1 THE language (of this chapter) is on integrity, and delibe-
ration, and disposition;
Not on the steed, and the battle-field, and the ball-game.*

Thou art fellow-lodger with the enemy,—lust;
Why art thou a stranger in the art of conflict?*

Those turning back the rein of lust, from forbidden things,
Surpassed Rustam and Sám in manliness.

Chastise thyself, with a stick, boy-like;
Beat not men's brains with the heavy mace.

5 No one has concern for an enemy like thee,
Who prevailst not against thy own body.

Thy body is a city full of good and bad;
Thou art sultán; and wisdom (is) the prime-minister.

Know for sure, that the mean, neck-exalting,
In this city are—pride, and passion, and avarice.

Resignation and the fear of God are the free of good report;
Lust and concupiscence are highway-men and cut-purses.

When the sultán displays favour to the bad,
How may ease remain for the wise?

10 Lust, and avarice, and pride, and envy
Are like blood in thy veins; and, like the soul in thy body.

If these enemies should obtain nurture,
They would turn aside their heads from thy order and

On the part of lust and concupiscence, opposition remains
When they experience the grasp of sharp wisdom.

The Ra,is, who punished not the enemy,
Ruled not also,—by reason of the enemy's power.

What need to say much in this chapter,
When a word is enough, if a person acts upon it?

15 If thou bringst thy feet, mountain-like, (firmly) beneath
thy skirt,
Thy head will pass beyond the sky in grandeur.

Oh man, much-knowing! draw within the tongue;
For, at the Resurrection, there is no register, as to the

Those scattering the jewel of secrets, oyster-like,
Opened not their mouths, save for pearls (of lustrous

The one great in speech (loquacious) is stuffed as to his
ears (deaf);
He takes not advice, save in silence.

When thou wishst to speak incessantly,
Thou findst not pleasure from the speech of any.

20 It is improper to utter unprepared speech;
It is unfit, to cut (to stop a person's speech) not cast out

Those reflecting on falsehood and truth,
Are better than triflers, ready of answer.*

In man's soul, speech is perfection;
Make not thyself of less account, by speech.

Thou seest not the little talker ashamed;
A grain of musk is better than a heap of clay.

Exercise caution as to the fool having the speech of ten
Utter, like a wise man, one prepared speech.*

25 Thou didst cast a hundred arrows, and each of the hun-
dred is a miss;
If thou art wise, cast one straight.

Why does a man utter in secret that thing,
When, if it becomes known, his face becomes yellow?

Detract not, in front of a wall,
Behind which, it often happens some one has his ear.

The interior of thy heart is the rampart of a secret,
Take care that it may not see the city-door open.

The wise man has sewn up his mouth, for that reason,
That he sees the candle is consumed by its tongue (wick).

30 Takash uttered a secret to his slaves,
Saying:—“It is improper to unfold this secret to any

In one year, it came from the heart to his lip;
In one day, it became published in the world.

He ordered the merciless executioner,
Saying:—“Take off the heads of these, with the sword.”

One, from amongst the slaves, while he asked for pro-
tection, said:—
“Slay not the slaves; for, this crime arose from thee.

“At first, when it was a mere fountain, thou didst not
bind it;
“When it became a torrent, of what use is binding?”

35 Reveal thou not the heart's secret to any one,
Who will, indeed, utter it to every one.

Entrust the jewel to the treasury-guards;
But, keep guard over the secret thyself.

So long as thou utterst not speech, to thee, there is power
over it;
When it becomes uttered, it obtains mastery over thee.

Thou knowst that when the demon has departed from
He returns not again at the—Lá haul—of any one.*

Speech is a confined demon in the heart's well;
Let it not go to the height of palate and tongue.

40 One can give way to the ugly demon;
But, one cannot seize him again by fraud.

A child may take off the tether from (the steed) Rakhsh;
It comes not within the noose, with a hundred Rustams.*

Utter not that which, if it falls on an assembly (becomes
A person, on its account, falls into calamity.

How well said the woman to the ignorant villager,—
“Utter speech, with wisdom; or, express not a breath.”

Utter not what thou hast not the power to hear;
For, having sown barley, thou wilt not reap wheat.

45 How well, (the Indian sage) Barhaman expressed this
“Every one's dignity is of himself.”

It is unnecessary that thou shouldst play much,
In order that thou mayst shatter thy own value.

A certain one was of good disposition, but ragged garment
Who was silent for some time, in Egypt.

The wise men, from near and far,
Around him, moth-like, light-seeking.

One night, within his own heart, he reflected,
Saying:—“A man is hidden under his own tongue.*

50 “Even so, if I lower my head to myself;
“How many men know whether I am wise?”*

He spoke; and enemy and friend knew
That he was indeed, in Egypt, more ignorant than himself.

Those who used to be in his presence became dispersed;
and his work ruined;
He made a journey; and, on the arch of a masjid, wrote:—

“If I had, in a mirror, beheld myself,
“I would not, in foolishness, have rent the curtain.

“So ugly,—I lifted the screen from it;
“For, I thought myself of good visage.”

55 For the one little speaking, there is great fame;
When thou spakest, and splendour remained not to thee,—

Oh lord of sense! for thee, silence
Is dignity; and, for the worthless one, a curtain.

If thou art a sage, take not away fear of thyself (as to
uttering speech);
And, if thou art a fool, rend not thy own screen.

Display not quickly the idea of thy own mind;
For, whenever thou wishst, thou canst reveal it.

But, when a man's secret is discovered,
One cannot, by endeavour, make it again secret.

60 How well the pen concealed the sultán's secret,
At the head of which, so long as the knife was not, it
spoke not.

The wild beasts are silent,—mankind speakers;
The foolish speaker is worse than the wild beast.

It is proper to utter speech with sense, like a man;
Or, otherwise, to be silent like a wild-beast.

By articulation and sense, one man-born is known;
Be not loquacious and foolish, parrot-like.

A certain foolish one spoke at the time of quarrelling;
With the hand, they rent his collar.

65 He suffered blows on the back of his head; and sate naked
and weeping;
One, world-experienced, said to him:—“Oh self-wor-

“If thou hadst, rose-bud-like, been mouth-closed,
“Thou wouldst not have seen thy shirt rent, rose-like.”

The confounded one utters speech full of folly;
Like a brainless (hollow) drum, much-boasting.

Seest thou not, that the tongue is only a fire?
One can extinguish it, in a moment, with water.

If a man be possessed of skill,
Skill itself will speak, not the possessor of skill.

70 If thou hast pure musk, speak not;
For, if it be (existent),—it becomes known by its smell.

To say, with an oath,—“the gold is of the West,”
What need? the touch-stone, indeed, will say what it is.

A thousand calumniators will speak, for this reason,
Saying:—“Sa'dí is neither skilful nor sociable.”

It is allowable if they rend my fur-coat (slander me);
For, I have not the power (of endurance) that they should
take my brain (by much talking).

The son of King 'Azúd was very ill;
Patience was far from his father's nature.

75 A certain pious one spoke to 'Azúd, by way of advice,
Saying:—“Let go the wild fowls from confinement.”

He broke the cages of the birds, morning-singing;
—Who remains in confinement, when the prison is

The king kept on the arch of the garden-house,
One famous nightingale, a sweet singer.

The son, in the early morn, hastened towards the garden;
He found only that bird, on the arch of the hall.

He laughed, saying:—“Oh nightingale of pleasant voice!
“Thou art left in a cage, on account of thy sweet speech.”

80 No one has business with thee, speechless;
But, when thou spakest, bring its proof.

Like Sa'dí, who, for some time, closed his tongue;
(And) escaped from the calumny of calumniators.*

That one takes ease of heart into his bosom,
Who, from people's society, takes the edge (of the road).

Oh wise man! make not evident the people's defect;
Be occupied with thy own defect, not with that of the

When they speak falsely, apply not the ear (listen not);
When thou seest one uncovered, cover thy eyes.

85 I have heard that, at a banquet of intoxicated slaves,
A disciple broke the minstrel's tambourine and harp.

They drew him, at once, by the hair, harp-like,
The slaves struck him on the face, drum-like.

At night, from pain of stick and slap, he slept not;
The next day, an old man said to him, by way of admoni-

“Thou wishst not to be face-wounded drum-like;
“Oh brother! cast down thy head, in front, harp-like.”

Two persons beheld dust, and tumult, and conflict;
Shoes scattered; stones flying.

90 This one saw the commotion; he turned away from its
The other went into the midst, and broke his head.

No one is happier than one lord of himself;
For, he has no concern with the good and bad.

They placed thy eye and ear in the head;
The mouth, the place of speech; and, the heart the place
of sense.

Perhaps, thou mayst again know descent from ascent;
Thou mayst not say:—“This is short, that long.”*

Thus spoke an old man of approved sense,
—The words of old men are pleasing to the ear.—*

95 Saying:—In India, I went down to a corner;
What saw I? A black man, long, like the longest winter-

In his embrace, a girl, moon-like,
His teeth lowered to her lips.

In his embrace, so tightly gathered,
That thou wouldst say:—the night covers the day.

The well known command of God seized my skirt;
Presumption became a fire and seized me.*

From before and behind, I sought for a stick or stone,
Saying:—“Oh one fearing not God! nameless and shame-

100 With reproach, and abuse, and outcry, and force,
I separated the white (girl) from the black (man) as the

From above the garden, that horrible cloud departed;
From beneath the crow, that egg appeared.

From the reciting of—Lá haul—that demon-form leaped
The hand of the one of Parí-form clung to me.

Saying:—“Oh thou of the prayer-carpet of hypocrisy,
“Of black deeds, world-purchaser, religion-seller!

“A long time, my heart had gone from the hand
“To this person; and, my soul was desirous of him.

105 “Now became cooked my raw morsel,
“Which hot thou didst put out of my mouth.”

She brought an accusation of tyranny, and uttered com-
Saying:—“Compassion fell down, and mercy remained

“None of the young men remained a helper,
“Who might take justice from me, from this old man,

“To whom shame of his old age comes not,
“To fix his hand in the veil of a woman, unlawful to him.”

My skirt in her grasp, she kept complaining;
From shame, my head remained in the collar.

110 Like garlic, I immediately went out of my garment;
For, I feared the rebuke of young and old.

Naked, I went running from before the woman;
For, my garment in her hand was better than myself.

After a time, she passed by me,
Saying:—“Knowst thou me?” I replied:—“Beware!

“On account of thy hand, I have repented,
“Saying,—I wander not again about a matter of inter-

Such a matter comes not before that one,
Who wisely sits behind his own work.

115 Through this disgrace, I took up this counsel,
I regarded, in future, the thing seen, un-seen.

If thou hast sense and wisdom, draw within the tongue;
Like Sa'dí, utter speech; if not, be silent.

A certain one sate before Dá'ud of the tribe of Tai,
Saying:—“I saw a certain Súfí fallen drunk.*

“His turban and shirt, vomit-stained;
“A crowd of dogs, a ring around him.”

When the one of happy disposition heard this tale,
He gathered together his eyebrows at the speaker.

120 For a time, he was amazed, and said:—“Oh companion!
“A kind friend is of use to-day.

“Go; bring him from that shameful place;
“For it is forbidden in the law; and, a disgrace as to the
religious garb.

“Bring him on thy back, like men, for the intoxicated one
“Has not the rein of safety in his hand.”

Through this speech, the hearer became straitened in
He descended into thought, like an ass in the mire.

Neither the boldness, that he might refuse the order;
Nor the power, that he might bring the drunken one on
his shoulder.

125 He contorted himself, for a while; but, saw no remedy;
He saw no way of drawing his head out of the order.

He bound his loins, and without choice, on his back,
Brought him; and, a city about him, in ferment.

One reviled him, saying:—“Behold the darvesh (Súfí)!
“Oh wonderful devotees of pure religion!

“See thou these Súfís, who have drunk wine;
“(Who) have pawned the patched garment for aromatic

Pointing with the hand to this one and the other,
Saying:—“This one is altogether drunk; and, that one,
half drunk.”

130 The sword of the enemy's violence on the neck
Is better than the disgrace of a city, and the clamour of
the people.*

He suffered calamity; and, with trouble, passed one day;
He carried him, without desire, to a place that he had.

During the night, from shame and thought, he slept not;
The next day Tai laughed, and said:—

“Spill not a brother's reputation in the street,
“That adverse fortune may not spill thy reputation, in a

In respect to the man, good or bad,—ill
Utter not. Oh young man endowed with understanding!

135 For, thou makest the bad man thy enemy;
And, if he be a good man, thou doest ill.

Whosoever says to thee, a certain one is bad;
Know this much, that he is censuring himself.*

For, the proof of (the bad) act of a person is necessary;
And, his (the calumniator's) bad act appears clear.

In ill-speaking, when thou expressest breath,
If thou speakst the truth even, thou art bad.

A person made long his tongue, in slander;
A sagacious one, head-exalting spoke to him,

140 Saying:—“Render not bad the memory of persons, before
“Make me not evilly suspicious, as to thyself.

“I admit—there may be diminution of his dignity;
“There will be no increase to thy rank.”

A person said—I thought it was a jest—
“Thieving is more upright than slandering.”

I said to him:—“Oh friend of distracted sense!
“That tale came strangely to my ear.

“What goodness, seest thou in dishonesty,
“That thou preferst it to slander?”

145 He replied,—“Yes; thieves display ardour;
“By the manly arm, they fill the belly.

“From slander, what does that simpleton desire,
“Who blackened his record-book (with God) and enjoyed
not anything?”

In the Nizámiya, I had a pension;
Night and day, there was instruction and repetition.*

I said to my teacher:—“Oh one full of wisdom!
“A certain friend bears me envy.

“When I give the gift of signification, as to the traditions,
“His polluted heart becomes disturbed.”

150 When the leader of morals heard this speech,
He was greatly enraged, and said:—“How wonderful!

“Thy friend's enviousness is disagreeable to thee;
“Who informed thee that detraction is good?

“If he, through baseness, took hell's path,
“Thou, by this other path, reachst it.”

A certain one said:—“Hujjáj is a blood-devourer,
“His heart is like a piece of black stone.*

“He fears neither the sigh, nor the complaint of the
“Oh God! Take from him the justice due to the people.”

155 One, world-experienced, an old man of ancient birth,
Gave to a young man, a piece of counsel, worthy of an old

Saying:—“The justice, of (due to) his wretched oppressed
“They will demand (on the Judgment Day); and, from
the others (his slanderers) revenge.

“Restrain thy hand (of criticism) from his and his time;
“For, time itself makes him powerless.

“Neither does injustice on his part appear to me happy;
“Nor, slander even, on thy part, appear to me pleasant.”

Sin carries to hell the ill-fated one,
Who made full his measure; and black (with entries) his

160 The other person, by slander, runs behind him,
Lest that he should go alone to hell.

I have heard that one of the pious
Laughed, jestingly, at a boy.

The other devotees, sitting in retirement,
Fell, in slander, on his fur-garment.*

At length, this story remained not concealed;
They unfolded it to that one of clear sight. He said:—

“Rend not the curtain over the friend of perturbed state;
“Neither is pleasantry unlawful; nor, slander lawful.”*

165 In my childhood, the desire of fast-keeping arose;
I used not to know, which was left, and which right.

A certain 'ábid of the pious of the street
Used constantly to teach me the washing of hand and foot,

Saying:—“First, according to tradition, say:—In the
name of God!
“Secondly, summon resolution; thirdly, wash the palms
of the hands.*

“Wash, after that, the mouth and nose three times,
“Scratch the nostrils, with the little finger.

“Rub the front teeth, with the fore-finger;
“For, after the declining (of the sun the tooth-brush) is
forbidden during a fast.*

170 “And throw, after that, three handfuls of water on the
“From the growing-place of the hair, down to the chin.

“Wash again the hands up to the elbow;
“Utter whatever thou knowst of praise and recitation of
the names of God.

“Again, stroking of the head; after that, washing of the
“This is indeed (ablution); and its conclusion,—‘in the
name of God.’

“As to this custom (of ablution), no one knows better
than I,
“Seest thou not that the old man of the village has become

The ancient village-holder heard this speech;
He was confounded, and said:—“Oh execrable filthy one!

175 “Saidst thou not that, the tooth-brush during a fast is a
“To eat the dead sons of Ádam is lawful.

“Say—first, the mouth from things unfit to be uttered,
“Wash—to that one who has washed as to things fit to be

The person, whose name is mentioned in public,
Recite his name and praises, in the sweetest way.

When always thou sayst that men are asses
Entertain not the idea, that they, like men, will mention
thy name.

Speak of my mode of life, within the street, even as
Thou canst speak of it to my face.

180 And, if thou hast shame of the one present
Oh sightless one! is not the Secret-Knower (God)

Shame comes not to thee of thyself
That thou hast freedom as to Him, and shame as to me?

Those path-recognising of firm foot
Sate, some time, together in privacy.

One from amongst them began to slander,
He opened the door of remembrance of a helpless one.

A person said to him:—“Oh friend of perturbed com-
“Hast thou ever made war against the infidels in Europe?”

185 The slanderer said:—“From behind my four walls,
“I have not, during my whole life, placed my foot in front
(of them).”

The darvesh of pure breath thus spoke:—
“I have not beheld a person, to such a degree greatly dis-

“That the infidel sits secure from contest with him;
“(But) a Muslim escapes not from the violence of his

How well a distraught one of Margház uttered
A saying, from the subtlety of which thou mayst bite the
lip with the teeth:—

“If I defame the name of men,
“I only utter the slander of my mother.

190 “For the wise educated ones know,
“That that devotion is indeed best which the mother

Oh one of good name! a friend, who is absent,—
As to him, two things are unlawful.

One is that they should wrongfully enjoy his property;
The second that they should defame him.

Whosoever defames men,
Expect not thou thy own thanks from him.

For, he utters that very thing in thy absence,
Which he utters before thee, behind men.

195 In my opinion, that person is world-wise,
Who is engaged about himself, and careless of the world.

As to three persons, I have heard that slander is lawful;
When thou exceedst this, the fourth is a sin.

First, the king, reproach-approving,—
From whom, thou mayst observe injury as to the people's

It is lawful to carry information regarding him;
Perhaps, the people may be cautious of him.

Secondly,—draw not the screen on the shameless one;
For, he himself rends the screen of his own body.

200 Oh brother! guard not, from the (shallow) pool, him,
Who falls, up to the neck, in a well.

Thirdly—the one of crooked balance, of dishonest disposi-
Utter whatsoever thou knowst of his bad deeds.*

I have heard that a thief entered from the desert,
He passed by the gate of Sístán.*

The green-grocer robbed him of half a dáng,
The thief of black deeds raised a cry:—

“Oh God! burn not Thou in the fire the night-traveller
“For, an inhabitant of Sístán road travels (robs) by day.”

205 A certain one said to a Súfí, possessed of purity;—
“Knowst thou not what a certain person said behind thy

He replied:—“Oh brother! be silent; go to sleep:
“What the enemy said,—best unknown.”

Those persons, who bear the enemy's message,
Are, assuredly, more an enemy than the enemy.

Bears the enemy's word to a friend, no one,
Save that one, who is, in enmity, the enemy's friend.

The enemy is unable to express violence to me,
To such a degree that my body should tremble at hearing
(his words).

210 Thou art the greater enemy, who bringst to the mouth
What the enemy said, in secret.

The word-plucker makes fresh the ancient feud;
He brings the good, meek, man to anger.

So long as thou canst, fly from that fellow-sitter,
Who said to the dormant trouble—“Arise!”

(To be) a man of black condition (in distress),—in it, foot-
Is better than to carry strife from place to place.

Contest, between two persons, is like fire;
The unfortunate tale-bearer is the fire-wood cutter.

215 Fírídún had an approved vazír,
Who possessed an illumined heart, and far-seeing eye.

First, he used to preserve resignation to God;
Next, he used to keep observance of the king's command.

The mean functionary places trouble upon the people,
Saying:—“It is the administration of the country and the
augmentation of the treasury.”

If thou keepst not God's side,
God causes injury to reach thee from the king.

A certain one went, in the morning, to the king,
Saying:—“May ease and desire every day be thine!

220 “Consider it not design; accept counsel from me;
“This vazír is, in secret, thy enemy.

“Of the high and low of the army—none have remained,
“Who have not loans of silver and gold from him.

“On the condition that,—when the king, neck-exalting,
“Dies,—they give back that gold and silver.

“That self-worshipper wishes not thee, alive;
“Lest that he should not regain his money.”

Often, towards the vazír, the asylum of the kingdom,
The king, with the eye of punishment, used to glance,

225 Saying:—“In the semblance of friends, before me,
“Why art thou, in heart, my enemy?”

The vazír kissed the ground before his throne and said:
“Since thou askst, it is now improper to conceal.

“Oh renowned king! I this wish,
“That the world, like me, may be thy well-wisher.

“When thy death is the stated period for (the return of)
my silver,
“They will, from fear of me, wish thee greater perma-

“Desirest thou not that men, with sincerity and supplica-
“Should wish thy head green, and thy life long.

230 “Men reckon prayer—a gain;
“For, it is the cuirass against the arrow of calamity.”

The monarch approved of what he said:
The rose of his face, from freshness, expanded.

Of the rank and station, which the prime-minister
He increased its dignity, and exalted its rank.

Than a calumniator, I have seen no one more afflicted;
Of more reversed fortune, and overturned state.

Through the ignorance and obscurity of judgment, which
is his,
He casts altercation between two friends.

235 Another time, this and that (the two friends) make glad
their hearts;
He, between them, unfortunate and ashamed,

To kindle a fire between two persons;
To consume oneself in the midst—is not wisdom.

Like Sa'dí, that one tasted the delight of retirement,
Who, from both worlds, withdrew his tongue.

Whatever thou knowst of profitable speech—utter;
Though it be acceptable to no one.

For, to-morrow (the Judgment Day), he penitent may raise
a cry,
Saying:—“Alas! why did I not listen to the truth?”

240 A good, order-bearing, chaste wife
Makes a poor man, a king.

Go; strike five times (in joy) at thy door,
That a concordant mistress is in thy bosom.

If, all day, thou endurest grief,—have no care,
When, at night, the dear companion is in thy embrace.

Whose house is prosperous, and bed-fellow, a companion—
God's glance is, in mercy, towards him.

When the wife of beautiful face is chaste,
The husband, by beholding her, is in Paradise.

245 That person took up, from the world, his heart's desire,
Whose mistress was concordant with him.

If she be chaste, and pleasant of speech,
Look not at her beauty, or deformity.

From the one of Parí-face, of bad disposition,—takes
away (the ball of empire),
The woman of demon-face of pleasant disposition.

From her husband's hand, she takes vinegar, like sugar;
Face vinegar plastered, she eats not sweetmeats.

250 The woman, well-wishing is the heart's-ease;
But, from the bad woman,—oh God! protect me.

As a parrot, for whom a crow was companion,
Considers freedom from the cage,—gain,—

Place thy head in wandering, in the world;
Place, otherwise, thy heart on helplessness.

To go bare-foot,—better than the tight shoe;
The toil of travel,—better than contention in the house.

A captive in the kází's dungeon,—better
Than, in the house, to see contraction on the eyebrow (of
the wife).

255 Travel is a festival to that house-master,
In whose house is a wife of bad disposition.

Shut the door of joyfulness on that house,
From which, the wife's clamour issues loudly.

When the wife takes the path to the bázár, strike;
Otherwise, sit, in the house, wife-like.

If the wife has no ear for her husband,
Clothe the man in her black garment.

The wife, who is ignorant and dishonourable,
Thou didst ask for a calamity on thy head,—not a woman.

260 When, in the barley-measure, she breaks faith,
Wash thy hand of the wheat-store.*

God has desired good to that slave,
For whom, the heart and hand of the wife are true.

When the wife laughs in the stranger's face,
To the husband, say:—“Boast not further of manliness.”

May the woman's eyes be blind, as to strangers!
When she goes out of the house, may it be to her grave!

When the wanton wife places her hand in the fried meat,
Say:—“Go; put thy hand in a man's face.”

265 When thou seest that the woman's foot is not in one place.
Silence is not the part of wisdom and judgment.

Fly from her hand, into the crocodile's mouth;
For dying is better than life, in distress.

Cause her face to be covered from the strange man;
And, if she hear not,—then whether wife, or husband,—
what difference?

The beautiful wife of pleasant disposition is fortune and
Release (divorce) the wife, ugly, discordant.

How well came this single speech from those two persons,
Who were bewildered by a woman's hand.

270 This one said:—“Let there not be a bad wife for any
The other said:—“Let there not be a woman, in the world

Oh friend! every fresh spring, take a new wife;
For, last year's almanac is of no use.*

Whomsoever, thou seest captive to a woman;
Do not—oh Sa'dí! reproach him not.

Thou also mayst suffer violence, and endure her burden,—
If, one night, thou drawst her into thy embrace.

A young man, from want of concordance with his wife,
Bewailed to an old man, and said:—

275 “A heavy load, from the hand of this bold enemy,
“I endure, even as the nether mill-stone.”

He said to him:—“Oh sir! place thy heart on distress;
“No one, by patience exercising, becomes ashamed.*

“Oh one house-burning! at night, thou art the upper
“In the day, why art thou the nether stone?”*

When thou mayst have experienced pleasure from a rose-
If thou endurest the burden of its thorn, it is proper.

The tree, whose fruit thou constantly enjoyst,
At that time,—when thou sufferst its thorn,—be patient.

280 When a boy has passed ten years of age,
Say:—“Sit apart from those not unlawful (to him in

It is not right to kindle a fire on cotton;
For, while thou winkst the eye, the house is burned.

When thou wishst that thy name may remain in place
(of honour),
Teach the son wisdom, and judgment.

When his skill and judgment are insufficient,
Thou wilt die; and, none of thy family will remain.

He endures severity for much time,
The son,—whom the father tenderly cherishes.

285 Keep him wise and abstinent;
If thou lovest him, keep him not by endearing expressions.

Rebuke and instruct him, in childhood;
Exercise promise and fear, as to his good and bad deeds.

For the young student,—commendation, and praise, and
(Are) better than the master's reprimand, and threatening.

Teach the one matured, hand-toil;
Even if, Kárún-like, thou hast command as to wealth.

How knowst thou—the revolution of time
May cause him to wander, in exile, in the country?

290 Rely not on that resource which is;
For, it may be, that wealth may not remain in thy hand.

When, for him—there are the resources of trade,
How may he bear the hand of beggary before any one?

The purse of silver and gold reaches its limit;
The purse of the trader becomes not empty.

Knowst thou not how Sa'dí obtained his object?
He neither traversed the desert, nor ploughed the sea.

In childhood, he suffered slaps from the great;
In matureness, God gave him purity.

295 Whosoever places his neck (in submission) to order,
Not much time passes, but he gives orders.

Every child, who the violence of the teacher,
Experiences not,—will suffer the violence of time.

Keep the son good and cause ease to reach him,
That his eyes (of expectation) may not remain on the
hands of others.

Whosoever endured not grief for his son,
Another suffered grief and abused him.

Preserve him from the bad teacher;
For, the unfortunate and road-lost one makes him, like

300 Desire not one of more black deeds than that herma-
Whose face becomes black (with sin) before the sprouting
of the beard.

From that one, void of honour, it is proper to fly;
For, his unmanliness spilled the water (of honour) of men.

The boy who sate among Kalandars,
To his father, say:—“Wash thy hands of his welfare.”*

Suffer not regret as to his destruction and ruin,
For, the degenerate son, dead before his father, (is) best.

One night, in my street, there was a convivial meeting;—
Men of every class, in that assembly.

305 When the musician's voice entered from the street,
The há,e hú,e of lovers went to the firmament.

One of fairy face was my beloved;
I said to him:—“Oh my beautiful toy!

“Why comest thou not, with thy companions, to the
“That thou mayst illumine our assembly, candle-like?”

I heard that he went, and by himself,
Kept saying to me:—“Oh my lover!

“When thou hast not a beard, like men;
“It is not manliness to sit before men.”

310 The beardless boy, house-mining, ruins thee;
Go; make the house prosperous with a pleasant woman.*

It is improper to play at love, with a rose,
Which has, every morning, a fresh nightingale.

Since, in every assembly, he made himself a candle,
Wander not again, about him, moth-like.

A woman, good, and of pleasant disposition and adorned,—
How does she resemble the ignorant youth?*

Blow a breath of fidelity upon her, rose-bud-like,
Who follows thee, with laughing, rose-like.

315 Not like a beloved boy, impudent,
Whom one cannot break with a stone.*

Consider him (the boy) not charming, like the húrí of
For whom, the face of another is ugly, demon-like.

If thou dost kiss his feet, he has no thanks (to give);
And, if thou art the dust (in humility), he has no fear.

Make void thy head of brain, and hand of money,
When thou givest thy heart to the son of man.

Exercise not the evil glance, towards the son of man;
Lest evil should arise to thy own son.

320 Once upon a time, it reached my ear in this city (of
That a certain merchant purchased a slave.

* * * * * *

The one of fairy-face, whatever fell to his hand,
Broke, in malice, the head and brain of the foolish mer-

* * * * * *

He summoned God and His Prophet to himself, as witness,
Saying:—“I will not again wander about folly.”

325 In this week, journeying chanced to him,
Heart-wounded, and head-bound, and face-torn.

When he went one or two miles out of Kazrún
A dangerous, stony place appeared before him.*

He inquired, saying:—“What is the name of this
Saying:—“Whosoever lives sees many wonderful things.”*

An intimate companion of the káraván thus spoke to
“Thou knowst not, perhaps, the place called—tang-i-

The merchant grieved when he heard the name—tang-i-
Thou wouldst have said, that he had beheld the sight of
an enemy.

330 He raised a great shout at the black,
Saying:—“Why urgest thou farther? Throw away the

“To me, there is not a barley-grain of wisdom, nor know-
“If I again go to the—tang-i-turkán.”

Shut the door of lust of the ungrateful soul;
Or, if thou art a lover,—suffer the kick, and bind the

When thou cherishst a slave,
Bring him up in awe, so that thou mayst enjoy advantage
from him.

And, if the lord bite with the teeth (kisses) his slave's lip,
He (the slave) matures the fancy of lordship.

335 The slave should be water-drawer, and brick-maker;
The cherished slave is a fist-striker.*

A crowd sate with a pleasant youth,
Saying:—“We are honourable lovers, and possessed of

Ask (their state) of me, time-wearied;
For the fast-keeper suffers regret at the table-cloth.*

The sheep eats the date-seed, for that reason,
That there is a lock and fastening on the dates.

The head of the oil-presser's ox is towards the grass, for
that reason,
That, its tether is short of the rape-seed.

340 A certain (chaste) one saw a form possessed of beauty;
Through phrensy of love and ecstacy for her, he changed.

Helpless, he cast forth perspiration, to the same degree,
As the dew on the leaf of the April-tree.

The sage Bukrát, riding, passed by him;
He inquired, saying:—“What matter befell this one?”*

A person said to him:—“This is a chaste 'ábid,
“From whose hand sin never sprang.

“Day and night, he goes into the plain and mountain;
“From society, fleeing; and, with men, disgusted.

345 “One, heart-ravishing, has snatched his heart;
“The foot of his vision has descended into the clay (of

“When the reproach of the people comes to his ear,
“He says:—Of so much reproach, be silent.

“Say not, if I complain, that he is not excusable;
“For, my complaint is not far from cause.

“This picture snatches not the heart from my hand;
“He (God) takes the heart, who pourtrayed this picture.”

The man, work-tried, heard this speech;
Old in years, one cherished, of ripe judgment.

350 He said:—“Although, the soul of goodness goes forth (in
these words),
“With whatever thou mayst utter, every one goes not.

“Of the Painter (God) indeed is this picture;
“Which snatched, in rapine, the heart of the distraught.

“Why does not the child of one day (in age) ravish his sense,
“For, in beholding the creating of God, whether of ripe
age, or tender,—what difference?”*

The asserter of God's truth looks at the camel, in the
same way,
As, at the beauties of Chín and Chigál.*

Every line of mine of this book (the Bustán) is a woman's
Lowered on the cheek of the one, heart-alluring.*

355 There are meanings (clear) beneath the black letters,
Like the beloved one behind the curtain; or the moon
behind the cloud.

In the times of Sa'dí sorrow is not comprehended;
For, there is so much beauty of thought behind the screen
(of black letters).

For me,—there are words, assembly adorning,
In them, fire-like, illumination (for the seeker) and burning
(for the envious).*

I grieve not of enemies, if (through envy) they tremble;
For, through this Persian fire, they are in burning.

If he has escaped in the world, from the (people of the)
It is he, who has closed the door on himself, against the

360 No one escaped from the violence of tongues,
Whether he be self-displaying, or truth-worshipping.

If, angel-like, thou dost fly from the sky,
Ill-thought will cling to thy skirt.

One can, with effort, bind the Tigris;
One cannot bind the enemy's tongue.

Those wet of skirt (sin-stained) sit together,
Saying:—“This is dry devotion; and that a trap for
gaining bread.”

Turn not thy face from worshipping God,
Abandon;—so that people may reckon thee as nothing.

365 When the pure God becomes satisfied with the slave,
If these (people) be not contented,—what matter?

The enemy of the people is not acquainted with God;
Through the tumult of the people, there is no way for him
to God.

They have not found the path to the place (of their desire)
for that reason,
That, they have missed their foot, at the first step.

Two persons apply their ears (listen) to a tradition:
From this one, to that—as far as from Ahrimán (Satan) to
Surosh (Gabriel).

One accepts advice; the other, odious,
Through word-seizing (slandering), is not occupied with
the advice.

370 Dejected, in the dark corner of a place,
What may he find from the cup, world-displaying?

If thou art a lion, or a fox, think not
That thou mayst escape from these (slanderers) by man-
liness, or stratagem.

If a person chooses the corner of retirement;
Because he has not much solicitude for society,—

They make him contemptible, saying:—“(This one's work)
is fraud and deceit;
“He flies from man, as from the demon.”

If he be of laughing face and sociable,
They consider him not chaste and abstinent.

375 With slander, they rend the rich man's skin,
Saying:—“If, in the world, there be a Far'ún, it is he.”

If one, foodless, weeps, with heart-burning,
They call him:—“Unfortunate and unhappy.”

If a poor man be in distress,
They will say it is—from calamity and misfortune.*

And, if a prosperous one comes down from his footing,
They regard it (his fall) as gain, and God's grace.

Saying:—“How long this dignity and arrogance?
“In the rear of happiness, is unhappiness.”

380 If as to a straitened one of narrow means,—
Fortune makes his rank high,

In malice towards him, they gnash their teeth with poison,
Saying:—“This base time is the cherisher of the mean.”

When they behold a work perfect in thy hand,
They reckon thee covetous, and world-worshipping.

And if thou holdst the hand of resolution from the work
(of the world),
They consider thee of the beggar-trade, and cooked food-

And, if thou art an orator,—thou art a drum full of
If thou art silent,—thou art a picture (lifeless) of the

385 They call not those, patience-exercising, men,
Saying:—“The helpless one, through fear, raised not his

And, if in his head (nature) there be awe and manliness,
They fly from him, saying:—“What madness is this?”

If he be a little eater, they slander him,
Saying:—“His property is perhaps the fortune of another.”

And, if his food be excellent and pure,
They call him:—“Belly-slave, and body-cherisher.”

And, if the wealth-possessor lives without pomp,
Saying:—“Decoration is a reproach to people of discern-

390 They apply the tongue (of reproach) to his torture, sword-
Saying:—“The unfortunate one withholds gold from his
own body!”

If he constructs a palace and painted hall;
Makes a splendid dress for his own body.

He is ready to die, from the power of cavillers,
Saying:—“He adorned himself woman-like.”

If a devotee travelled not,
Those, who have made journies call him not a man,

Saying:—“For him, not advanced beyond his wife's
“What is his skill, or judgment, or knowledge?”

395 They even rend the skin of one, world-experienced,
Saying:—“He is one, head-revolving, of overturned

“If of fortune, there were for him, a portion and share,
“Time would not drive him from city to city.”

The one viewing critically contemns the bachelor,
Saying:—“The earth is vexed with his sleeping and

And, if he marries, he says:—“From the power of the
“He has fallen headlong, in the mire, ass-like.”

The one of ugly face escapes not from man's oppression;
Nor the lovely one, from the unmanly one of ugly speech.

400 If, one day, anger plucks (a man) from his place,
They call him:—“Insane, and of obscure judgment.”*

And, if he exercises patience with any,
They will say:—“He has not sufficient spirit.”

They say, by way of counsel, to the generous one,—
“For, to-morrow, both thy hands may be (in beggary)
before a person.”

And if he becomes contented and self-possessing,
He becomes captive to the reproaching of a crowd,

Saying:—“This mean man wishes to die like his father.
“Who gave up wealth, and took away regret.”

405 Who is able to sit in the corner of safety,
When the Prophet escaped not from the villainy of the

Of God,—who resemblance, and partner and co-equal,
Has not,—heardst thou what the Christian said!

No one escapes from a person's hand,
The remedy for the captive is patience only.

There was a young man, skilful and learned,
Who was, as regards admonishing, vigilant and manly.

Of good repute, and pious, and God-worshipping,
The beard of his face more beautiful than his hand-

410 Strong in eloquence, and clever in grammar;
But, he used not to utter truly the letters of the Abjad.

Perhaps, he had stammering in the tongue,
For, he used not to explain the truth of the Mu'jam.

I spoke to one of the pious,
Saying:—“A certain one has no front teeth.”

At my folly, he became red of face,
Saying:—“Speak not again, in this foolish way.

“Thou didst see in him that very defect, which is existent;
“From how much skill, thy wisdom's eye was shut!

415 “Listen truly to me; for, in the day of certainty (Re-
“The man, good-seeing, will not experience evil.*

“One, who has grace, and science, and judgment,
“—If the foot of his integrity slips from its place.—

“Approve not violence against him, for one small matter.
“What have the sages said:—Take what is clean.”

Oh wise man! the thorn and the rose are together:
Why art thou in the fetter of the thorn? fasten thou the

He—in whose nature, is the ugly disposition,
Sees not the peacock,—only his ugly foot.

420 Oh one of malevolent face! acquire purity (of heart);
For, the dark mirror displays not the face.

Seek a path by which, thou mayst escape from punishment
(of hell);
Not a word (of man), on which thou mayst lay the finger
(of criticism).

Oh wise one! place not in front (expose not) the people's
For it sews up thy eyes from thy own defects.

Why do I inflict punishment on the one of stained skirt,
When I know, within myself, that I am of wet (stained)

It is improper that thou shouldst exercise violence against
a person,
When thou dost aid thyself by artifice of speech.

425 When evil is unpleasant to thee, do not do it thyself;
Say, after that, to thy neighbour:—“Do not evil.”

If I am God-worshipping; or if self-displaying;
I preserve my exterior for thee, my interior for God.

When I adorned my exterior with chastity,
Interfere not with my crookedness, or uprightness.

If my way of life be good; or if bad,
God is more acquainted than thou, with my secret.

Punish for bad conduct that person,
Who hopes from thee the reward of goodness.

430 If I am good or bad, be thou silent;
For, I am myself the porter of profit and loss.

For a good deed by a man of good judgment,—
For one, God writes ten.*

Oh son! of whomsoever, thou also a single talent
Mayst observe,—pass by his ten defects.

Count not upon the finger one defect of his;
Bring forth a world of excellence for nothing.

Like the enemy, who, on the poetry of Sa'dí,
Glances with scorn, heart ruined.

435 He has no ear for the hundred beautiful subtleties;
When he beholds a defect, he raises a shout.

That one, bad-approving,—to whom, there is only this
Envy plucked out his eyes, good-discerning.

Did not God's creating create the people?
Black, and white, and beautiful, and ugly—came.

Not every eye nor eyebrow, that thou seest, is good;
Eat the kernel of the pistachio nut; cast away its husk.