravest men in his army, took his station with the ookchoonghar (sakeh), and advanced in this order.

It is related that when the dust raised by the army of Timoochin was observed by Naiman Khan, he consulted with his chiefs, and deter­mined to retire a few marches, in the hope that the horses of Timoochin (being very much out of condition) would be unable to follow him, and that he might thereby obtain an opportunity to attack him to advantage.

Naiman Khan had in his army a chief named Koozi Soyajoo; this man had served him from his infancy, and on this occasion took the liberty to represent to him that his (Naiman’s) father, Ena­nuch Khan, never rested from his labours in the field while an enemy was before him; that he never retreated in the face of an enemy; and that such a measure was disgraceful. On hearing this, Naiman Khan became much ashamed, and immediately ordered the troops to prepare for battle; and at this time, Prince Tooli arrived with the booljoonghar, or advanced guard, of Timoochin’s army, and attacked that of Naiman’s army, which was defeated and dispersed; to assist them, how­ever, the booroonghar of Naiman Khan, under Koozi, advanced; but they were met by the mun­ghulai or advance, commanded by Koblai and Noyan Jubeh; the battle here was nearly equal, and in the contest many were slain. At this period, the ghool, or main body, of Timoochin’s troops, arrived, preceding the right and left wings. Chughutai next advanced with the right wing. and Ooktai with the left; Joji remained with the asubeh or reserve, to secure the flanks and rear. On this occasion, Kurachar Noyan displayed a bravery almost superhuman, and Naiman Khan in opposing him performed many glorious feats of arms. At this time, Timoochin (or Chungeez Khan) charged with the élite of his troops, and Naiman Khan, after great exertions, and performing won­derful acts of valour, being desperately wounded and faint from loss of blood, fell on the neck of his horse, and retired with his ameers to a neigh­bouring mountain with his standard. When he arrived at the mountain, he was speechless, and at the point of death; and Koozi, on seeing his con­dition, in a paroxysm of grief and anger, recom­mended they should immediately descend from the mountain, and revenge his death or die with him. The Naiman ameers accordingly descended from the mountain, and again attacked Timoochin, and, true to their faith and Naiman Khan, were all slain. Timoochin expressed great admiration at their fidelity and resolution on this occasion. In this battle, the tribe of Naiman was nearly exterminated, and Naiman Khan expired from loss of blood.

After the death of Naiman Khan, no person of his family remained but his son Kushluk, who sought refuge with his uncle Boirak, and reported to him the death of his father.

After Timoochin had conquered Naiman Khan and his tribe, Tokta Begi Khan, of the tribe of Makreet, became insubordinate, and he therefore marched towards his country, and on his arrival there gave him battle and a great defeat, and reduced the Makreet to submission. After this defeat, Tokta Begi fled with his son to Boirak Khan, the brother of Naiman Khan; and Timoochin marched towards the country of the tribe of Tingit (Tungut, perhaps), which is called Kashin or Fashin. On the road thither, the troops of Timoo­chin took prisoner Tair Oosoon, who had sought refuge in a fortress, and brought him to Timoochin. When Timoochin arrived at Kashin, he took the chief fort or city in that country and razed it to the ground. Timoochin, wherever he went, accepted those eels or tribes who professed to obey him, joined them to his army and improved their condition; but he relentlessly destroyed all those who opposed him in arms; by this means he reduced all the eels and oolooses of the Moghools and Turks to obedience. Those tribes, however, who were with him in the battle with Oonuk Khan, and in those subsequently fought, he treated with peculiar kindness, gave them fees of lands, and made them chiefs of tomans.* These titles and feuds subsist among the descendants of the Turks to this day.

In the month of Rujub, 602 Hejri, or Parus-eel, Timoochin ordered a togh or white flag to be displayed, and that a kurultai, or general meeting of his subjects, should be convoked; and accord­ingly, he sent a messenger, or evandoochee, to every tribe.

It is proper to remark here, that in the Moghool language, kurultai signifies ‘a general assembly.’

When all his sons and ameers had assembled and were presented, they made their offerings, and were placed in different koors, or classes, agreeably to their rank; and Timoochin then seated himself on his throne, and received their compliments and homage.

At that period, there was a man, an abdul,* residing near the court of Timoochin, called Tib Tankri by the Moghools, and Ulunkaj by the Oozbuks, for this reason, that he possessed the gift of prophecy. It is related that this man at all seasons remained naked and alone, residing in caves and woods, and that he wept and laughed by turns, and almost at the same time. At this period, this holy and inspired man entered the durbar of Timoochin, and reported that in a dream the night before, he had been informed by the angel Gabriel, that Timoochin and his children would obtain, and be the lords of, the greater part of the earth, and that almost all other kings would depend on them; that it was the pleasure or command of the Most High, that he should now assume the name of Chungeez Khan, and in future abstain from using his former name Timoochin, and lastly, that he was appointed an instrument for the punishment of tyrants.

Timoochin, therefore, adopted his new title from that day. Chungeez Khan, in the Turkish lan­guage, signifies ‘king of kings.’ When Timoochin, now Chungeez Khan, had finished his consultation with his kurultai, or national assembly, he imme­diately marched to attack Boirak Khan, the brother of Naiman Khan. Boirak, at that period, was hunting with his ameers, and not aware of danger: the troops of Chungeez Khan, therefore, arriving when he was unprepared, he was killed by them, his family made prisoners, and his property and country plundered. Kushluk Khan (the son of Naiman Khan), having received inti­mation of this event, fled in company with Tokta Begi, the chief of the Makreet, who had also sought refuge with Boirak Khan. At this time, the tribe of Tongut again rebelled, and Chungeez Khan marched to reduce them, and conquered their country; he next attacked the Karkeez (Kir­ghis), who, however, made their submission.

After resting his troops during the winter season, Chungeez Khan marched to attack Tokta Begi and Kushluk Khan, the son of Naiman Khan. In this expedition, he received the submission of the tribe of Awrat, who became his guides to the camp of Tokta Begi, the king of the tribe of Makreet. On their arrival there, a battle was fought, in which Tokta Begi displayed great bravery and conduct. Tokta Begi was slain by a Kunkoor archer, in the year 605 Hejri, or Peelan-eel, and most of his army was destroyed; the rest of the tribe of Makreet submitted to Chungeez Khan. Kushluk Khan, the son of Naiman Khan, on learning this event, again fled to the city of Baligh, to Goor Khan, king of Kara Khatai,* and his people that had remained with him dispersed. Kushluk was well received by Goor Khan, who gave him an establishment and his daughter in marriage. The Moghools and Turks, on hearing the defeat and death of Tokta Begi, became each solicitous for his own safety, and crowded to offer their obedience to Chungeez Khan; and among the rest, Arslan Khan, of the tribe of Kurligh Yudee­koot,* the king of the tribe of Oighoor, also sub­mitted; but as this chief was dependent on and tributary to Goor Khan, when his submission became known, a quarrel arose between Goor Khan and Chungeez Khan, and the darogah of the former, Shad Kam, was killed at the town of Kura Khwajeh by Yudeekoot, who became the firm friend of Chungeez Khan. Some of the tribe of Naiman Khan also surrendered, and some con­cealed themselves. Chungeez Khan, after these battles, conferred lands, gifts, and titles on his chiefs and army. When it was known that Yudeekoot, the king of the Oighoor tribe, had killed the vakeel of Goor Khan, Chungeez Khan invited him to his court. Yudeekoot, well pleased at this invitation, selected a number of presents and went to visit Chungeez Khan, who received him with distinction and gave him assignments of territory and his daughter in marriage, and called him thenceforward his adopted son.

Altan Khan, the king of Khatai, having in former times, during the reigns of the forefathers of Chungeez Khan, treacherously murdered two princes of his house, Humeeka, the son of Suro­kud, and Ookin Turkak, the son of Kubal Khan, as before mentioned; in revenge, Chungeez Khan, his affairs being now in the most flourishing state, and his armies numerous and well appointed, after leaving a body of troops to protect his camp and territory, marched with an immense army towards Khatai. On his arrival there, he, in a short time, took possession of the country of Hoorbukht, which contains seventy tomans; he also took the city of Meskeen and destroyed the city of Toikung, one of the first in the realm of Khatai. From this place he despatched his sons and officers to reduce the country to obedience, and it is said they took more than two hundred cities and fortified towns. Chungeez Khan marched next to the capital of Khatai, which is called Chungdoo;* Altan Khan residing in that city.

Altan Khan, as soon as he heard of the move­ment and object of Chungeez Khan, assembled his ameers, Kyking, Berkuk, and Toongshah, and consulted with them on the best mode of oppos­ing him. His vuzeer, Jungshanuk, on this occa­sion, represented to him that peace was the best policy for the present, and that after the retreat of Chungeez Khan, they might at leisure prepare to arrest his career. Altan Khan approved of his advice, and despatched ambassadors to Chun­geez Khan, and offered him a sum of money and his daughter Gunjwar in marriage, to retire. Chungeez Khan accepted these terms, and was married to the daughter of Altan Khan, and after­wards retired to his own country.

Altan Khan, after Chungeez Khan’s departure, finding his country was in great disorder, after leaving his son with a large army in the city of Chungdoo, which is called by the Moghools Khan Baligh, to protect the country, retired to a city called Tumsik, or Oonshai,* built by his father. This city was situate on the river Jung Kho, and was surrounded with high walls.

It is said that it was so extensive, that a boat sailing on the river would be a day in going and returning to the extent of its limits: the environs were also celebrated for the fruit they produced. When Altan Khan retired to this city, many of his troops abandoned him, and joined Chungeez Khan. Chungeez Khan, as soon as he heard of the departure of Altan Khan, ordered two of his chiefs of Tomans, Menkun Moungli and Samooka, with a great force, to besiege Khan Baligh, and they accordingly attacked that city, which, after some time, was reduced to extremity for want of provisions. Altan Khan, of Khatai, from grief at this persecution, poisoned himself, and the city was reduced by famine.*

As soon as Chungeez heard of the capture of Khan Baligh, he despatched three of his ameers, named Kunghoor, Angoor, and Kurti Kiar, to take possession of the treasures of Altan Khan, and bring them to him.

These ameers accordingly marched to Khan Baligh, and when they arrived there the treasurer of Altan Khan delivered over his charge of stores and treasures to them, and at the same time made them a present of three pieces* of China silk, embroidered with gold. Kunghoor, however, would not accept that offered to him; the others did.

The ameers, with the treasure and treasurer, now returned to Chungeez Khan, who, on their arrival, asked Kunghoor why he had refused to accept a present from the treasurer? Kunghoor replied, if the city had not been taken by force of arms, and the property had belonged to Altan Khan, he would certainly have accepted whatever was offered to him; but seeing the city was regu­larly besieged and taken, every particle of the property belonged to his majesty the Khan.

Chungeez Khan was highly pleased at this answer, and gave Kunghoor twice as much as he had refused from the treasurer.

Having thus, in the course of two years, con­quered Khatai, Chungeez Khan now returned towards his own country. At this period, how­ever, he despatched Soweida Bahadoor to attack the tribe of Makreet, the ruler of which, Kodwi Bahadoor, was the brother of Tokta Begi. This chief had occupied the country of Naiman.

When Soweida arrived at Naiman, the Makreet Tatars fought several battles with him. At length, however, Kodwi Bahadoor, with the three sons of Tokta Begi, and a great number of their tribe, being all slain in battle, they were completely subdued, and Soweida returned to Chungeez Khan.

About the same period, Borghul Noyan was sent with a force to attack the tribe of Toomat. On his arrival at Toomat, he attacked that tribe, and put most of them to the sword, but was himself killed towards the conclusion of the action fought with them.

Some time after this, a chief named Yughli Goyanuk was despatched with a large force to occupy and protect the country of Khatai.