1 IF thou art wise, incline to truth;
For truth, not the semblance, remains in its place.*

To whomsoever, there was neither knowledge, nor liberality,
nor piety,—
In his form, there was no reality.

Beneath the clay, sleeps at ease that one,
By whom, men sleep tranquil at heart.

Suffer thy own grief in life; for the relation,
Through his own avarice, busies not himself with one dead.

5 Give now gold and silver, which is thine;
For, after thy (death), it is out of thy command.

Thou wishest not, that thou shouldst be distressed in
Put not out of thy heart those distressed.

Scatter treasure in alms, to-day, without delay;
For, to-morrow, the key is not in thy hand.

Take away with thy self, thy own road-provisions;
For compassion (after death) comes from neither son, nor

That one takes away the ball of empire from this world,
Who took, with himself, a portion to the future world.

10 With sympathy, like my finger-tip,
No one in the world scratches my back.

Place now, on the palm of the hand, whatever there is;
Lest that, to-morrow (the Judgment Day) thou shouldst
with the teeth bite the back of the hand.

Strive as to covering the shame of the darwesh,
That the veil of God may be thy secret (defect) -concealer.

Turn not the foreigner portionless from thy door,
Lest that thou shouldst become a wanderer (in beggary) at

The great one causes alms to reach the indigent;
For he fears that he may become necessitous (as to the
need of others).

15 Look into the state of the heart of those wearied;
For thy heart may, perhaps, one day be broken.

Make the hearts of those dejected happy;
Remember the day of helplessness (the Judgment Day).

Thou art not a beggar at the doors of others;
Drive not, in thanks to God, a beggar from thy door.

Cast protection over the head of the one father-dead;
Scatter his dust (of affliction), and pluck out his thorn.

Knowst thou not, how very dejected his state was?
May a rootless tree be ever green?*

20 When thou seest an orphan, head lowered in front (from
Give not a kiss to the face of thy own son.

If the orphan weeps, who buys for his consolation?
And, if he becomes angry, who leads him back (to

Beware! that he weep not; for, the great throne of God
Keeps trembling, when the orphan weeps.

Pluck out, with kindness, the tear from his pure eye;
Scatter, with compassion, the dust (of affliction) from his

If his (the father's) protection departed from over his
Do thou cherish him, with thy own protection.

25 I esteemed my head crown-worthy, at that time,
When, I held my head in my father's bosom.

If a fly had sate on my body,
The heart of some would have become distressed.

If now, enemies should bear me away captive,
None of my friends is a helper.

For me, is acquaintance with the sorrows of orphans,
For, in childhood, my father departed (in death), from my

A certain one plucked out a thorn from an orphan's
The Khujand Chief, saw him, in a dream:—*

30 He was talking and sauntering in the gardens of Paradise,
Saying:—“How many roses blossomed from that thron!”

So long as thou canst, be not free from mercy;
For they bear pity to thee, when thou bearst pity.

When thou hast done a favour, be not self-worshipping,
Saying:—“I am a superior; and, that other an inferior.”

Say not:—“The sword of Time has cast him!”
For, the sword of Time is yet drawn.

When thou seest a thousand persons, prayer-uttering for
the empire,
Give thanks to God for favours.

35 For the reason that many men have expectation from thee,
Thou hast expectation at the hand of none.

I have said that liberality is the character of chiefs;
I uttered a mistake;—it is the quality of prophets!

I have heard that, one week, a son of the road (a traveller)
Came not to the guest-house of (Ibráhím) the friend of

Through his happy disposition, he used not to eat in the
Unless one, foodless, came from the path (of travel).

He went out, and looked in every direction;
Glanced in the quarters of the valley; and saw:—

40 One, willow-like, in solitude, in the desert;
His head and hair white with the snow of old age.

For consolation, he said to him:—“Marhabá!”
Uttered, according to the custom of the liberal, the invi-

Saying:—“Oh pupil of my eyes!
“Do me a favour, as to bread and salt.”

He said, “Yes”; and sprang up and lifted his feet;
For, he knew his temperament:—on him be peace!

The guards of the guest-house of Ibráhím
Placed the abject old man, with respect.

45 He ordered; and, they arranged the table;
All sate around.

When the company began:—“Bismi-llah!”
A word from the old man reached not his ear.

He spoke to him, thus:—“Oh old man of ancient days!
“I behold not thy truth and heart-burning, like old men.

“When thou eatst food, is it not the custom
“That thou shouldst take the name of the Lord of

He said:—“I accept not a religion,
“Which I have not heard from the old men, fire-wor-

50 The prophet of good omen knew
That the old man, of state-become ruined, was a Gabr.

He drove him away, with contempt, when he saw him a
stranger (to Islám);
For to the pure, the filthy is forbidden.

The angel Surosh came from the glorious Omnipotent,
With majesty, reproaching, saying:—“Oh friend of God!

“I had for a hundred years given him victuals and life;
“Abhorrence of him comes to thee, in a moment.

“If he takes his adoration to the fire,
“Why withdrawst thou thy hand of magnanimity?”

55 Make not a knot at the head of the ligature of beneficence,
Saying:—“This one is of fraud and deceit: and, that one
of treachery and guile.”*

The man, Kurán-knowing, does injury,
When he sells, for bread, the Kurán and sound doctrine.

Where do wisdom and law give the decision,
That one of wisdom should give religion for the world?

But, do thou take; because the wise man
Buys gladly from those cheap-selling.

One, tongue-knowing, came to a pious man,
Saying:—“I have stuck firmly in the mire.

60 “Ten dirams of a mean one are (weighing) on me,
“In such a way that a fourth part of them is ten mans on
my heart.*

“Through him, all night, my state distracted;
“All day, (he is) shadow-like, behind me.

“From words, heart-confounding, he has made
“A wound, like a house-door, within my heart.

“Perhaps since he was born of his mother, God
“Gave not (to him) anything save these ten dirams.*

“Of the book of Religion, Alif unknown;
“Unread, save the chapter:—Spend not.

65 “The sun raised not its head a single day above the
“That that scoundrel knocked not at my door.

“I am in reflection,—What liberal one
“May take my hand (help me) with silver, from that one
of stone heart.”

The old man of happy disposition heard this speech,
He placed two gold coins in his sleeve.

The gold fell into the hand of the tale-teller;
He went out, thence,—a face fresh like gold.

One said:—“Oh Shaikh! knowst thou not, who this is?
“It is not proper to weep over him, if he dies

70 “A beggar, who (by deceit) places a saddle on the male
“Who places (on one side) the knight and queen of Abú-
Zaid (the chess-player).”*

The 'ábid was confounded, saying:—“Be silent!
“Thou art not a man of tongue; listen!

“If what I thought (regarding him) was right
“I preserved his honour from the people.

“If he practised impudence and hypocrisy,
“Thou knowst not that he beguiled me.

“For, I preserved my own honour;
“From the hand of such a deceiver, foolishness-uttering.”

75 Spend silver and gold on the bad and the good;
For, this is the trade of liberality; and, that the repelling
of evil.*

Happy he who, in the society of the wise,
Learns the qualities of the pious.

Wisdom, and judgment, and deliberation, and sense are
Listen, with reverence, to Sa'dí's advice.

Because, Sa'dí, for the most part, has words (of counsel)
in this fashion;
Not—as to eye, and ringlet, and lobe of the ear, and mole
(of lovely ones).

One departed (from the world), and a hundred thousand
dínars of his,
The heir, a sensible pious man, took.

80 He clutched not his hand on the gold, like the misers;
He took off the fastening from it, like the nobles.

The darvesh used not to be empty at his door;
Nor, the traveller, within his guest-house.

He made the heart of stranger and relation happy;
Tied not up the gold, like his father.

One, reproach-making, said to him:—“Oh one of wind-
“Make not altogether scattered what treasure there is.

“Gold, and consequential airs, and favour, remain not
“Perhaps, no one has told thee this tale?

85 “In these days, a certain Záhid, to his son,
“I heard—kept saying—‘Oh soul of father!

“‘Go alone; and be house-emptying;
“‘Be liberal, and wealth-dispersing.’*

“The son was fore-seeing and work-experienced,
“He praised his father, saying:—‘Oh one of good judg-

“‘In one year, one can gather together the harvest;
“‘To burn it in a moment, is not manliness.’

“When thou hast no patience, as to straitened circum-
“Consider the account, in the plenteous season.

90 “How well spoke the lady of the village to her daughter,
“Saying:—‘Put aside, in the time of plenty, means for

“‘Keep full, at all times, the water-bag and pitcher;
“‘For, the rivulet in the village is not always running.’

“By this world, one can obtain the next;
“By gold, one can turn aside a lion-grasp.

“If thou art straitened, go not before a friend;
“But, if thou hast silver, come and bring (that silver).

“If thou placest thy face, on the dust of his feet,
“He utters no reply to thee, with empty hands.

95 “The lord of gold plucks out the demon's eye;
“He brings the jinn Sahar, by craft, to his net.*

“Associate not, empty-handed, with lovely ones;
“For without anything, a man is not worth anything.

“The hope of the empty-handed one prospers not;
“With gold thou mayst pluck out the eye of the white

“Scatter not gold, all at once, on friends;
“Be in contemplation of the trouble of the enemy.

“And if, on the palm of the hand, thou placest whatever
thou hast,
“In the time of need, thou wilt remain empty (handed).

100 “By thy effort, the beggars—ever strong,
“Become not; I fear, thou dost become lean.”

When the forbidder of liberality uttered this tale,
The young man's vein, through anger, slept not.

He became perplexed in heart as to that censorious one;
Was confounded, and said:—“Oh foolish talker!

“The power that is around me,
“My father said—was the heritage of my grandfather.

“Did they not first preserve it?
“They died, in regret; and, left it.

105 “To my hand, did not my father's property fall,
“That it might fall after me to my son's hand?”

It is best indeed that men should to-day enjoy;
For, to-morrow, after me, they will take it away in rapine.

Eat, and clothe thyself, and bestow, and cause ease to
Why keepst thou (money) for the sake of the people?

The lords of judgment, (by alms) take away with them-
selves from the world;
The base one remains, in regret, in his place.

With this world, thou canst buy the future world;
Oh my soul! purchase; and, if not, suffer regret.

Gold and wealth are of use to that one,
110 Who makes the wall of the future world, gold decorated.

He (the heir) enjoyed and gave away, so that those endowed
with vision
Beheld the marks of that money-loss in him.

A person, out of nobleness, praised him,
Saying:—“In the path of God, thou enduredst much

Head in the collar of shame, he kept saying:—
“What (good deed) did I, to which one can attach the

“The hope that I have is in the grace of God;
“For, to exercise reliance on my own effort is a crime.”

Religion is this indeed,—that people of truth
115 Are good-doers, and (their own) fault-perceivers.

The Shaikhs have, all night, uttered prayers;
Have, in the morning, spread the prayer-carpet.

In the name of manliness! listen to the words of men;
Not Sa'dí; but, of Sahrwadí, hear.*

For me the shaikh of knowledge, the spiritual guide,
Uttered two maxims of counsel,—boat on the water:—

“One,—be not in the assembly of those evil-viewing;
“The other,—be not in the lust of self-beholding.”

120 One night, I know, that, from fear of hell, Shaháb slept
In the morning, it came to my ear,—that he said:—

“How well would it have been, if hell had been full of me;
“Perhaps, for others, there might have been escape!”

Once upon a time, a wife lamented to her husband,
Saying:—“Purchase not again bread from the general
vendor of the street.

“Go to the market of the wheat-sellers.
“For, this is a barley-seller, wheat-exhibiting.

“Not on account of purchasers, but from a swarm of flies,
“No one has seen his face for a week.”

125 With heartiness, that indigent man,
To his wife, said:—“Oh light (of my eyes)! be content.

“In hope of us, the vendor took here a shop;
“It is not manliness, to take back from him profit.”

Take the path of good, noble men;
When thou art erect, seize the hand of the fallen.

Bestow; for, those who are men of God
Are the purchasers (at) of the shop without splendour.

If thou desirest truth,—the saint ('Alí) is the generous man;
Liberality is the profession of 'Alí, king of men.

130 I have heard that an old man, on the road to Hijáz,
Used to make two prayer-motions, at every step.

So impetuous in the path of God,
That he used not to pluck the ghílán thorn from his foot.

At length from temptation, heart-disturbing,
His work seemed good in his sight.

By the craft of Iblís, he fell into the pit (of pride),
Saying:—“One cannot go on a road, better than this.”

If the mercy of God had not found him,
Pride would have turned his head from the path (of reli-

135 An angelic messenger gave voice, from the invisible,
Saying:—“Oh one of happy fortune! of good disposition!

“If thou hast performed devotion, think not,
“That thou hast brought a rarity to this court.

“By beneficence a heart tranquil making,
“Is better than a thousand sacred inclinations of the head
at every stage.”

A wife thus spoke (to her husband) an officer of the Sultán,
Saying;—“Oh fortunate one! arise; knock at the door of

“Go; so that they may give thee a portion from the
(Sultán's) tray;
“For, the children are looking to thee for food.

140 He said:—“To-day, the kitchen is cold;
“For, the Sultán made the resolve of fast, at night.”

The wife, through helplessness, cast down her head;
Heart torn with hunger, she kept saying to herself:—

“What did the Sultán wish from this fast-talking,
“The breaking of which is the festival of my children?”

The devourer, from whose hand liberality issues,
Is better than one, who, world-worshipping, perpetually

Fast-keeping is reserved for him,
Who gives, to the wearied one, the bread of the morning

145 Otherwise, what need that thou shouldst endure the trouble
(of fasting);
Shouldst keep back from thyself (food in the day); and
shouldst eat it (at night)?

The imaginings of the ignorant one, sitting in solitude!
He confounds, at length, infidelity and religion.

Purity is in water; and, also, in the mirror;
But, discretion is necessary for purity.

To a certain one, liberality was; but power was not;
Means of subsistence, to the extent of his generosity, were

Let not the mean one be lord of wealth!
Let not straitened means be to the generous man!

150 To him, to whom lofty spirit chances,
The object of his desire seldom falls within the noose.

Like the pouring torrent, which, in a mountainous country,
Takes not ease in the midst of the heights.

He exercised not liberality, according to his means;
On this account, assuredly, he used to be of small worth.*

One straitened wrote to him two words,
Saying:—“Oh one of happy end, of auspicious tempera-

“Take my hand (help me) once with some dirams;
“For, it is some time that I have been in prison.”

155 The request was, in his eye, of no value;
But, in his hand, there was not the smallest coin.

He sent a man to the enemies of the captive,
Saying:—“Oh men of good name, and noble!

“Restrain, for a little, your hands from his skirt;
“And if he flies, security for him (is) on me.”

And, thence, he came to the prison, saying:—“Arise!
“Flee from this city, so long as thou hast feet.”

When the sparrow beheld the cage-door open,
Repose within it remained not to it, a moment.

160 Like the zephyr-wind, from that land he travelled;
Such travelling, that the wind would not have reached the
dust of his feet.

They, at once, seized the generous man,
Saying:—“Thou mayst obtain the silver, or the man.”

He took, in helplessness, the path to the prison;
For, one cannot take the bird, gone from the cage.

I heard that he remained some time in prison;
He neither wrote to any one a complaint; nor, uttered a

Times, he reposed not; nights, slept not;
A devotee passed by him, and said:—

165 “I think not thou devourest the property of man;
“What chanced to thee, that thou art in prison?”

He said:—“Oh comrade of happy spirit!
“I enjoyed, by fraud, the property of no one.

“I beheld one, powerless, torn by captivity;
“I beheld no release for him, save by my own confinement.

“It seemed, in my opinion, not proper,
“I, at ease; another, in the noose (of torment).”

At length, he died; and, took away a good name;
How excellent, the life of him, whose name died not!

170 Beneath the clay,—a body dead, a heart alive;
Is better than a world alive, heart dead.

The living heart never becomes destroyed;
If, the body of the living heart dies,—what matter?*

A certain one found, in the desert, a thirsty dog;
He found not beyond a spark of life in him.

He of approved religion made a cap-bucket;
Bound to it his own turban, rope-like.

Bound his loins in service; and stretched forth his arm;
Gave a little water to the powerless dog.

175 The Prophet gave intelligence of the man's state,
Saying:—“The Ruler (God) pardoned his sins.”

Ho! if thou art a tyrant, reflect;
Choose fidelity; exercise liberality.

How does liberality become lost to the good man,
Since he lost not goodness done to a dog?

Pactise liberality so far as it may (suitably) come from thy
The world-keeper closes the door of beneficence on none.

To bestow from the treasury, to the extent of an ox's skin
of gold,
Is not like half a dang from the hand of toil.

180 Every one carries a load suitable to his strength;
The locust's foot is heavy to the ant.

Oh one of happy fortune! do good to the people,
That to-morrow, (the Judgment Day) God may not take
hard (measures) with thee.

If he come from his feet (fall), he remains not captive,
Who was hand-seizer (helper) of the fallen.

Give not, with rebuke, an order to the slave;
For, it may be that he may fall (come) to order-giving.

When thy majesty and rank are lasting
Exercise not violence on the weakness of the common dar-

185 For, it may happen that he becomes possessed of rank and
Like the pawn, that suddenly becomes a queen (at chess).

Listen to the counsel of men, far-seeing;
They scatter not the seed of rancour, in any heart.

The lord of the harvest suffers loss,
When he displays arrogance towards the corn-gleaners.

Fears he not that they (the angels) may give wealth to the
wretched one;
And from that one place the load of grief on the heart of
this one?*

Many strong ones,—who fell suddenly;
Many a fallen one,—Fortune assisted.

190 It is not proper to break the hearts of inferiors;
Lest that, one day, thou shouldst become an inferior.

A certain darvesh complained of weakness of state,
To one of stern face, lord of wealth.

The one of black heart gave him neither dínárs, nor dángs;
(And) shouted at him, moreover, in anger.*

The beggar's heart, from his violence, bled.
He raised his head, with grief, and said:—“Oh wonder!

“Why, indeed is the rich man of severe visage?
“Perhaps, he fears not the bitterness of begging.”

195 The one of short sight ordered,—so that his slave
Drove him away, with contempt, and utter scorn.

By not offering thanks to the Omnipotent,
I heard that Fortune turned from him.

His greatness placed its head towards ruin;
Mercury put his pen in the ink (in record against him).

Wretchedness made him sit naked, like garlic;
It left him neither chattels nor baggage-taker (the ass).

God's decree made him, through poverty, sit, dust on the
Juggler-like, purse and hand empty.

200 His state, head to foot, became of another kind;
Some time passed on (after) this occurrence.

His slave fell to the hand of a liberal one.
Generous of heart, and hand; and luminous of tempera-

By the sight of the wretch of overturned state,
He used to be as much pleased, as the poor one with wealth.

A certain one sought, at night-time, a morsel at his door;
From hardship-enduring, his steps were slow.

The lord of gift ordered the slave,
Saying:—“Make the dejected one happy.”

205 When he carried to him a portion from the table;
He involuntarily raised a cry.

He returned, heart-broken, to his master,
Tears on his face, mystery revealing.

The chief of happy temperament inquired,
Saying:—“From whose violence, came these tears on thy

He said:—“My heart sorely grieved,
“At the state of this old man of distracted fortune.

“For, in former times, I was his slave;
“He,—the lord of goods and property, and silver.

210 “When his hand, from honour and luxury, became short,
“He makes long the hand of begging at doors.”

He laughed and said:—“Oh son! it is no violence;
“For the revolution of Time, there is oppression against

“Is he not that merchant of stern countenance,
“Who used, from pride, to bear his head against the sky?

“I am that one, whom he drove, that day, from his door;
“The world's revolution has placed him in my day (state).*

“The sky looked, again, towards me;
“It scattered the dust of grief from my face.”

215 If God closes one door, in wisdom,
He opens another, in grace and liberality.

Many a poor one, foodless, became satiated;
Many a work of the rich one became overturned.

Hear a trait of good men,
If thou art a good man, and of manly gait.

When Shiblí, from the shop of the wheat-seller,
Carried a wallet of wheat, on his back, to the village,

He glanced; he beheld, in that wheat, an ant,
That ran, head-revolving, in every corner.*

220 He could not sleep, at night, for pity of that ant;
He brought it back to its own dwelling, and said:—

“It is not manliness that this wounded ant,
“I should cause to be separated from its dwelling.”

Keep tranquil the hearts of those distressed,
That tranquillity, from time, may be thine.

How well said Firdausí of pure birth,
—May mercy be on that pure tomb!—*

“Wound not the ant, that is the grain-carrier;
“For, it also has life; and, life is pleasant.”

225 He is of black vitals, and of stone-heart,
Who wishes that an ant may be of straitened-heart.

Strike not the hand of force on the head of the powerless,
Lest that thou shouldst, one day, fall ant-like beneath his

The candle bestowed no pity on the moth's state;
Behold how it (the candle) burned in the assembly!

I have assumed,—many are less powerful than thou;
Also there is a certain one, in the end, more powerful than

Oh son! bestow; for, the one man-born, a prey,
One can make by benefits; and, the wild beast, by re-

230 Bind the enemy, by showing kindness;
For, one cannot sever this noose, with the sword.

When the enemy experiences liberality, and courtesy, and
Villainy from him comes not, again, into existence.

Do not evil, lest thou experience evil from the good friend;
The good fruit comes not from the seed-stone of wicked-

When with a friend, thou art difficult and hard to please,
He desires not to see thy painting and colour (of face).

But, if a man desires good to his enemies,
Much time passes not, but they become friendly.

235 A young man came before me, on the road,
A sheep, running in bounds, behind him.

I said to him:—“This is a cord and ligature,
“Which draws the sheep behind thee.”

He quickly undid the collar and chain from it;
Left and right, it began to bound.

Yet, from behind him, gambolling, it proceeded;
For, it had eaten barley and green-corn from the man's

When it returned to its place from pleasure and sport,
He regarded me, and said:—“Oh man of sense!

240 “This cord draws it not to me;
“But kindness is the noose about its neck.”

From the kindness, which the raging elephant has expe-
He attacks not the elephant-keeper.*

Oh good man! cherish the bad;
For, the dog keeps watch, when he devours thy bread.

The leopard's teeth are blunt against that man,
On whose cheek, he rubs, for two days, his tongue.

A certain one saw a fox, legless and footless,
He was astonied at the grace and creation of God,*

245 Saying:—“How does he pass his life?
“With this leg and foot, how does he eat?”

The darvesh of disturbed complexion was in this thought,
When a lion came forth, a jackal in his claws.

The lion devoured the jackal of reversed fortune;
Whatever remained,—of it, the fox ate to satiety.

Again, the next day, the event happened,
That the Victual-sender (God) gave to him the day's food.

Truth made the man's eye capable of vision;
He went; and relied on the Creator,

250 Saying:—“I may, after this, sit, ant-like, in a corner;
“Since, elephants eat not their daily food by force.”

He lowered, for some time, his chin to the collar (of reflec-
Saying:—“The Giver of daily food sends from the un-

Neither stranger nor friend suffered toil for him;
Harp-like, his veins, and bones, and skin remained.

When, from weakness, his patience and sense remained not,
From the wall of the prayer-place, there came to his ear:—

“Oh impostor! go; be the rending lion;
“Cast not thyself, like the crippled fox.”

255 Strive so that, lion-like, there may remain (something)
from thy (trade)
Why art thou, fox-like, depending upon the lion's leavings.

Whose neck is stout, like lions,
If he falls (into idleness) fox-like, a dog is better than he.

Bring to thy grasp; and, drink with others;
Pay no attention to others' leavings.

Eat, so long as thou canst,—by means of thy own arm;
That thy strength may be in thy own balance.*

Endure toil, like men; and cause ease to arrive (to others);
The impotent enjoys the gain of others' toil.

260 Oh young man! Take the hand of the old darvesh;
Cast not thyself down, saying:—“Take my hand!”

The gift of God is on that slave,
By whose existence, the people are at ease.

That head, in which is a brain, exercises liberality;
For, those of mean spirit are skin,—brainless.

That one experiences good, in both habitations,
Who causes good to reach the people of God.*

Didst thou not see (hear), on the foot-binding (difficult)
road to Kesh,
What that camel-driver said to his own son?*

265 “Enjoy food, with good men;
“For, they will not eat in solitude.”

I have heard that there was a man of pure birth-place,
A recogniser, and road-traveller (in the way of God), in the
confines of Rúm.

I and some other travellers, desert-wandering,
Went a-travelling for the sake of seeing the man.

He kissed the head, and eyes, and hands of each one;
Caused us to sit, with reverence and respect; and sate

I beheld his gold, and sown fields, and attendants and
But, without generosity, like a fruitless tree.

270 As to manner and grace, he was attentive;
But, his cooking-pot-place was very cold.

All night, there was neither rest, nor sleep,—for him,
As to praising God and reciting—“There is no God, but
God”; and, for us, from hunger.*

In the morning, he bound his loins and opened the door;
Began the very same courtesy and hand-kissing.

There was one, who was of sweet and pleasant temper,
Who, was, in that inn, a traveller with us.

He said:—“Give me the kiss, by letter-translating,
“Because, for the darvesh, food (tosha) is better than
a kiss (bosa).*

275 “Place not the hand in service, on my shoes;
“Give me bread; and, strike them on my head.”

Men have, by gifts, excelled;
Not those night-alive-keeping, heart dead.

This indeed I experienced from the Tatár watchman,
Heart dead, but night-alive-keeping.*

Liberality is—generosity and bread-giving;
Foolish speech is the empty drum.

At the Resurrection, thou seest, in Paradise, that one,
Who sought truth, and let go pretension.

280 By truth, one can make a proper claim;
Breath, without action, is a slothful resting-place.*

I have heard that, in the time of Hátim, there was,
Among his horses, one swift footed, like smoke.*

A black steed of zephyr swiftness, thunder noise,
That used to surpass the lightning:

Used, in the gallop, to scatter hail over mountain and
Thou wouldst have said:—“Perhaps, an April-cloud has

Such an one, torrent-moving, desert-travelling,
That the wind, from the front, used to lag, like dust.

285 Of Hátim's qualities, in every land and clime,
They mentioned a little to the Sultán of Rúm,

Saying:—“A man, there is not, like him in liberality;
“A horse, there is not, like his in moving and journeying.

“Such a desert-traveller, like a boat on the water,
“That the crow flies not above his journeying!”

The Sultán of Rúm spoke to his learned Vazír, thus,
Saying:—“The claim without evidence is shame.

“Of Hátim, that steed of Arab descent, I
“Will ask; if he should exercise liberality, and give,

290 “I shall know that, in him is the pomp of greatness;
“But, if he refuses, (his pretension) is the noise of the
empty drum!”

An envoy, skilful in the world, to (the tribe of) Tai,
He despatched; and, ten men along with him.

The ground dead; but, the cloud weeping over it,
The zephyr again placed life in it.

At the halting (dwelling) place of Hátim, the envoy
(And) became tranquil, like the thirsty one, by the Zinda

He (Hátim) spread a table, victual-covered; and, killed a
Gave them sugar in his skirt; gold in his fist.

295 There, they passed the night; and, the next day,
The man of information (the envoy) uttered what he knew.*

The envoy kept talking; and, Hátim distracted, like one
Kept gnawing his hand with the teeth of regret,

Saying:—“Oh partner, learned, of good name!
“Why didst thou not utter before this thy message?

“That wind-moving, fast, Duldul,—I
“Made roast-meat, last night, for your sake.*

“For, through the dread of rain and torrents, I knew
“It was impossible to go into the pasture place of the herd
(of cattle).

300 “For me, there was, in no other way, either turning or
“There was only that horse at the door of my court.

“I considered it not generosity, in respect to my usage,
“That a guest should sleep, heart torn with hunger.

“For me,—a name conspicuous in the climes (of the world)
is necessary;
“Say:—let there not be (for me) another famous steed.”

He gave to the individuals of the envoy's retinue dirams,
dresses of honour, and horses.
—The good quality is natural, not an acquisition.—

News of the young man of Tai went to Rúm;
The Sultán uttered a thousand benedictions on his disposi-

305 Be not content with this incident of Hátim;
Listen to this more beautiful circumstance.

I know not, who told me this tale,
That there had been, in the country of Yaman, an order-

He snatched the ball of empire from those renowned;
For in treasure-bestowing, there was no equal to him.

One could call him—“the Cloud of Liberality,”
For, his hand used to scatter money like rain.

No one used to take to him the name of (mention) Hátim,
At which (mentioning), phrenzy used not to go to his head,

310 Saying:—“How much—of the words of that wind-weigher,
“Who has neither country, nor command, nor treasure?”

I heard that he prepared a royal feast,
(And) harp-like entertained the people, in the midst of the

One opened the door of mention of Hátim;
Another began to utter his praise.

Envy held the man to the desire of revenge;
He appointed one for his blood-devouring,

Saying:—“So long as Hátim is in my time,
“My name will not go (into the world) for goodness.”

315 The calamity-seeking one took the path to the tribe of Tai,
He set out for the slaying of the young man.*

There came before him, on the road, a young man,
From whom, the perfume of affection came up to him:

Good of visage, and wise, and sweet of tongue;
He brought him a guest, that night, to his own abode:

Exercised liberality, and sympathised, and made excuses;
Snatched the enemy's heart, by kindness:

Placed the morning-kiss on his hands and feet,
Saying:—“Stay at ease, a few days, with us.”

320 He said:—“I cannot here become a resident;
“For I have before me an important matter.”

He replied:—“If thou wilt reveal the matter to me,
“I will with soul exert myself, like friends of one heart.”

He replied:—“Oh young man! listen to me;
“For, I know the generous one is a secret-concealer.

“Thou knowest, perhaps, in this land, Hátim,
“Who is of happy judgment, and good manners?

“The King of Yaman has desired his head;
“I know not, what hatred has arisen between them.

325 “Show me the short path to where he is;
“Oh friend! this indeed, I look for from thy courtesy.”

The youth laughed, saying:—“I am Hátim:
“Behold! separate, with the sword, the head from my

“When the morning becomes white, it is not proper that,
“Injury should reach thee; or, that thou shouldst become

When Hátim placed, with nobleness, his head (for
A cry issued from the young man (the guest).

He fell upon the dust; and, leaped to his feet;
Kissed now the dust; now, his feet and hands:

330 Threw down the sword; and placed the quiver (on the
Put, like the helpless, his hands on his breast,*

Saying:—“If I strike a rose on thy body,
“I am, in men's sight, a woman, not a man.”

He kissed both his eyes; and, embraced him;
And, took his way, thence, to Yaman.

Between the two eyebrows of the man, the king
Knew, immediately, that he had not performed the duty.

He said:—“Come; what news hast thou?
“Why didst thou not bind his head to thy saddle-strap?

335 “Perhaps a renowned one made an assault against thee;
“Thou, through weakness, sustainedst not the fury of
the contest?”

The clever youth gave the ground-kiss;
Praised the king; and, the majesty of his nature,

Saying:—“I discovered Hátim, fame-seeking,
“Skilful, and of pleasant appearance, and of good visage:

“Considered him generous, and endowed with wisdom;
“Regarded him, in manliness, my superior:

“The load of his favour made my back bent;
“He slew me, with the sword of kindness and grace.”

340 Whatever he experienced, from his liberality,—he uttered;
The monarch recited praises on the offspring of Tai:

Gave the envoy gold-money,
Saying:—“Liberality is the seal on Hátim's name.”

It (the evidence) reaches (touches) him, if they give evi-
Since, truth and fame are his fellow-travellers.*

I have heard that, in the time of the Prophet, the tribe of
Made not acceptance of the faith (of the Kurán).*

The Messenger of good news and the Observer (Muham-
mad) sent an army;
They took captive a multitude of them.

345 The Prophet ordered them to slay them with the sword of
Saying:—“They are unclean, and of impure religion.”

A woman said:—“I am Hátim's daughter,
“Ask (pardon for me) from this renowned Ruler (Mu-

“Oh revered sir! exercise generosity as to my state;
“For my lord (Hátim) was endowed with liberality.”

By the command of the Prophet of pure judgment,
They loosed the fetters from her hands and feet:

Drew the sword upon the rest of that tribe,
So that they caused, mercilessly, a torrent of blood to flow.

350 With weeping, the woman said to the swordsman:—
“Strike my neck also with all the rest:

“I consider, not release from fetters, generosity;
“I—alone; and, my friends in the noose (of calamity).”

She kept uttering lamentations, over the brothers of Tai;
Her voice came to the Prophet's ear.

The rest of that tribe, he gave to her,
Saying:—“One of true origin never erred!”

From Hátim's store-house, an old man
Demanded ten diram's weight of sugar candy.*

355 From the historian, I remember news such,
That he sent him a sack of sugar.

The wife said, from the tent:—“What is this?
“The old man's need was exactly ten dirams.”

The fame-cherisher of Tai heard this speech;
He laughed, and said:—“Oh heart's ease of Hai!

“If he demanded (what was) suitable to his own need,
(and got it),
“Where is the liberality of the offspring of Hátim?”

Another in generosity, like Hátim,
Comes not, perhaps, from the world's revolution,

360 That Abú Bakr, son of Sa'd,—the hand of munificence,
Whose magnanimity places on the mouths of beggars.*

Oh peasant-refuge! May thy heart be glad!
May Islám, by thy endeavour, flourish!

This dust of happy soil raises its head (ascends),
By thy justice over the climes of Greece and Rúm!

Like Hátim, if his name had not been,
No one, in the world, would have taken the name of (men-
tioned) Tai.

In books, the praise of that renowned one (Hátim) remains;
For thee, both praise and also reward remain.

365 Whereas, Hátim sought for that reputation and renown (in
the world);
Thy struggle and endeavour are for the sake of God!

There is no ceremony for the darvesh;
Save this one word,—there is no other counsel:—

“As much as may be in thy power, do good;”
Good remains, after thee (Oh Abú Bakr!); and, speech
after Sa'dí.

Of a certain one, an ass had fallen into the mire;
The blood, through phrenzy, had gathered to his heart.

Desert and rain, and cold, and torrent;—
Darkness let down its skirt on the horizon.

370 He was in this grief, all night, till the morning;
Spoke passionately; and gave curse and abuse.

Neither enemy, nor friend, escaped his tongue (of reproach);
Nor the Sultán, whose land and produce it was.

By chance, the lord of that wide plain
Passed by him in that reprehensible state.

He heard these words,—far from rectitude;—
Neither patience of hearing; nor, way of answer.

He looked at him, with the eye of punishment,
Saying:—“For what is this person's anger against me?”

375 One said:—“Oh king! strike him with the sword;
“Pluck up his life's root, from the earth's surface.”

The Sultán of high rank glanced;
He himself saw him, in calamity; and, his ass in the mire:

Forgave the man, on account of his ruined state:
Swallowed the anger of his cold words:

Gave him gold, and a horse, and a coat of fur;
—How good is love, at the time of hate!—

One said to him:—“Oh old man, void of reason and sense!
“Thou didst escape wonderfully from slaughter.” He
said:—“Be silent:

380 “If I complained on account of my own grief,
“He gave me presents suitable to himself.”

For evil, the return of evil is easy;
If thou art a man, do good to him who did evil to thee.

I have heard that a proud man, from pride-intoxication,
Shut the door of his house in a beggar's face.

The man, helpless, sate down in a corner;
His liver hot (with rage); and, sigh cold, from the heat (of
despair) of his chest.

A certain one, covered as to the eyes (blind), entered;
He asked him, the cause of his hate and rage.

385 He related—and wept, on the dust of the street—
The violence, that chanced to him, from that person.

He said:—“Oh certain one! abandon grief,
“Break fast, only to-night, with me.”

He drew his collar, with politeness and kindness;
Brought him to his lodging; and, spread the victual-table.*

The darwesh of luminous disposition became comforted;
He said:—“May God give thee luminosity (as to thy

At night, from his eyes some drops trickled;
In the morning, he opened his eyes; and, beheld the world!

390 Within the city, the story went; and tumult occurred—
For, last night, an eyeless one opened his eye.

He heard this report,—the rich man of stone heart,
From whom, the darwesh turned away straitened in heart.

He said:—“Oh fortunate one! relate this tale,
“How this difficult deed became easy to thee.

“Who turned back to thee this candle, world-illumi-
He replied:—“Oh tyrant of troubled days!

“Thou wast of short vision, and of sluggish judgment,
“For, instead of the humá (an auspicious bird), thou wast
engaged with the owl (a filthy bird).

395 “That one opened this door (of vision) on my face;
“On whose face, thou didst shut the door.

“If thou dost express a kiss on the dust of men,
“In the name of manliness! luminosity comes to thee.*

“Those, who are covered as to the eye of the heart,
“Are, indeed, careless of this antimony.”

When the one of overturned fortune heard this rebuke,
He bit the finger-tip of regret, with his teeth,

Saying:—“My falcon became the prey of thy net;
“I had fortune; to thy name, it went.”

400 How may he bring the male falcon to his grasp,—that one,
Like a mouse, teeth plunged in avarice.*

Verily, if thou art a seeker of the pious one,
Exercise not carelessness, a moment, as to his service.

Give food to the sparrow, and partridge and dove,
That the humá may, one day, fall to thy net.

When thou castst the arrow of supplication, in every corner,
There is hope that thou mayst, suddenly, make a prey.

From many oysters, a single pearl comes forth;
Out of a hundred arrows, one comes to the butt.

405 The son of a certain one was lost from a camel-litter;
The father wandered about, in the night-time, in the

Inquired at every tent; and, hastened in every direction;
Found that light (his son), in the darkness.

When he came to the men of the káraván,
I heard, that he said to the camel-driver:—

“Knowst thou not how I found the path to the friend (my
“Whosoever came before me, I said:—it is he!”*

The pious ones are at the heels of every one, on that
That they may, perchance, one day, reach a sage, holy man:

410 Bear burdens, for the sake of the pious;
Endure the thorn (of affliction) for the sake of a single rose.

From the crown of one king-born, in a camel-stable,
A ruby fell, one night, in a stony place.*

The father, to his son, said:—“In this night, of dark
“How knowst thou,—which is the jewel or stone?

“Oh son! take care of all the stones,
“That the ruby may not be out of their midst.”

The pure ones of distraught visage, among the rogues,
Are, indeed—the ruby and (precious) stone, in a dark place.

415 Endure, with pleasure the burden (of violence) of every
ignorant one,
That, in the end of time, a pious one may fall (to thee).

The person, who is merry of head (enamoured) with a
Seest thou not how he is the enemy's (rival's) load-carrier?*

He rends not his garment, rose-like, on account of the
power of the thorn,
Who, pomegranate-like, laughs, blood gathered in the heart.*

Endure the grief of a crowd, for the love of one,
Pay observance to a hundred, for the sake of one.

If those of foot-dust, distraught of head,
Are, in thy sight, contemptible and miserable,

420 Ever look not at them, with the eye of approval;
For, they are approved of God, and that is enough.*

The one, who, in thy opinion, is bad,
How knowst thou but that he himself is the possessor of

The door of the knowledge of God is open to those,
In whose face, the doors of men are shut.

Many of better life, and bitterness-tasting,
May be, in the quarter (Judgment Day), skirt-displaying (in

If thou hast reason and deliberation, thou wilt kiss
The hand of the king-born one (the Man of God) in the
prison (of this world).

425 For, the day he comes from prison,
He may, when he becomes lofty, give to thee loftiness.

Cause not the rose-tree to burn, in the autumn;
For, it appears to thee excellent, in the fresh spring.*

A certain one possessed not the power of spending;
Gold, he had; the power of enjoying, he had not.

He used not to eat, that his heart might rest;
Used not to give (in alms), that it might be of use to him
to-morrow (Judgment Day).

Night and day,—in the entanglement of gold and silver:
—The fetter of the mean one, (is) in gold and silver.—

430 One day, the son, in ambush, knew
Where the miser had placed the gold, in the earth.

He brought it forth from the dust, and gave it to the wind;
I heard, that he deposited a stone in that spot.

For the young man, the gold remained not;
It came to one hand; he enjoyed it with the other.

For this reason that he was one of unclean face (conduct)
and a low thrower of dice;
His hat in the bázár; and, trousers pawned.

The father,—clutch placed (in grief) on his own neck;
The son,—a harp and flute (in enjoyment) brought to the

435 The father, weeping and lamenting, slept not all night;
The son, in the morning, laughed; and said:—

“Oh father! gold is for the sake of enjoying;
“For depositing, whether stone or gold,—what matter?”

They bring forth gold from the hard stone;
That they may enjoy it with friends and beloved ones.

Gold, in the palm of the man's hand, world-worshipping,
Oh brother! is yet within the stone.

When, thou art, in life, bad to thy family,
Complain not of them, if they wish thy death.

440 Thy family enjoy thy (wealth) to satiety, at that time,
When thou fallst from the roof of fifty yards to the bottom.

The miser, rich with dínars and silver,
Is a tilism dwelling over the treasure.*

His gold remained years, for the reason,
That such a tilism trembles at its head!

With the stone of Fate (death), they suddenly shatter it;
They make, at ease, division of the treasure.

After carrying and collecting, like the ant,
Enjoy,—before that the grave-worm devours thee.

445 The words of Sa'dí are precept and counsel;
If thou becomest work-performing, they are of use to thee.

It is folly to turn away the face from this;
Since one can, in this way, obtain empire.

A young man had exercised liberality to the extent of a
He had accomplished an old man's desire.

The sky suddenly caught him, in a crime;
The Sultán sent him to the slaughtering-place:

The hurrying of soldiers, and uproar of the people;
Sightseers about the door, and street, and roof.

450 When, within the tumult, the old darvesh beheld
The young man, a captive in the people's hands.

His heart was wounded, on account of the wretched youth,
Who had, once, taken his heart.

He raised a cry, saying:—“The Sultán is dead!
“The world remained; but, he took away his good dispo-

He kept rubbing together the hands of sorrow;
The soldiers, swords drawn (for slaying) heard.*

At the cry, a shout issued from them,—
Palm-striking on head, and face, and shoulder!

455 On foot, up to the door of the court, with haste,
They ran; they saw the king on the throne.

The youth went forth from the midst; they took the old
By the neck, a captive, to the Sultán's throne.

He, with awe-inspiring manner inquired; and, displayed
Saying:—“To thee,—wherefore was the desiring of my

“Since my disposition and rectitude are good,
“Why, in the end, desirest thou ill (by my death) to

The resolute old man brought forth a tongue,
Saying:—“Oh (king)! the world is a ring in the ear (a
slave) of thy order!

460 “By a false word—‘the king is dead!’
“Thou didst not die; and, a helpless one carried off his

The king wondered at this tale to such a degree,
That he gave him something, and said nothing.

And, on this side, the youth, falling and rising,
Kept proceeding, running in every direction, helplessly.

One said to him:—“From the four directions of retribution,
“What didst thou, that liberation came to thy soul?”*

He whispered to his ear—“Oh wise man!
“I escaped from bonds, through a brave soul and a dáng.”

465 He places a seed in the dust for the reason,
That it may, in the day of distress, give fruit.

A barley-grain keeps back a great calamity;
Thou hast heard of the staff, that killed 'Új (King of

The true account came from the Chosen One (Muhammad),
That—the giving of arms is the repelling of calamity.*

Thou seest not an enemy's foot, in this habitation;
For, Abú Bakr, son of Sa'd, is master of the kingdom.

A world joyful by thy face,—Oh (Abú Bakr)! seize
The world, that joy may be on thy face.*

470 In thy time, no one endures distress from another;
The rose in the parterre suffers not the violence of the

Thou art the shadow of the grace of God on the earth;
Prophet-like—the mercy of both worlds!

If a person knows not thy worth,—what matter?
They also know not the—“Shab-i-kadr.”*

In a dream, a person beheld the plain of the place of
The earth's surface, from sun,—molten copper.

From men, complaint kept ascending to heaven;
The brain, through heat, came to boiling.

475 (Beheld) a certain one of this multitude,—in the shade;
An ornament of Paradise, about his neck.

He inquired, saying:—“Oh man, assembly-adorning!
“Who was thy helper, in this assembly?”

He said:—“I had a vine at my house-door;
“A holy man slept in its shade.

“At this time of despair, that true man
“Asked pardon for my sins from the Ruler of rulers,

“Saying:—‘Oh Lord! forgive this slave;
“‘For once I experienced, through him, ease.’”

480 What said I, when I unloosed this mystery (of the title)?
—“May glad tidings be to the Lord of Shíráz (Abú-

For, the grandees, in the shadow of his spirit,
Are resident; and, at the table of his bounty.

The man of liberality is a tree, fruit-possessing;
When thou passest beyond it,—fuel of the mountain.*

If they strike the axe, at the foot of the tree, fit for fuel,—
When strike they at the fruitful tree?

Oh tree of skill (Abú-Bakr)! Long keep thy foot!
For, thou art fruit-possessing; and, also shady.

485 As to beneficence, I said much;
But, it is not proper for every one.

Enjoy the blood and wealth of the one, man-injuring;
For, of the bad bird,—the feather and wing plucked out is

One, who is in strife with thy master,
Why givest thou to his hand, the stick and stone?

Cast away the root, that bears the thorn;
Cherish the tree, that produces fruit.

Give the dignity of the great, to that one,
Who to inferiors holds himself, not proudly.*

490 Wherever, there is a tyrant,—pardon him not;
For, mercy to him is tyranny to the world.

The lamp of the world-consumer (tyrant) extinguished—is
One in the fire is better than a people with the stain (of

Whosoever shows mercy to a thief,
Attacks the káraván, with his own arm.

Give to the wind (of destruction) the heads of those
Oppression, on one oppression-practising, is justice and

I have heard that a man experienced house-vexation;
For, a wasp made a nest in his roof.

495 His wife said:—“What thou desirest in respect to them,
do not;
“Lest that they should become scattered from their native

The wise man went to his own work;
The wasps began, one day, to sting his wife.

About the door, and roof, and street,—the foolish wife
Kept making lamentation. But, the husband said:—

“Oh woman! make not thy face bitter towards men;
“Thou didst say:—‘Slay not the poor wasps!’”

How may one do good to the bad!
Forbearance to ill-doers increases ill.

500 When thou beholdst a people's injury in a chief,
Cut his throat, with a sharp sword.

What dog, in short, is there—for whom they place a victual-
Order, that they give him a bone.

How well has the old man of the village (Firdausí) ex-
pressed this proverb:—
“The baggage-animal, leg-striking (kicking), is best under
a heavy load.”

If the watchman shows mercy,
No one is able to sleep at night, for thieves.

In the circle of contest, the spear-reed
Is more precious than a hundred thousand sugar-reeds

505 Not every one is worthy of property;
This one requires property; that one, rebuke.

When thou cherishst the cat, it takes away the pigeon;
When thou makest the wolf fat, it rends Joseph.*

The edifice, that has not firm foundations,—
Make it not lofty; and, if thou dost, tremble for it.

How well said Bahrám, desert-dwelling,
When his thorough-bred, restive, steed threw him to the

“It is proper to take from the herd another horse,
“Which it is possible to restrain, if he becomes restive.”

510 Oh son! bind the Euphrates, at low-water;
For, when the torrent is risen, it is of no use.

When the filthy wolf comes to thy snare,
Slay; if not, pluck up thy heart from (love for) the sheep.

From Iblís, adoration never comes;
Nor from the bad jewel,—goodness into existence.

Give neither place nor opportunity to the malignant one;
The enemy in the pit, and the demon in the glass bottle—
is best.

Say not:—“It is proper, to kill this snake with a stick”;
Strike, when he has his head beneath thy stone.

515 The pen striker (pen-man), who did ill to his inferiors,
To make, with the sword, his hand a pen (to sever it)—is

The deliberator, who introduces bad regulations,
Takes thee, that he may give thee to hell-fire.

Say not:—“For the country, this deliberator is enough”;
Call him not deliberator, who is unfortunate.

The fortunate one acts upon Sa'dí's speech,
Because, it is the (cause of) increase of country, and deli-
beration, and judgment.