same Date. (14th February.)

THE enemy, after flying, in consequence of the successive chastise­ments they have received [from us], as far as the banks of the Kishna, found themselves in the end reduced to such a helpless state, as compelled them to sue to us for an accommodation in the most humble and earnest manner.* The result is, that a treaty of peace, entirely conformable to the wishes of the Usud Ilhye Sircar, has been concluded between us. In consequence [of this treaty], we shall have to relinquish the possession of Adoni: but we will bestow some other country upon you in its stead.

It is therefore written, that you must, with the utmost expedition, collect all the money you can from the country. You must, moreover, completely encompass two or three towns, and getting together five or seven thousand people, report the particulars to us; as men are wanted [at this time] for the Usud Ilhye corps. A further reinforcement is about to be dispatched to you. Whatever hostile force may appear in that quarter,* you must chastise it effectually, and level it [with the earth].*


Although the treaty, recently concluded between the Sultan and the Mahrattahs, would seem to have provided for the restoration of Adoni and its dependencies to the Nizâm, yet it is, nevertheless, probable, that the latter might not yet have formally acceded to it, or even have had time to do so. Here, then, we see Tippoo, with his characteristic perfidy, eagerly endeavouring to avail himself of the short interval which might be expected to elapse before the completion of the general peace, in order to improverish and depopulate, as much as possible, the country he was about to relinquish. I am ignorant of the success of the Sultan’s barbarous policy upon the present occasion. It appears, however, but too probable, that the inhabitants of Adoni, and of the surrounding country, would have reason to deplore, for a long time, his temporary occupation of it.

A few other letters follow here to different persons, announcing, in terms nearly similar to the preceding part of the dispatch to Kûtbûddeen, the termination of the war. It is only, however, in a circular letter of the same date, to the Peer-zâdehs, Boodhun Shâh, Kuleem ûllah Shâh, Syed Ahmed Sâheb, and Nubby Shâh, of which an extract has already been given at Letter CCCLXXXI, that he announces his determination to turn his arms against the English, or “those who “forbid the practice of calling to prayers from the Minarets:” in which terms Christians in general are frequently described by other Musulmans, as well as by Tippoo.

HAVING brought the correspondence of the Sultan to the close of the war, with the early operations of which it commences, I cannot, perhaps, better conclude this work, than with the only remaining frag­ment of his Memoirs, which it is to my purpose to lay before the reader. Owing to the chasm which has been already accounted for, the present extract will not throw so much light on the progress of the war, subse­quently to the action of the 2d of December, as could be wished; but what is still more to be regretted is, that after reciting the first article of the treaty by which the war was terminated, and preparing the reader for a continuation of this interesting document, the original abruptly passes to an exaggerated picture of the miserable condition to which the Mahrattah army was reduced, at the period of the pacification.

The operations which followed immediately after the rejection of the Sultan’s challenge by Tukojee Holkar are wanting, the remnant of the manuscript beginning as follows:

“On the following morning they rejoined the victorious army, bringing with “them the whole of their booty.* I now halted for four or five days on the “ground which had been occupied by the enemy, during which time I sent out “some Kuzzâk [or Looty] horse, to procure intelligence of the infidels. This party “returned with an account that they were posted on the other side of Kopul and “Behâdûr-bundeh, in the latter of which they had placed a [strong] garrison. “On receiving this information, I proceeded by long marches to Behâdûr-bundeh, “near to which I encamped; sending forward, at the same time, a division of the “army, so close to that side of the place [which communicated with the country] “as to prevent its receiving succours from the unbelievers. After this, I made the “circuit of Behâdûr-bundeh, and [narrowly] viewed the place, which I found “to be small, but of most difficult access, there being no [visible] path by which “a human creature could ascend to the top of it. I now caused two batteries to “be erected, one against each angle of the face next to us, and placed six batter­ing guns in each. I then had ladders prepared for scaling the opposite side of “the fort.”

The Sultan here proceeds to detail the means* by which, in the course of the night, he made a lodgement at the foot of the fort, from whence he was enabled to fix his ladders. Previously, however, to attempting an escalade, he tried the effect of his batteries, but apparently with little success, the walls of the place having been hewn out of the rock, and rendered by himself, before its capture by the Mahrattahs, extremely strong. This case, the Sultan observes, furnished a verification of the proverb, which says, “there is no help for the evil of one’s “own creating.” In the mean while the Mahrattahs were encamped at the distance only of three coss, watching for a favorable opportunity of relieving the place. “Under these circumstances,” continues the Sultan, “not thinking a further “delay of two or three days advisable, I determined on an immediate assault; “with which view I prepared three hundred men, composed of regulars, of Jyshe, “and of Ehshâm, who being placed over night in the lodgement made at the foot “of the fort, were directed to rush forward at the hour of morning prayer, when “a rocket signal would be made for the purpose. In aid of this enterprize, “besides the fire from the batteries, I caused eight pieces of light artillery to be “placed in the plain before the fort, upon the walls of which they were ordered “to keep up such a close fire, as should prevent the garrison from manning them, “and thereby facilitate the progress of the storming party. Agreeably to this “arrangement, the latter commenced the assault exactly at dawn of day; but “were opposed with great firmness and courage by the infidels, who planting them­selves at the part of the wall which had been breached, and by which the “assailants advanced, hurled upon them from thence large stones, besides pouring “amongst them, from all sides, a heavy discharge of musketry. On this occasion “a Teepdâr [colonel] who had mounted the wall, as well as several others, tasted “the sherbet of martyrdom. All this time the besieged, notwithstanding the “heavy fire which poured upon them like rain from our guns, continued to defend “themselves, wherever they could find any cover: at length, I myself taking the “direction of two guns, fired from them at every man who made the least “movement. At this time the governor of the place stood concealed [as he “thought] behind one of the bastions, from which situation he viewed what was “going on. Here a shot striking him on the head sent him to hell;* upon “which the whole of the garrison immediately demanded a capitulation.* They “were [in consequence] removed from the fort, which was taken possession of “by the Sircar. The following day I sent the garrison back to their own army.

“Two days after the capture of this fort, the whole army of the infidels, “preparing for battle, advanced against us. The cavalry picquets having an­nounced the approach of the enemy, the vanguard of my army proceeded to “meet them; but it had only fired a few guns at them, when the accursed crew, “contenting themselves with what they had done, returned to their camp. Two “days after this I marched and took post two coss beyond Kopul, the enemy “being, at this time, encamped at the distance of four coss from thence. Here “I formed four parties of cavalry, each consisting of fifty horse and four rocket “men, to whom I gave orders to proceed and show themselves severally on the “right and left flanks, and in the rear and front of the enemy’s position; and “after throwing some rockets among them, to cry out, ‘behold the victorious army “is arrived! If you value your safety, fly speedily from hence.’ This order “was accordingly exactly executed: the consequence of which was, that the “whole force of the infidels, commanders as well as men, obeying the directions “of the horsemen of the victorious army, took instantly to flight, and proceeding “all night, did not stop till, cursed both by God and man,* they had got to the “distance of ten coss. They left behind them in their camp* various stores to “a great amount, and among the rest a quantity of shot and powder.

“It had been the constant practice of the enemy, during the last four months, “to pack up the baggage, and load their cattle with them, every day, an hour “and a half before sun-set. In this situation they would continue mounted on “their horses all night: and if, while they slumbered, any one gave an alarm of “the approach of the victorious army, they would immediately take to flight. “This they would frequently repeat ten or fifteen times in the course of a single “night. All this vigilance, however, did not prevent their plundering one “another, as often as a convenient occasion for the purpose occurred.

“At length Tukojee Holkar, who held a superior rank among the worthless “chiefs of this people, together with Râsta, who was, in fact, not inferior, in “point of birth, to Mâdho Râo himself, conceiving a just alarm at their [perilous] “situation, addressed Urzies* to our sublime Presence, which they sent us by “two horsemen.”

Tippoo then proceeds to give the substance of the letters in question, making the writers, as usual, humble themselves to the dust, and speak of their own sovereign (the Paishwa) in terms of disrespect, utterly incredible. They are made to con­clude by imploring his compassion for themselves and his unworthy son,* and intreating him to send a confidential person to them, to receive their represen­tations and proposals.

“Accordingly,” continues the Sultan, “in compliance with their desire, I sent “Budrûz Zumân Khân, Ali Rizâ, and other great men,* to negotiate with them. “On the arrival of the latter in the enemy’s camp, the Mahrattah leaders ad­dressed them, saying, ‘our master stands in the place of a son to yours, and “we are servants. Pardon us for the evils which we have, by our own fault, “brought upon the country; and let your sovereign, by way of sweetmeat, “present our master, according to custom, with a little money, and one or two “villages: this being no more than such a favor as a son is entitled to claim of “his father.’* To this they added a declaration, that they were the victims “of Nizâm Ali Khân’s seduction. In fine, they made many humiliating pro­testations of this kind.”

In proof of the constant terror which the Mahrattahs were under, of being sur­prized by the Sultan’s army, Tippoo proceeds to relate, that during the negociations for peace, intelligence happening to be conveyed to them by some of their spies, that he was preparing to make a night attack upon them, Holkar and the Râstas instantly sent for Budrûz Zumân Khân and Ali Rizâ, and telling them of the intelligence which had been received, conjured them to dispatch two camel couriers immediately to their master, to intreat that the intended attack might be relin­quished, declaring, at the same time, that they were ready to comply with whatever demands the latter might make on them. “It was in vain,” pursues the Sultan, “that the aforesaid persons [his Vakeels] assured the chiefs in question, “that there was no truth in the report which had been brought to them, and that “it was impossible for such a thing to take place while they continued in the “Mahrattah camp. The aforesaid chiefs, nevertheless, persisted in their in­stances, beseeching my people, for the love of God, to do as they required, and “by this means save them from the ruin which must otherwise fall upon them. “Thus importuned, the aforesaid persons at length agreed to comply with the “wishes of the Mahrattah commanders, saying, that they would return to their “tents, and immediately write the necessary letters on the occasion. Upon this “the others observed, that much time would be lost in writing letters, and in­treated my people to dispatch at that moment, and in their presence, a verbal “message on the subject, as nothing else could set their minds at ease. My “confidential servants perceiving that the fears of the Mahrattah chiefs made “them distrust the promise which they had given to write, determined, in the “end, to satisfy them in their own way; and, for this purpose, sending for a pair “of camel couriers, they delivered to the latter, in the hearing of the chiefs, a “message to us, purporting that the enemy was in the utmost distress, and humbly “begged that we would not assault their camp that night. These couriers being “conducted by a party of the enemy’s horse beyond the Mahrattah camp, “pursued their way with great speed to our camp, where they arrived at three “o’clock in the morning, and delivered to us the message with which they had “been charged. I sent them back at day-light with a satisfactory answer, and the “same morning moved, as I had previously determined, about three coss from “Kunuckgheery, to a new position along the banks of the Tungbuddra, where there “was abundance of pasture.*

The Sultan, after giving the foregoing account of the alarm occasioned to the Mahrattahs by his intended movement, and of the reflections and regulations which it suggested to him, proceeds in the following manner:

“It was not my intention, in the beginning, to have gone to war with the “Mahrattahs; but when they, thinking proper to requite the favors they had “received from us, by a conduct entirely the contrary [to what I had a right to “expect], had advanced [into my country], I consequently judged it necessary “to repel their aggression, by just so much chastisement as should suffice to satisfythem, and make them solicit peace. Having brought the business accordingly “to this point, I agreed to an accommodation, and to give them twelve lacks of “rupees. The treaty being concluded, I wrote [a letter] to Lewai Mâdhee Râo,* “which I sent to him, together with a Kulgy and Surpaish of precious stones, “and an elephant. I also sent an elephant, with a dress and jewels, to Tukojee “Holkar; and the same to Râo Râsta and to Hurry Pundit. These presents I “forwarded by the hands of confidential Vakeels.

“The treaty concluded on this occasion by the embassadors of the Sircar, with “Nizâm Ali Khân and Mâdhee Râo, consisted of three articles to the following “effect. The first stipulated, that on this side the Nurbudda, Nizâm Ali Khân, “Pundit Purdhân, Mâdhee Râo, and the Usud-Ilhye Sircar, should all three “remain united together, each ruling over his proper territories: and that if any “fourth person should make an [hostile] attempt upon the country of any one of “the allies, all three were, in such case, to join in repelling the same, whatever “disagreement might happen to subsist between them at the time; it being “provided, that the disagreement in question should be suspended [during the “continuance of the external danger or aggression].

“The second article was as follows: ........”

* * * * * *

Here, as before said, the manuscript abruptly passes to a description of the miserable condition to which the Mahrattahs were reduced by the war. On this subject the Sultan asserts, that the Mahrattah chiefs themselves assured his Vakeels, that independently of those who had fallen in battle, they had lost near a hundred thousand men by sickness, since the commencement of the campaign.

Here my copy of the Sultan’s Memoirs at present ends: but it originally consisted of four or five leaves more, in the course of which the nar­rative was continued for a short period beyond the termination of the Mahrattah war. I apprehend that the Sultan never completed the work; though, if I recollect rightly, some memoranda for the purpose were found among his papers. If this should have been actually the case, no doubt those documents will, at some future season, be communicated to the public.