THE Reader's attention is invited to the following points in this translation of the Bústán of Shaikh Musliḥu-d-dín Sa'dí of Shíráz:

a. The couplets are numbered, rendering reference easy.

b. Each line of the translation agrees with the corresponding line in the original Persian text; the two lines, forming a couplet, are not run into each other.

c. A full index to the discourses is given.

d. Foot-notes give information as to the couplets of the Bustán which are omitted in the 'Iḳd-i-manúm, while the index shows the stories of the 'Iḳd-i-manúm, which are omitted in the examina­tion for “High Proficiency” in Persian.*

The Persian texts of the Bústán differ greatly. The Persian text of this ṭranslation is that which was brought out, under the auspices of the Oriental Society of Germany, by Charles M. Graf, at Vienna, in 1858.

The student, as he reads, should number the couplets of his Persian text, so as to make them accord with those of this translation. Much trouble in making references will thus be saved.

The Bústán, as a whole, or in part, is required for the—

High Proficiency } Examinations in Persian, in India.
Higher Standard
Degree of Honour

The original is in Persian verse. This translation is in prose. In this I have but pursued the course which Mr. Wollaston has followed in rendering the verses of the Anvár-i-Suhailí. To render the Bústán in verse, one should be a poet, at least equal in power to the author. Even then it would be well-nigh impossible to clothe the Bústán in such an English dress as would truly convey its beauties. Moreover, if such a translation could be prepared,—no matter how beautiful it might be in execution,—it would be of little advantage to the student. That which is now offered is so literal and so annotated as to encourage the hope that it may in a great measure relieve the student from the labour of consulting a dictionary.

The following table shows the work done in this trans­lation:

Number of In Introduc­tion. In Chapter Grand Total.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Couplets 190 971 518 364 527 202 174 438 273 330 112 4099
Discourses 4 33 27 28 30 17 15 33 16 24 6 233

“When one couplet out of a thousand is pleasing to thee,
In the name of manliness! restrain thy hand from criticism.”

“Bústán,” Introduction, couplet 124.