1 THE pure Lord created thee from dust,
Then, oh slave, practise humility like dust.

Be not avaricious, and world-consuming, and head-strong;
Of dust, He created thee; be not like fire.*

When the horrent fire exalted its neck,
The dust cast down its body in abjectness.

When that (the fire) showed head-exaltation; this, abase-
They made—of that, a demon; of this, a man.*

5 A rain-drop dropped from a cloud;
It became ashamed, when it beheld the amplitude of the

Saying:—“Where the ocean is, what am I?
“If it be; by God! then, I am not.”

When it regarded itself with the eye of contempt,
A shell cherished it with fervour in its bosom.

The sky caused its work to reach to the place (of honour),
Where, it became the famous royal pearl.

It obtained loftiness, in that it became low;
It beat the door of non-existence, until it became existent.

10 A wise youth of pure disposition
Came forth from the sea, at the barrier of Rúm.

They observed in him,—excellence, and austerity, and dis-
They placed his chattels in a precious place (a masjid).

One day, the chief of the 'Ábids (the shaikh) spoke to the
Saying:—“Sweep up the chips and dust of the masjid.”*

As soon as the man, road-travelling (to God) heard this
He went forth; and, none saw again a trace of him.*

The religious brethren (the Súfís), and the shaikh con-
Saying:—“The fakír has no solicitude for service.”

15 The next day, a servant (of the monastery) seized him on
the road,
Saying:—“Through faulty judgment, thou didst not well.

“Oh boy, self-approving! knowst thou not,
“That by service, men attain to rank?

From the power of truth and ardour, he began to weep,
Saying:—“Oh friend, life-cherishing, heart-illuminating!

“In that abode (the masjid), I beheld neither dust, nor
“In that pure place, I (only) was polluted.

“I consequently took the retreating step,
“Saying:—‘The masjid pure of dust and chips (myself)
is well.’”

20 For the darvesh, there is only this path;
That he hold his own body subjected.

Is exaltation necessary to thee? Choose humility;
For there is only this ladder to that roof (of exaltation).

I have heard that, once upon a time, on the morning of
an 'íd,
Báyizid came out of the hot bath.*

A certain one, unknowingly, a basin of ashes,
Cast down, from a house, on his head.

He spoke,—turban and hair polluted,
Rubbing the palm of his hand thankfully on his face,—

25 Saying:—“Oh lust of mine! I am worthy of the fire (of
“Why draw I together my face for a single ash?”

The great showed not regard to themselves;
Desire not God-beholding from one self-beholding.

Greatness is not in reputation and speech;
Exaltation is not in pretension and conceit.

Humility exalts the head of thy sublimity;
Arrogance casts thee to the dust.

One, head-extending, of fierce temper falls to the neck (in
a pit);
Is exaltation necessary to thee?—seek not exaltation.

30 Seek not for the way of Islám from one world-proud;
Seek not God-beholding from one self-beholding.*

If rank be necessary to thee,—like the mean,
Look not at persons, with the eye of contempt.

How may the sensible man entertain the idea,
That high worth is in head-mightiness?

Seek not rank more renowned than this,
That the people should call thee:—“One of approved dis-

No;—when one like thyself uses haughtiness to thee,
Thou, with wisdom's eye, considerst him not great.

35 If thou displayst arrogance,—thou also, even so,
Appearst, as those haughtiness-displaying appear to thee.

When thou art standing on the lofty house,
—If thou art wise—laugh not at the fallen.

There came down off his feet, many a standing one,
Whose place, the fallen took.

I allow that thou art thyself free from defect;
Exercise not reproaching on the faulty.

This one has, in his hand, the door-ring of the Ka'ba;
That one is fallen, intoxicated, in the tavern.

40 If God calls this one,—who may not permit him?
And, if He drives away that one,—who may bring him

Neither is that one strength-finder by his own (good)
Nor for this one is the door of repentance shut in the face.

A compiler of the traditions, thus related, in talk,—
That, in the time of 'Ísa (on Him be peace!)*

A certain one had squandered his life;
Had passed it in ignorance and error.

One bold, of black deeds, of hard heart;
Through his uncleanness, Iblís was ashamed of him.

45 His time, uselessly accomplished;
Through him, not a single soul rested, so long as he lived.

His head void of wisdom, but full of grandeur;
His belly fat with forbidden morsels.

With non-uprightness, one, garment-stained,
With shamelessness, one, house-plastered.

Neither one of foot straight-travelling, like those seeing;
Nor one of ear, like the man, advice-hearing.

The people fleeing from him, like the bad year;
Pointing him out, together from afar, like the new moon.*

50 His harvest (of life) lust and concupiscence burned;
A grain of good repute ungathered.

He of black deeds urged his pleasure in such a way,
That, in the Book, no place for writing (his deeds) re-

A sinner, and one self-opiniated, and lust-worshipper,
Night and day, in carelessness, drunk and intoxicated.

I heard that 'Ísa entered from the desert;
He passed by the cell of a certain 'Ábid.

The recluse came down from a window;
He fell, head on the earth, at His feet.

55 From afar, the ill-starred sinner,
Moth-like, astonied at them, by (their) splendour.

Reflecting, with regret, ashamed;
Darvesh-like before one wealth-possessing.

Ashamed, beneath his lip excuse-asking, with heart-
On account of whole nights passed in carelessness.

Tears of grief raining, cloud-like, from his eye,
Saying:—“Alas! my life in carelessness passed.

“I threw away the ready money of dear life;
“A particle of goodness unacquired.

60 “Let there never be one, like me, living;
“For, his death (is) much better than his living.

“That one escaped, who died in childhood!
“For, he bore not the aged head of shame (to the grave).

“Oh World-Creator! pardon my sin;
“For, if it come with me (to the Resurrection) it will be
a bad companion.”

In this corner, the old sinner weeping,
Saying:—“Oh hand-seizer! come to the complaint of my

His head, in shame lowered,
The water of remorse, with lamentation and desire running.

65 And, on that side,—the 'Ábid, head full of pride,
His eye-brows gathered together, on the sinner from afar.

Saying:—“Why is this wretch behind us?
“The ignorant unfortunate one! what! is he of the same
sort as we?

“One steeped to the neck in fire;
“One life-given to the wind of lust.

“What good came from his soul, wet of skirt,
“That he is society for Masíh (the Messiah) and me?

“Well would it have been, if he had taken the trouble (of
his person) from before me;
“(If) he had gone to hell, after his own deeds.

70 “I am constantly vexed by his unpleasant countenance;
“Lest that the fire of his sins should fall on me.

“At the place of assembling, when the assembly becomes
“Oh God! make not Thou my assembling with him.”

In this, he was; and, from the One of glorious qualities, a
Came to 'Ísa,—on Him be blessing!—

Saying:—“If this one be learned, and that one ignorant,
“The prayers of both have come to My acceptance.

“The one of wasted time, and inverted days,
“Bewailed before Me, with weeping and heart-burning.

75 “Whosoever comes to Me, in helplessness,
“Him, I cast not down from the threshold of mercy.

“I pass over his ugly (sinful) deeds;
“I bring him, by My own grace, into Paradise.

“But, if the devotion-zealot has shame,
“That he should be fellow-sitting with him in Paradise,

“Say—Have no shame of him, on the Resurrection Day;
“For, they will carry that one (the sinner) to heaven;
and, this one to hell.

“If the liver of that became blood, through heart-burning
and sorrow;
“And, if this one relied on his own devotion,

80 “Knew he not that in the Court of the Independent One
“Helplessness is better than pride and presumption?

“Whose garment is pure, but walk of life impure,—
“For him, no key to hell's door is necessary.*

“At this threshold of God, thy weakness and wretchedness
“Are better than thy devotion, and self-beholding.”

When thou reckonedst thyself among the good, thou art
Self-sufficiency is not contained in godship.

If thou art a man, speak not of thy own manliness,
Not every jockey carries off the ball (of victory).

85 He is an onion, all husk,—that one skill-less,
Who thought there was, within him, a brain pistachio-nut-

Devotion of this sort is of no use;
Go; bring excuse for the fault of thy devotion.

That ignorant one enjoys not the fruit of devotion,
Who to himself is good; and, to the people bad.

Whether a vagabond of confused distracted fortune;
Or, a devotee, who, on his body, practises severity—what

Strive with abstinence and fear of God, and truth, and
But add not to the merit of the Chosen One (Muhammad).*

90 Desire not whiteness (purity) beyond limit,
Saying:—It is disgusting; what room for blackness?*

Of wise men speech remains a token;
Of Sa'dí, remember this one word:—

“The sinner, God-fearing
“Is better than the saint, devotion-displaying.”

A certain lawyer of tattered garment, of straitened hand,
Sate down in the foremost ranks, in the hall of the Kází.

The Kází very sharply glanced at him;
The officer of the court seized his sleeve, saying:—“Rise!

95 “Knowst thou not, that thy place is not the highest!
“Sit lower, or go, or stand.

“Not every one is worthy of the chief-place;
“Munificence is in grace; and rank, in worth.

“What need to thee of anyone's advice?
“This very shame is to thee sufficient torture.

“Every one, who sate, with honour, lower down,
“Falls not with contempt from above to below.

“Exercise not boldness, in the place of the great;
“Display not lionishness, when thou hast not the power of

100 When that wise one of darvesh complexion saw
That his fortune sate down and rose up to battle,

A sigh, like fire, came forth from the helpless one;
Than the place where he was, he sate lower down.

The lawyers prepared the path of strife;
They hurled—the “not,” and “I do not agree.”

They opened together the door of contest;
Neck made long with—“not; and—“yes.”

Thou wouldst have said—the courageous cocks are in
Entangled, they fell on each other with beak and claw.

105 This one, from anger beside himself, like one intoxicated;
That one, beating both his hands on the ground.

They fell into a difficulty, exceedingly intricate;
In the solution of which, they could find no path.

The one of tattered garment, in the lowest ranks,
Entered the contest, with force, like a roaring lion.

He said:—“Oh chiefs of the law of the Prophet!
“With the traditions, and revelations (of the Kurán), and
law, and the principles of Islám,

“Proofs, strong and real, are necessary;
“Not, the veins of the neck (swelling) in hot altercation.

110 “To me, also are the chaugán (bat) of sport and ball.”
They said:—“If thou knowst well, speak.”

Then he, who sate at the knee of respect,
Opened his tongue, and closed their mouths.

With the reed of eloquence of description, which he pos-
He pourtrayed on their hearts, like the picture of a ring-

Drew his head from the street of simile to reality;
Drew the pen upon the head of the letter of (effaced) the

On every side, they shouted;—“Afrín! Afrín!”
Saying:—“On thy wisdom and genius, a thousand

115 The dun horse of speech, he urged so far,
That the Kází, ass-like, remained behind in the mire.

He came forth from his robe and turban;
He sent them, with reverence and courtesy, to the one,

Saying:—“Alas! I recognised not thy worth;
“I was not engaged in thanks for thy auspicious arrival.

“With so great a capital of eloquence, I grieve,
“That I behold thee, in such a rank (the lowest).”

The officer of the court came, with cordiality, to him,
That he might place the turban of the Kází, on his head.

120 “With hand and tongue, he forbade him saying:—“Be it
far from me!
“Place not, on my head, the foot-link of pride.

“For, to-morrow, towards those wearing old garments
(the poor),
“Heavy will my head become with the turban of fifty

“When they call me Maula and chief magistrate,
“Men will appear contemptible in my eyes.

“Is drinking-water ever different,
“If its vessel be golden, or earthen?*

“Wisdom and brain, within man's head, are necessary;
“For me, like thee, a beautiful turban is unnecessary.

125 “A person is not of worth, through head-greatness;
“The gourd of great head is even without a kernel.

“Exalt not the neck with turban and beard:
“For, the turban is cotton; and, the moustache, dry

“Those who, in form (only) are man-like,
“Best indeed it is, that they be silent, picture-like.

“To the extent of one's skill, it is proper to seek dignity:
“Make not, Saturn-like, loftiness and misfortune.

“Great is the greatness of the mat-reed,
“In which, indeed, is the intrinsic quality of the sugar-

130 “With this (deficient) wisdom, and spirit,—I call thee no
“Even if a hundred slaves go behind thee.

“How well said the small shell in the clay,
“When an ignorant one, full of avarice, took it up,—

“No one will purchase me for any thing;
“Wind me not, in foolishness, in silk (like a jewel).

“A beetle has that very worth which is its,
“Even if it sate amidst tulips.*

“The rich man is not, by property, better than a person;
“If the ass puts on satin-housings,—he is an ass.”

135 In this way, the sensible man (the lawyer), speech-uttering,
Washed malice, with the water of speech, from the heart.*

The speech of one heart-troubled is hard;
When thy enemy falls, display not sluggishness.

When power reaches thee, pluck out the enemy's brain;
For, the opportunity washes down the dust (of grief) from
the heart.

The Kází remained captive to his own violence, in such a
That he said:—“This is indeed a disastrous day!”

Through astonishment, he bit his hands, with his teeth;
His eyes, like the two stars near the pole, remained fixed
on him.

140 And thence, the young man turned the face of resolution;
He went out, and no one again found his trace.

Clamour arose from the chiefs of the assembly,
“Say, whence is one of such a bold eye?”

A herald went from the front, and ran in every direction,
Saying:—“Who saw a man of this description and ap-

One said;—“Of this kind of sweet speech,
“We know, in this city, Sa'dí; and him only.

“On him be a hundred thousand blessings that he thus
“The bitter truth—behold! how sweetly he uttered it.”*

145 There was in the town of Ganja,—one king-born,
Who was unclean and tyrannical—may it be far from

Singing and intoxicated, he entered a masjid,
Wine in his head, and bumper-glass in hand.

In a cell, a devotee was dwelling,
One, tongue-entangling (in truth); and, heart-pure (as to

Some persons for his talking, assembled.
—When thou art not learned, be not less than the

When that refractory steed (the prince) exercised disre-
Those dear ones (the assembly) became desolate of heart.

150 When the foot of the prince is wicked,
Who is able to express a breath concerning the well-known

Garlic overpowers the rose-perfume;
The sound of the harp becomes weak, through the drum.*

If the prohibiting of forbidden things comes from thy
It is not proper to sit like one, handless and footless.

And if thou hast not the hand of power, speak;
For, the disposition becomes pure by admonition.

When as to both hand and tongue, power is not,
Men show manliness by prayer.

155 One (of the hearers) before the sage, sitting in solitude,
Lamented and wept, head on the earth,*

Saying:—“On this intoxicated rascal (the prince) once,
“Pray; for we are tongueless and handless.

“A single ardent breath (sigh) from a thoughtful heart,
“Is stronger than seventy swords and axes.”

The one, world-experienced, stretched forth his hand;
What said he? “Oh Lord of high and low!

“Through fortune, this youth,—his time is happy;
“Oh God! keep all his time happy.”

160 A person said to him:—“Oh exemplar of rectitude!
“Why desirest thou for goodness for this wretch?

“When thou desirest good for the faithless,
“What ill desirest thou on the citizens?”

The one beholding with quick intelligence thus spoke:—
“When thou findst not the secret of my speech, agitate

“We adorned not the assembly with raving nonsense;
“We desired his repentance from the justice of the Creator.

“For every one, who returns from bad ways,
“Reaches eternal ease in Paradise.

165 “This pleasure of wine is indeed for five days;
“In abandoning it,—perpetual pleasures.”

This matter, which the man, speech-making (the recluse),
One out of that assembly unfolded to the prince.

From rapture, water, cloud-like, came to his eyes;
A torrent of sorrow rained on his face.

His heart burned with the fires of desire;
Shame sewed his eyes to the back of his feet.

To the one of good appearance (the recluse) he sent a person,
Knocking at the door of repentance, saying:—“Oh griev-

170 “Be pleased to come, that I may lay down my head (at
thy feet);
“That I may put aside ignorance and non-rectitude.”

The adviser (the recluse) came to the prince's court;
He glanced into the hall of the court.

He saw sugar, and jujube, and candle, and wine;
The assembly prosperous with wealth; but, the men in-

This one unconscious of himself; that one half-drunk;
Another poetry-spouting, wine-flagon in hand.

On one side, the minstrel's cry raised;
On the other, the cup-bearer's voice saying:—“Drink!”

175 The companions, with wine of red colour intoxicated,
Through sleep, the head of the harper on his bosom, harp-

Of the boon-companions, neck-exalting, there was not
An eye of any open there, save the narcissus.

The drum and harp consonant with each other;
The flute, from the midst, brought forth a lament.

He (the recluse) ordered: they shattered (the drum and
harp) into small pieces;
That pure pleasure became changed to dregs.

They broke the harp and snapped the string;
The speaker put singing out of his head.

180 They struck a stone on the wine-vessel, in the wine-house,
They placed the wine-vessel (before them), and struck off
its neck.

The wine of red colour from the flagon, head-lowered,
Ran as blood from a slain duck.

The jar was pregnant nine months with wine:
In that calamity (of birth), it quickly cast out the daughter
(of grapes).

They rent the belly of the leathern (wine) bag to its navel,
The blood eyes of the cup, over it, full of tears.*

He ordered:—the stone of the court-yard of the building,
They plucked up, and put anew in its place.

185 For, the rosy colour of the wine of ruby hue
Departed not, by washing, from the marble surface.

It is not wonderful if the sink become intoxicated,
When, it drank, on that day, so much wine.

Whosoever used again to take the harp in his hand,
Used to endure pushing (beating) of his head, drum-like,
at men's hands.

And, if a worthless fellow had taken a harp on his neck,
He would have rubbed his ear, guitar-like.

The young man (the prince), head-intoxicated with pride
and conceit,
Sate, like old men, in the corner of devotion.

190 The father had, many times, spoken vehemently to him,
Saying:—“Be of decent gait, and of pure speech.”

He endured his father's violence, and prison, and restraint,
It was not so useful to him, as counsel.

If the gentle-speaker (the recluse) had spoken severely to
Saying:—“Put youthfulness, and ignorance out of thy

Imagination and pride would have prevailed over him,
That he would not have left the darvesh (the speaker) alive.

The roaring lion, through fighting, casts not away the
shield (surrenders not);
The panther thinks not of the cutting sword.

195 One can, with gentleness, flay the enemy's skin;
When thou exercisest severity towards a friend, he is an

No one made a hard face, anvil-like,
Who suffered not the chastising hammer on his head.

Exercise not vehemence, in speaking to an amír;
Pursue gentleness, when thou seest that he practises

Make thyself, by manners, concordant, with whomsoever
thou mayst see,
Whether he be inferior, or superior.

For this one (the superior) may draw back his neck from
And, that one may, by thy pleasant speech, draw his head
within thy noose.

200 One can, by sweet speech, carry away the ball (of power);
But one of bad disposition, constantly, endures bitterness.

Take thou, from Sa'dí, the pleasant speech;
To the one of bitter visage, say:—“Die of bitterness!”

One of sugar-laughter sold honey,
From whose sweetness, hearts become consumed.

A sweet one, waist-girt, sugar-cane like,
The purchasers about her more (numerous) than the flies.

If, for instance, she should have taken up poison,
They would have devoured it like honey from her hand.

205 One of hard life glanced at her work;
He bore envy, in respect to her market-day.

He went, the next day, running around the world;
Honey in his hand; vinegar (ill-temper) on his eye-brow.

Wandered much, before and behind, clamour-making,
But, not a fly sate on his honey.

At night-time, when money came not to his hand,
He sate, with straitened heart, face to the corner.

Like a sinner, face embittered with (God's) threatening;
Like the eyebrows of prisoners on a day of festival.

210 A woman sportively said to her husband:—
“The honey of one of bitter visage is bitter.”

A bad temper takes a man to hell;
Those of good temper only see Paradise,

Go; drink warm water from the brink of the rivulet;
Drink not the cool draught of one of bitter face.

It was forbidden thee to taste the bread of that one,
Who drew together his eye-brows table-cloth-like.

Sir! put not on thyself difficult work;
For the one of bad temper is of reversed fortune.

215 I assume—that to thee, there is neither silver, nor gold;
To thee, the tongue also is not sweet, like Sa'dí's.

I have heard that of a learned man, God-worshipping,—
His collar, a drunken knave seized.

From that one of black heart, the man of pure heart
Suffered head-pushing, but raised not his head from

At length, one said to him:—“Art thou not also a man?
“Endurance, in respect to this indiscreet one, is a pity.”

The man of pure disposition heard this speech;
He said to him:—“Speak not again to me in this way.

220 “The ignorant drunken one rends a man's collar:—
“Who meditates (practises) conflict with a lion-claw?*

“It befits not the learned one, that his hand,
“He should fix in the collar of the drunken, ignorant one.

“The skilful one possesses life in this way:—
“He suffers violence; and exercises kindness.”

The foot of one desert-sitting, a certain dog bit
With such anger, that poison dropped from his teeth.

At night, through pain, helpless, sleep took him not;
There was, in his party, a little daughter.

225 She used violence to her father, and displayed severity,
Saying:—“Hast thou, also, indeed no teeth?”

After weeping, the man of distressed days
Laughed, saying:—“Oh little mother, heart-illuminating!

“Although, to me—are power and poison,
“I am loth (to use) my jaws and teeth.

“It is impossible, even if I endure a sword blow on my
“That I should plunge my teeth within the leg of a dog.

“As to dogs, the nature is evil;
“But, doggishness comes not from man.”

230 There was a certain great one, skilful in the world;
His slave was of depraved qualities.

Through this filthy one, hair dishevelled,
He used to be as one vinegar-rubbed on the face.*

Like a large male serpent, his teeth stained with poison;
From the ugly ones of the city, pledge taken.*

Continually on his face, the water of a diseased eye
Used to run, as the smell of onion (issued) from his armpit.

At cooking-time, he used to express a frown on his eye-
When they had cooked, he used to strike knee (in sitting)
with his master.*

235 Time to time, for bread-eating, his fellow-sitter;
But if he (the master) had died, he would not have given
water to his hand.

Neither speaking nor the blows of a stick used to exercise
effect on him;
Night and day, the house was in a state of being mined
(ruined) by him.*

Sometimes, he used to throw thorns and chips on the road;
Sometimes, he used to fling the hens into the well.

From his aspect, great terror used to arise;
He used not to go to a work, from which he used to return.

A person said:—“Of this slave of bad qualities,
“What desirest thou,—manners, or skill, or beauty?

240 “A person, with this unpleasantness, is not worth (so
“That thou shouldst approve of his violence, and endure
his torment.

“A slave,—good and of correct walk of life, I
“Will bring to thy hand; take away this to the captive-

“And, if he brings thee the smallest coin, turn not away
thy head;
“He is dear at any price,—if thou wishest the truth.”

The man of good disposition heard this speech;
He laughed, saying:—“Oh friend of auspicious family!

“As to this boy—his nature and disposition are bad; but,
“By him, my nature becomes good nature.

245 “When I shall have endured much from him,
“I may be able to endure the violence of everyone.”

Endurance appears, at first, to thee, like poison;
But when it grows in the disposition, it becomes honey.

No one sought the road to the ancient shaikh Ma'rúf of
Who placed not, first, his own renown, out of his head.*

I heard that a certain one came a guest to him;
From his sickness to death little remained.

Head cast as to its hair; and face, as to its purity (of
The soul clinging, by a single hair, to his body.

250 At night, he cast himself down there, and put his pillow;
Forthwith, he placed his hands—in clamour, and lament.

Nights, one moment, neither used sleep to seize him;
Nor (was there) sleep to anyone, by reason of his lament.

A disturbed nature, and rough disposition;
He died not; but slew a people by his altercation.

From his clamour, and lamenting, and sleeping, and
People took the path of flight from him.

Of the men-inmates of that abode, a person (was not);
There remained—the powerless one, and Ma'rúf only.

255 I have heard that, many nights, on account of service,
Ma'rúf slept not;
Like men, he bound his waist; and did whatever he said.

One night, sleep brought an army to his (Ma'rúf's) head;
—How much power may the non-sleeping man exercise?—

In a moment, when his eyes began to sleep,
The distressed traveller began to speak,

Saying:—“May there be a curse on this impure race (of
“Who are (seekers of) name and fame; but, are fraud
and wind:

“Filthy believers, purity-wearing;
“Deceivers, piety-selling.

260 “How knows the glutton, sleep-intoxicated,
“That a helpless one closed not his eyes?”*

He uttered unlawful words to Ma'rúf,
Saying:—“Why slept he careless of him, one moment?”

The shaikh, from generosity, endured this matter;
The concealed ones of the haram (the women) heard.

One spoke secretly to Ma'rúf.
Saying:—“Heardst thou what the lamenting darvesh

“Oh shaikh! go; after this, say:—take thy own way;
“Take away reproach; die in another place.

265 “Goodness and mercy are in their own places;
“But, generosity to the bad is evil.

“Place not a round pillow for the head of the mean;
“The head of the man-injurer (is) best against a stone.*

“Oh one of good fortune! exercise not goodness to the
“For, (only) the fool places the tree in the salt soil.

“I say not—Take no care of a man,
“But waste not generosity on such as are not men.

“Act not, with qualities of softness towards the rough;
“For, they rub not the dog's back, like the cat.

270 “If thou desirest justice, the dog, right-recognising,
“Is better, in character, than the man ungrateful.*

“Use not mercy, with ice-water, towards the mean;
“When thou dost,—write the compensation for it on ice.

“I beheld not such a crafty person;
“Show not mercy to this worthless one.”

When the lady of the palace (Ma'rúf's wife) uttered this
A cry issued from the good man's heart,

Saying:—“Return, and sleep tranquil of heart;
“Be not distressed, as to this distressed one, because he
thus spoke.

275 “If, from indisposition, he shouted at me,
“The unpleasant speech from him came pleasantly to my ear.

“It is proper to listen to the tale of violence of such a
“Who, from restlessness, cannot slumber.”

When thou seest thyself of strong state and happy,
Endure, thankfully, the burden of the feeble.

If thou art, indeed, a mere semblance, tilism-like,
Thou wilt die; and, thy name, like thy body, will die;

But if thou causest thyself to cherish the tree of liberality,
Thou mayst, assuredly, enjoy the fruit of good name.

280 Seest thou not that, in Karkh, the tombs are many?
The tomb of Ma'rúf only is known.

The man pomp-worshipping displays pride;
He knows not that grandeur is in gentleness.

An impudent one preferred his desire (in beggary) to a
pious one,
There was not, at that time, a single acquired thing
(money) in his girdle.

His girdle and hands were void and clean (empty);
Otherwise, he would have scattered gold on his face, dust-

The beggar, malignant of face, hastened out;
In the street, he began to reproach him,

285 Saying:—“Beware of these silent scorpions;
“Panther-renders, wool-clad.

“For, they place the knee against the heart, cat-like;
“But, if a prey chances, they leap up, dog-like.

“The shop of fraud to the masjid brought,
“For, one can seldom find game in a house.

“Lion-men attack the káraván;
“But, these (Súfís) pluck off the garment of men.

“White and black pieces (of cloth) stitched together;
“Capital put together; gold gathered.

290 “Oh excellent! barley-sellers, wheat-exhibiting;
“World-wanderers, night-mendicants, harvest-beggars.

“Look not at their devotion, saying:—“They are old and
“For, in dancing (rapture) and ecstacy, they are young
and vigorous.*

“Why is it necessary to make prayers from a state of
“When they can leap up to dance?

“They are the staff of Músa, much-devouring;
“Outwardly—so yellow of face, and emaciated.*

“They are neither abstinent, nor learned;
“This, indeed, is enough—that they purchase the world
with religion.

295 “On their body, they put a coarse cloak like that of
“With the produce of Abyssinia, they make garments
for women.*

“Of the precepts of Muhammad, thou seest in them no
“Save the former sleep (in the afternoon), and the morn-
ing bread.*

“The belly up to the head, they have filled tight with
“Like the palm-leaf basket of beggary of seventy colours.

“Beyond this, I will not speak on this matter;
“For, it is a sin to speak of one's own walk of life.”

The impudent speaker spoke of this habit (of the Súfís);
The eye, fault-finding, sees not skill.

300 One who has made many dishonoured,
What care has he of anyone's reputation?

A disciple related this speech to the shaikh;
—If thou wishst the truth, he did not wisely.*

An evil one behind me spoke of my defect, and slept;
Worse than he,—the friend, who brought (the tale) and
uttered it.

A certain one cast an arrow, and it fell on the road;
It injured not my existence, and gave me no wound.

Thou didst take it up and come to me;
Didst strike it violently into my loins.—

305 The pious one of good disposition laughed,
Saying:—“This is easy, say—utter a more difficult matter
than this.

“Yet what he said ill of me is little;
“It is one, out of a hundred of those bad deeds I know.

“These that he, through suspicion, attributed to me;
“I, on my part, truly know that they are so.*

“He joined his society with us this year;
“What knows he of the defects of my seventy years?

“In the world, better than I, a person, my own defect,
“Knows not,—save the Knower of my secret (God).

310 “I have not seen one of such good intention,
“Who considered my defect was this, and no more.

“At the place of assembling, if he be the evidence of my
“I fear not hell; for, my work is good.

“If my enemy speaks ill of me,
“Come and say:—‘Take away the draft (of my defect)
from before me.’”

Those have been men of the path of God,
Who have been the butt of the arrow of calamity.

They threw off (from the head) the hat of pride;
They exalted the head with the crown of eminence.

315 Be submissive, while they rend thy skin;
For the pious endure the burden of the impudent.

If, of the dust of men, they make a pitcher;
Those reproach-making will break it with a stone.

King Sálih of the kings of Syria
Used to come out early in the morning with his slave.

He used to wander in the quarters of the bázár and streets,
After the manner of an Arab,—a veil bound about his face.

For, he was possessed of discernment, and was the poor
man's friend;
Whosoever has these two qualities,—he is King Sálih.

320 He discovered two darveshes sleeping in a masjid;
He found them distressed of heart, and heart disturbed.

In the night, through cold, sleep had not taken their eyes;
Thinking of the sun, lizard-like.

One of those two was speaking to the other,
Saying:—“Even, on the day of the place of assembling,
there is justice.*

“If these kings, neck-exalting,
“Who are in sport and pastime, and possessed of desire
and consequential airs,

“Enter Paradise with those distressed,
“I will not raise my head from the brick of the grave.

325 “Lofty Paradise is our country and abode;
“For, to-day, the fetter of grief is about our feet.

“During thy whole life-time, what pleasure didst thou
experience from them,
“That thou shouldst, in the next world, also endure their

“If Sálih there, by the garden-wall,
“Enters, I will rend his brain with my shoe.”

When the man uttered this speech, and Sálih heard it,
He considered it not wisdom to be (standing) longer there.

A moment passed, when the fountain of the sun,
Washed down sleep from the eyes of the people.

330 Running, he sent for the two men, and called them;
In pomp, he sate; and, in dignity, caused them to sit.*

He rained on them the rain of liberality;
He washed down, from their bodies, the dust of contempt.

After distress through cold, and rain, and torrent,
They sate with those renowned of the tribe:

Two beggars, night made day, garmentless,
Perfuming their garments over the aloe-burner.

One of them spoke privately to the king,
Saying:—“Oh king! the world a ring in the ear (a slave)
to thy order,

335 Those approved of God attain greatness;
In us two slaves, what appeared pleasing to thee?

The monarch expanded from joy, rose-like;
He laughed, in the face of the darvesh, and said:—

“I am not such a one that, from pride of retinue,
“I contract my face, at those helpless.

“Put thou also as to me the malignant disposition, out of
thy head:
“Lest thou shouldst, in Paradise, display discordance.

“I opened, to-day, the door of peace;
“Shut not, to-morrow, the door on my face.

340 “If thou art an accepter of the true path, choose a path
like this;
“When power reaches thee, take the hand of the darvesh.

“That one took not away the fruit (of pardon) of the
Túba tree,
“Who sowed not, to-day, the seed of desire (of good

“Thou hast not desire,—seek not happiness;
“With the chaugán of service, one can carry off the ball
(of empire).”

To thee, how is there effulgence (of love) lamp-like,
Since, thou art full of thyself, as a lamp with water.*

That existence gives light to the assembly,
Whose burning in the bosom is candle-like.

345 A certain one had a little skill in astronomy;
But, he possessed a head, intoxicated with pride.

From the far road, he came to Koshyár,
—A heart full of desire; a head, full of pride.—*

The sage used to sew up (close) his eyes from him,
He used not to teach him a single letter.

When portionless, he resolved to return,
The sage, neck-exalting, said to him:—

“Thou hast imagined thyself full of wisdom;
“A vase that is full—how may it take more.

350 “Thou art full of pretension; on that account, thou goest
empty from me:
“Come empty; so that thou mayst become full of truth.”

Sa'dí-like, in the world,—of self-consciousness,
Become void, and return full of the knowledge of God.

In anger, a slave turned his head from a king (fled);
He ordered a person to seek; no one found him.*

When he (the slave) returned, in anger and rancour,
He said to the swordsman:—“Spill his blood!”

Thirsty for blood, the unkind executioner
Drew forth a sword like a thirsty tongue.

355 I heard that, from his straitened heart, he said:—
“Oh God! I pardon him my blood,

“Because, always in favour, and pleasure, and fame,
“I have, in his fortune, been a friend.*

“God forbid! that, to-morrow (the Judgment Day), for
my blood,
“They should seize him, and his enemy become joyful (by
his punishment).”

When his speech came to the king's ear,
The cauldron of his wrath boiled no further.

He gave (him) many kisses on his head and eyes;
He became lord of the standard, and tambourine, and drum.

360 From such a frightful place, by softness,
He caused his fortune to attain that dignity.*

The design of this tale is—that soft speech
Is like water on the fire of a fiery man.

Oh friend! exercise humility to a stern enemy;
For, gentleness makes blunt the cutting sword.

Seest thou not that, in the place of meeting of sword and
They put on the garment of silk, a hundred-fold?

From the desolate place of a holy man, ragged garment-
The baying of a dog came to a certain one's ear.

365 To his heart, he said:—“How is the baying of a dog
He entered, saying:—“Where is the holy darvesh?”

From before and behind, he saw not the trace of a dog;
Save the pious man, he saw none other there.

Ashamed, he began to return;
For, shame came to him to argue about the mystery.

From within, the holy man heard the foot-sound;
He said:—“Ho! why standst thou at the door? Enter.

“Oh my resplendent eye! thoughtst thou not,
“That, from here, a dog gave tongue? I am the dog.

370 “When I saw that He purchases helplessness,
“I put out of my head—pride, and judgment, and wisdom.

“I made much noise, dog-like, at His door;
“For, I beheld not many meaner than a dog.”

When thou desirest that thou mayst attain sublime rank,
Thou wilt attain to loftiness from the low place of

Those took the chief seat in this presence,
Who placed their own worth low.

When the torrent came with fear and haste,
It fell headlong, from height to depth.

375 When the dew fell—humble and feeble,
The sky carried it, with love, to the (lofty) red star

A number of the eloquent are of opinion,
That Hátim was deaf; believe it not.*

In the morning, there issued the buzzing of a fly,
Which fell into a spider's net.

All the spider's weakness and silence was deceit;
The fly thought it sugar; it was imprisonment.

From the desire of counsel, the shaikh glanced at the fly,
Saying:—“Oh foot-bound in avarice! be still.

380 “Sugar and honey, and candy everywhere, are not;
“But nets and fetters, in the corners, are open.”

One of that clique of people of judgment said:—
“Oh man of the way of God! I hold it wonderful,

“How thou didst perceive the fly's noise,
“When it came, to our ears, with difficulty!

“Since thou art acquainted with the fly's sound,
“It is not proper, after this, to call thee deaf.”

Hátim, smiling, said to him:—“Oh one of quick under-
“To be deaf is better than to be listening to foolish talk.

385 “Those, who are with me in privacy,
“Are defect-concealers and praise-scatterers.

“When I hold concealed mean qualities,
“Existence makes me weak; (and) lust, vile.

“I show myself as though I heard not,
“Perhaps I may be free from the trouble (of bad qualities).

“When fellow-sitters consider me deaf,
“They utter whatever is good and bad of me.

“If to hear evil is unpleasant to me,
“I withdraw my skirt from bad conduct.”

390 Be not at the well (of egotism), with the cord of
Be deaf, like Hátim, and hear thy own defects.

He sought not happiness, and found not safety,
Who turned aside the neck from Sa'dí's sayings.

Is a better adviser than this Sa'dí necessary to thee?
I know not what may chance to thee after him.

There was, in the limits of Tabríz, one dear to God,
Who was always wakeful and night-rising (in devotion).

One night, he saw a place where a thief, a noose,
Twisted and cast upon the side of a roof.

395 He informed the people, and raised a cry;
Men, from every side, arose with sticks.

When the unmanly thief heard the voice of men,
He saw no place of existing, in the midst of the danger.

Through that tumult, fear came upon him;
Flight, in season, became his choice.

From pity, the devotee's heart became wax;
For, the helpless night-thief was disappointed.

In the darkness, he, from behind came to his front;
By another road, he returned in front of him,

400 Saying:—“Oh friend! go not; for I am a friend of thine;
“I am, in manliness, the dust of thy foot.

“I have seen no one, like thee, in manliness;
“Since battle-action lies in two ways only.

“One way is to come manfully before the enemy;
“The second to carry one's life out of the contest (by

“By these two qualities of thine, I am thy slave;
“How art thou named; for I am the slave of thy name?

“If, by way of liberality, it be thy opinion;
“I may guide thee to a place which I know.

405 “It is a house, small; and the door fast shut;
“I think not the lord of the chattels is there.

“We may place two clods, one on the other;
“We may put one foot on the shoulder of the other (to
reach the roof).

“Be satisfied with as much as falls to thy hand;
“It is better, than that thou shouldst return empty of

With cordiality, and flattery, and art,
He drew him (the thief) towards his own house.

The young night-traveller (the thief) held lowered his
The lord of sense (the devotee) entered (the house), by his

410 Horse-housings, and turbans, and chattels which he had;
He put, from above, into his (the thief's) skirt.

And, thence he raised a shout, saying:—“Thief!
“Oh young men! (there are) recompense, and aid, and

The deceitful thief leaped out from the tumult,
Running, the garment of the devotee under his arm.

The man of good faith became comforted,
Saying:—“The desire of the one head distracted became

The filthy one, who pitied no one,—
The heart of a good man forgave.

415 From the mode of life of the intelligent, it is not won-
That they should, from magnanimity, do good to the bad.

In the prosperity of the good, the bad live;
Although, the bad are not people of goodness.

There was a pure heart, Sa'dí-like, to a certain one,
Who had fallen in love with one of smooth face.*

He used to endure violence from the enemy, harsh-speaking,
Used to leap, ball-like, from the chaugán of hardship.

Used not to cast a frown, at any, on his eyebrows,
Used not to relinquish gentleness for harshness.*

420 One, at length, said to him:—“To thee is there no shame?
“Of all this slap-giving and stone-throwing,—is there no

“The mean make their own body fat;
“The feeble make endurance of the enemy.

“It is not proper to pass over the fault of an enemy,
“Lest they say:—‘He possessed neither power, nor man-

The distraught one, distracted of head, gave to him
An answer, which it is fit to write in gold:—

“My heart is the house of the love of my friend only;
“For that reason, malice to no one is contained in it.”

425 How well said Bahlúl of happy temperament,
When he passed by a holy man, battle-seeking,—*

“If this claimant had recognised the Friend (God),
“He would not have engaged, in contest with the enemy.”*

If he had possessed knowledge of the existence of God,
He would have considered all people non-existent.

I have heard that Lukmán was of black colour;
Was neither tender, as to body; nor, delicate, as to limb.*

A certain one considered him his own slave;
He was vile; he kept him (engaged) on clay-work.

430 He experienced violence, and endured his tyranny and
He prepared, in one year, a house for his sake.

When the runaway slave came back to him,
Of Lukmán, a great fear came over him.

He fell at his feet, and made apology;
Lukmán laughed, saying:—“What is the use of apology?

“In a year, by thy violence, I make my liver blood;
“In a moment, how may I put grief out of my heart?

“But indeed I forgive thee, oh good man!
“For, thy gain (by my service) made not my loss.*

435 “Thou didst make thy sleeping-chamber prosperous;
“For me,—skill and knowledge of God became greater.

“Oh one of good fortune! there is, among my followers, a
“Whom I oftentimes order difficult work.

“Again I will not sorely vex his heart;
“When recollection comes to me of the severity of the

Whosoever endured not the violence of the great,
His heart burned not for the poor weak folk.

If the word of rulers be hard to thee,
Exercise not harshness towards thy inferiors.

440 I have heard that, in the desert of San'á, Juníd
Saw a dog (by old age) the hunting-teeth dug out.*

From the power of the grasp, lion-seizing,
He had become weak, like an old fox.

After seizing, on foot, mountain-sheep and antelope,
He used to suffer kicks from the sheep of the tribe of

When he beheld it weak, powerless and wounded,
He gave to it a half of his own provisions.

I heard that he said, while he wept blood:—
“Who knows, which of us two is the better?

445 “To-day, in outward appearance, I am better than this
“In the future, what (decree) may Fate urge against me?

“If the foot of my faith slips not from its place,
“I may place the crown of God's pardon on my head.

“But if, on my body, the garment of holiness
“Remain not, I am less by much than this dog.

“For when the dog, with all its ill-repute, dies
“They will not carry it to hell.”

Oh Sa'dí! this is the way—that men of the path of God
Looked not on themselves with honour.

450 They possessed honour above the angels, on that account,
That they regarded not themselves better than a dog.

A certain drunken one had a harp under his arm;
He broke it, at night, on a devotee's head.

When day came, that good gentle man
Carried a handful of silver to that one of stone-heart.

Saying:—“Last night, thou wast proud and intoxicated;
“For thee and me, harp and head are broken.

“As to me, that wound has become well, and fear has
risen (and departed);
“As to thee, save by silver, the harp will not be sound.”

455 The friends of God are over heads (in power), on that
That they endure much on their heads.

I heard that, in the dust of Wakhsh, of the great,
There was one hidden, in the corner of retirement.*

Naked in truth; not, by the religious garment, a holy one,
Who puts out the hand of need (in beggary) to the

As to happiness,—the door opened towards him;
The doors of others shut in his face.

An eloquent one, void of wisdom, endeavoured,
Through impudence, to speak ill of that good man,

460 Saying:—“Beware of this deceit, and artifice, and fraud;
“Of sitting, demon-like, in the place of Sulaimán.*

“From time to time, they (the Súfís) wash the face, cat-
“Lusting for the prey of the mice of the street.

“Austerity-enduring, for the sake of name and pride;
“For, far goes the sound of the empty drum.”

He kept talking, and the crowd about him a multitude,
Man and woman, making fun of them (the devotee and the

I heard that the sage of Wakhsh wept,
Saying:—“Oh Lord! forgive this Thy slave.

465 “Oh pure Lord! if he spoke truth,
“Give to me repentance, that I may not be destroyed.

“My fault-seeker was agreeable to me;
“For, he made known to me my bad disposition.”

If thou art that which an enemy says, grieve not;
And, if thou art not, say:—“Go, wind-weigher!”

If a fool called the musk fetid,
Be thou tranquil; for, he uttered nonsense.

And, if this speech, as to the onion passes,
Say it is so; display not a fetid (proud) brain.*

470 The wise one of enlightened mind takes not
The mouth-stopper of the enemy (defect-revealing) from
the juggler.*

It is not wisdom, and judgment, and understanding,
That a wise man should purchase deceit from a juggler.

Then the wise man sate behind his own work,
He shut against himself the enemy's tongue.

Be thou of good conduct, that the malevolent one
May not obtain the power of speaking to thy injury.

When from the enemy's speech, it comes hard to thee.
See! what defect he takes up, that do not.

475 That person only knows good of me,
Who reveals to me my faults.

A certain one brought a difficult matter before 'Alí;—
Peradventure, he may make apparent to him the difficulty.*

The chief, enemy-binding, territory-conquering,
Gave to him an answer from the fountain of knowledge
and judgment.

I heard that, in this assembly, a person
Said:—“Oh Bú-l-Hasan! it is not so.”

Haydar, name-seeking, on account of him, grieved not;
He said:—“If thou knowst better than this, speak.”

480 Whatever he knew, he spoke; and suitably spoke;
It is improper to conceal the sun's fountain with clay.

The king of men approved of his answer,
Saying:—“I was in error; and he, in truth.

“He spoke better than I; the Wise One is one only
“For, knowledge is not higher than His knowledge.”

If, to-day, there had been a lord of rank,
He would not, through his pride, have looked at him.

The chamberlain would have placed him out of court;
They would, without reason, have beaten him.

485 Saying:—“Hereafter, make not one void of reputation;
“Speech is improper before the great.”

One, in whose head, is conceit,—
Think not, that he will ever listen to truth.

From his knowledge, comes sorrow; from admonition, dis-
The red tulips grow from rain, not from stone.

If thou hast the pearl of the river of excellence, rise;
Scatter, in admonition, (pearls) at the feet of the darvesh.

Seest thou not that,—in the dust, fallen, wretched,—
The rose grows, and the fresh spring blossoms?

490 In the eye of (wise) people, no one is of account,
Who shows, in himself, much haughtiness.

Oh sage! scatter not sleeves of pearls (of eloquence),
When thou beholdst a rich man, full of himself.

Speak not,—so that a thousand persons may utter thy
When thou speakst of thyself, expect not (praise) from

I heard that, in a narrow street, as regards a beggar,
'Umar placed his own foot on the back of his foot.*

The helpless poor man knew not who he was;
For one aggrieved knows not enemy from friend.

495 He was enraged at him, saying:—“Perhaps, thou art
'Umar, the just chief, said to him:—

“I am not blind; the deed passed by mistake;
“I observed not; pass over my fault.”*

How just have been the great ones of religion.
Who have, with inferiors, been even so.

One sense-choosing is humble;
The branch full of fruit places its head on the earth.

Those humility-practising will, to-morrow, boast;
The head of those neck-exalting will, in shame, be lowered.

500 If thou fearst the day of reckoning,
Forgive the fault of that one, who fears thee.

Exercise not malignant tyranny towards thy inferiors;
For, there is a power even above thy power.

Of good conduct and good disposition, there was a certain
Who was well-speaking of the bad.

When he passed (in death), a person beheld him in a dream
(and asked),
Saying:—“Tell me of past events.”

He opened a mouth, rose-like, with laughter,
He gave utterance, nightingale-like, with a sweet sound,

505 Saying:—“They used not much severity towards me;
“For I practised oppression against no one.”

I have recollection of this sort, that the water-carrier of
the Nile
Prepared not, one year, water for Egypt.

A crowd went towards the mountains;
Became, with supplication, suppliants for rain.*

They wept; but, from their weeping, a running rivulet
Came not, save the water of the eyes of women.

One from among them carried news to the Saint Zú-n-Nún,
Saying:—“On the people there is much grief and suffer-

510 “Pray for those distressed;
“For the word of those God-accepted is not rejected.”

I heard that Zú-n-Nún fled to Madín;
Much time passed not before rain fell.*

After the lapse of twenty days, the news went to Madín,
That the cloud of black heart had wept over them.

The old man made an immediate resolution of returning;
For, by the spring-torrents, the water-pools became full.

A holy man secretly inquired of him,
“What philosophy was there in this thy going away?”
He replied:—

515 “I heard that for fowl, and ant, and rapacious beast,
“There was scarcity of food, on account of the deeds of
the wicked.

“In this country, I reflected much;
“I considered no one worse than myself.

“I went, lest that, through my wickedness,
“God should fasten the door of liberality on the people
(of Egypt).”

Is greatness necessary to thee? exercise courtesy; for those
great ones
Beheld not men worse than themselves, in the world.

Thou becomest precious before men, at that time,
When thou reckonst thyself for nothing.

520 The great one, who reckoned himself among the small folk,
Carried away greatness in this and in the future world.

From this dust-holder (the world), that slave went pure,
Who, at the feet of the meanest person, became dust.

Ho! thou who passest over our dust,
By the dust of dear ones! (let it be) that thou rememberst

For if Sa'dí (after death) became dust—to him what
Since he was, in life also, dust (humble).

In humbleness, he gave his body to the dust;
Although he went, wind-like, around the world.*

525 Much time passes not before that the dust (of the grave)
consumes him,
The wind carries him, again, through the world.

Behold! since the rose-garden of truth blossomed,
No nightingale spoke in it, sweetly, like Sa'dí.

If a nightingale should die in such a way, wonderful,—
That a rose should not grow on its bones!