(Referred to at LETTER CCLXX.)

I propose, in the present article, to give such a general idea of the formation and amount of the late Tippoo Sultan’s army (but particularly of the regular part of it) as the materials in my possession enable me to furnish: and although the scanti­ness of these does not admit of my rendering the account so complete as I could wish, I nevertheless trust, that it will, on the whole, be found to be tolerably accurate, as well as sufficiently minute, for the gratification of literary curiosity; which is now the chief, if not the only, purpose it can answer.

The documents from which I have formed this statement consist of: 1, A Hûkm-nâmeh, or ordinance, dated the 14th of Ahmedy, year Sâhir, or A.M. 1221,* and addressed to the Meer Meerân, or military department;* and 2, Some rough memoranda, relative to the military establishment, written, for the most part, in the Sultan’s own hand, and dated in the month of Jaafury, of the year Sâhir, or about five months subsequently to the ordinance. There is no essential dif­ference between these two statements, excepting in the article of irregular cavalry, in which branch of his army the Sultan appears, during the intermediate period, to have made a reduction of six thousand men; namely, five thousand Silâhdâr, and one thousand Kuzzâk, or Looty, horse.

I have not the means of ascertaining what reduction, if any, was made in the military force of Mysore, in consequence of the diminution of its resources pro­duced by the partition treaty of 1792. It is probable, however, considering the hostile views which the Sultan never ceased to entertain, from the moment in which he was compelled to surrender half his country into the hands of his ene­mies, that he disbanded no other part of his army on the occasion, than the num­ber of cavalry specified above. Indeed, the great marine establishment which he resolved to form about the same period, sufficiently proves, that nothing was less in his contemplation, than any material abridgment of the means, by which he still hoped to repair his losses, and to recover his military reputation. The irregu­lar horse, now dismissed, could at any time be replaced: and, in the meanwhile, the money saved by their discharge would go far towards defraying the expence of his proposed navy.*

The copy of the Futhûl Mûjâhideen, now before me, containing merely the formation of a single Kushoon of infantry, without either stating the total number of such Kushoons, or furnishing any other data for estimating the aggregate strength of the army; and this being the only document in my possession, relating to the military establishments of the Sultan, during the early part of his reign, it is not in my power to ascertain what changes, if any, took place in those establishments, between the date of the work in question and the year 1793, when they were formed on the model to be presently shown. I am alike unable to determine, whether the force brought by Tippoo Sultan into the field, in the war of 1799, exceeded or fell short of that contained in the following enumeration. Adverting, however, to the vindictive projects which he conceived and pursued in this interval, it may be safely presumed, that it was, at least, equal to the establishment of 1793.* Indeed, the official papers, of the time here alluded to, afford numerous proofs of his unceasing anxiety, not only to complete, to their full extent, the various corps of his army, but also to draw to his standard the greatest possible number of followers, and particularly those of the Mahommedan religion.

1. Piâdeh Uskur or (regular infantry.)
Divided into five Kuchurries, and composed of twenty-seven Kushoons.
Specification of the five Kuchurries.
1st. Kuchurry Ahmedy, or the Ahmedy Kuchurry.
Two Bukhshies commanding the whole,* and having a Teep of Uskur, consisting of 346 men, attached immediately to them.*
Six Kushoons of Uskur and one Teep of Uskur (of the strength above mentioned).
The men of the Koreish tribe and of the Sûny sect. With twelve field pieces.
2d. Kuchurry Hûzoor Uskur
Six Kushoons of Uskur, composed of men of the same tribe and sect as the preceeding Kuchurry. Twelve field pieces.
3d. Second Kuchurry of Piâdeh Uskur.
Five Kushoons of Uskur, and one Teep of Uskur attached to the Bukhshies.
Men of the tribe of Koreish, Siyuds, Moghuls, and Patans of the Sûny sect. With ten field pieces.
4th. Third Kuchurry of Piâdeh Uskur.
Five Kushoons. Men of the Koreish tribe, Siyuds, Patans and Moghuls of the Sûny sect; with one Teep of Uskur (as before) attached to the Bukhshies. Ten field pieces.
5th. The Usud Ilhye Kuchurry.
Five Kushoons, viz: three Uskur, composed of men of the Koreish tribe, and of Siyuds of the Sûny sect; and two Kushoons of Usud Ilhyes.* With ten guns.

Total twenty-seven Kushoons, with three independent Teeps of Uskur and fifty-four field pieces.

Besides the guns belonging to the Kushoons, there was a park of artillery attached (apparently) to the whole body of infantry, and consisting of a heavy train of

10battering guns
6long guns (for distant cannonading), and

The staff of each Kuchurry seems to have consisted of

2Bukhshiespay according to their repective merits.
1Mirzâey Duftur
1Hindooy  do.
C. Pagodas. Fanams.
16Gûmâshtehs, from18      0 to 16* 0each
2Sur-yusâkchies17* 0 do.
2Nukeebs12* 0 do.
5Hâzirbâshies36 do.
4Standard bearers15 do.
2Surwâns (in charge of three camels)27 do.

Establishment of a Kushoon.
1Sipahdâr (pay according to his qualifications.)
2Mûtusuddies* 160 each.
1Hukeem (or physician)50
1Jurrâh (or surgeon)30

Each Kushoon was composed of four Teeps* of Uskur; of which the first, second, and third were denominated Ouwuls (or of the first class), and the fourth Dooem (or of the second class).

Staff of a Teep.
1Teepdâr of the first class, or first, second, and third Teeps, pay (including horse)* 300
2Gurdoon-nuwâz (drummers) providing their own drums42 each
1Shahnâey-nuwâz (or trumpeter) including trumpet42
1Standard bearer5

Each Teep consisted of four Yooz,* and each Yooz was composed as follows:

2Surkheels70 each
8Jumaadârs60 each
64Yuzukdârs, or privates* 51 do.
9Nujm-wâlehs, for bell tents, &c.
Strength of one Yooz  87 men*
    Do.    of one Teep or four Yooz      348  do.  

Strength of a Kushoon, or four Teeps, 1392 men, (of which, however, only 1056 are stated to have carried musquets).

The following were likewise attached to each Kushoon.
One Jowk of rocket-men, viz.
Pay per man.
Total number
of men
1Jowkdâr (including horse)170
Each man carrying 2 rockets, or (with Jumaadârs) 72 rockets.
One Jowk of Durkhshundâz, or gunners, for the service of the two guns attached to the Kushoon.
N.B. Each gun was in length two dirais (or guz) and a half [about seven feet], and carried shot weighing four short duks or seers: i e. about six pounds weight.

2Surkheels (one to each gun) each armed with a pair of pistols* pay each90
28Gunnersat each54
Two Jowks of Burkundâz, or matchlock-men, each consisting of:
1Jowkdâr, pay 3 pagodas 6 fanams: subsistence 10 pagodas, calculated at 2 fanams on 50 men136
Carried forward71
Pay per man.
Total number
of men
Brought forward71
5Jumaadârs, pay 3 pagodas 6 fanams: subsistence 9 fanams, calculated at 1 fanam on 9 men.45 
45Privatesat each36 
The two Jowks112
Two Jowks of Khulâsies,* each Jowk consisting as follows:

1Jowkdâr, pay 2 pagodas: subsistence 12 pagodas, calculated on 60 men at 2 pagodas each140
6Dufaadârs, pay 2 pagodas 7 fanams: subsistence 9 fanams, calculated on 9 men at 1 fanam each36
54Privatesat each24
The two Jowks122
The guns were drawn each by twelve bullocks having three men (drivers) attached to them6
The two tumbrils were drawn by forty bullocks, having ten drivers attached10
There was, besides, an ammunition cart to each Kushoon, drawn by twenty bullocks, having five drivers attached to them5
To twelve spare bullocks, drivers2
Spare cart drawn by eight bullocks, with drivers2
Two Chowdries* of bullocks, with their assistants* 23
To the whole of the bullock-drivers belonging to the guns were attached four Dufaadârs4
A Dârogha over the whole1
One camel-driver to two camels, carrying 108 rockets1
One Moallum, or teacher of the Koran1
Total strength of the Kushoon (including all descriptions of men)1,752
Those carrying firelocks amounted to
Total of twenty-seven Kushoons47,304
and of firelocks30,942

It appears by the foregoing statement, that a considerable change had been made in the formation of a Kushoon, since the period when the establishment given in the Futhûl Mûjâhideen was formed; the strength of a Kushoon consisting then (including all descriptions, as above) of 2,928 men, of which number 2,400 appear to have carried muskets.

It is not, however, to be inferred from this circumstance, that the aggregate amount of the Sultan’s infantry in 1783, exceeded that of 1793, because, though the Kushoons were stronger at the former period, they may have been, and probably were, fewer in number; and such an alteration as this may be easily supposed to have been adopted, with the sole view of rendering these corps less unwieldly than formerly.

In order to arrive at the total amount of the regular foot forces of Tippoo Sultan, at the period immediately in question (or 1793), we must make the following additions to the foregoing enumeration
Monsieur Vigie’s* (formerly Lally’s) corps, 500 Euro­peans and 500 Sepoys1,000800
N.B. To this corps (the monthly expence of which is stated by the Sultan himself at 8,179 Cantarai pago­das) were attached two guns.
Three independent Teeps of regular infantry (Piâdeh Uskur) attached to the Bukhshies of the first, second, and third Kuchurries,* each 348 strong1,044864
Staff of the five Kuchurries205 
Drivers, and others, to 1,935 bullocks attached to the heavy park, viz. 1,664 draft and 271 carriage719 
Bildars, or pioneers735 
Elephant-drivers to seven elephants attached to the heavy guns7 
Carried forward51,01432,606
Brought forward51,01432,606
Khulâsies (or gun lascars) to the heavy park, fourteen Jowks including Jowkdârs714
Add also the following establishment of artillery men:
To the four long brass guns (viz.two long eighteen-pounders and two long eight-pounders).
4Surkheels and(Pay the same as those of the Kushoons.)60 56
To the 10 iron battering guns (viz. six twenty-four pounders and four ten-pounders):
10Surkheels, pay 9 pagodas each150140
140Gunner, 3 pagodas 9 fanams
To the six howitzers:
6Surkheels, pay 6 pagodas each4236
Drivers to one hundred carts, drawn by three hundred bullocks, and appropriated to the carriage of the Sul­tan’s baggage100
For bringing in forage to the above, forty-eight bullocks and fifty-two bullock-men, including Dârogha and three Chowdries52
Chowdries and Dufaadârs to 636 hired carts attached to the heavy park 
Artificer’s yard625 
One General in Chief of Infantry (at the monthly pay of 240 pagodas) 1 Yusâkchy or aid-de-camp to ditto, and 1 Mûtusuddy to ditto3 
In all...52,760* 32,838

The total of the foot forces amounted, however, according to an abstract in the Sultan’s own hand, to 52,774 men, making a difference in the two statements of fourteen men: which may either be referred to the omission (on account of the great obscurity of the passage in the original) of the Chowdries, &c. attached to the hired carts, or to some other petty error in the detail.

The Kushoons composing the fifth, or Usud Ilhye Kuchurry, of regular infan­try, differed a little in their formation, as well as in point of pay, from the other Kuchurries, as will appear by the following specification. The reason of this difference I am unable to explain, otherwise than by supposing (what, indeed, there are some grounds for believing) that, in addition to their pay, both the Ahmedies and Usud Ilhyes received rations of Dâl (dry peas), and perhaps other articles of provision, from government.

1Sipahdâr (pay according to his merits).
2Mûtusuddiesone at160
one at60
1Moallum (or instructor in the Koran)50
The Kushoon was divided into four Risâlas (instead of Teeps), each consisting of 348 men, viz.
1Risâladâr (including horse allowance)250
1Drummer and 1 fifer, each39
1Standard bearer45
Each Risâla was composed of four Jowks (instead of Yooz), each Jowk con­sisting of:
2Surkheels each57
8Jumaadârs each42
64Yuzukdârs, or privates, each39
9Nujm-wâlehs each21
1Bheesty, or water-carrier21
——Total of a Jowk85men
Of four Jowks340 do.
Staff of the Risâla* 8
Total of a Risâla348
and of four Risâlas 1,392; being the same strength as the Kushoons of the other Kuchurries.

The Ehshâm, or garrison troops, are stated, in the ordinance of 1793, addressed to the Sudoor department, at 25,000 men.* I have no means of estimating the amount of Kunduchâr; that is, the provincial troops, or militia.

I now proceed to a summary statement of the cavalry, according to the establish­ment of 1793.

I. Suwâr Uskur (or regular cavalry).
Three Kuchurries.*

Each Kuchurry consisting of six Mokubs (or regiments), of 389 horses and 376 men each.*

Total of one Kuchurry, (with a Syse or attendant to each horse)2,334horses
Of three Kuchurries7,002do.

The detail of the Mokub is not given in the original; but the latter appears to have been divided into Teeps and stables, each stable consisting of twenty-two horses. The strength of a Teep is not stated.*

To each Kuchurry of regular horse two guns were attached, with a proportionate number of gunners, &c.

II. Silahdâr Cavalry, (or Cavalry mounted on their own horses).

Two Kuchurries, composed of Musulmans and unbelievers.

Each Kuchurry commanded by two Bukhshies, and divided into eight Risâlas, of 250 horse each, besides the usual staff:

III. Kuzzâk (or Predatory) Cavalry.

Three Kuchurries, of 2,666 horses each, divided into Risâlas of 260 each.

Total of the three Kuchurries stated at eight thousand horse, which appear to have been officered in the same manner as the Silahdâr cavalry, the officers receiving a regular pay, like those of the latter body. It may be presumed, that the men composing this predatory corps must also have received pay during peace, whatever might be the case in time of war.*

The foregoing seems to have been the establishment of Kuzzâks, or Looties, in time of peace. They would, of course, be augmented during a war. In addition to the above, a Khâs, or special Risâla, of Kuzzaks, is mentioned. It was composed of Musulmans of various denominations, and amounted to fifty men and horses, commanded by a separate Bukhshy.