A luminous night more resplendent than the day,
A moon more effulgent than a sun:

From the freshness of the glittering (moon-like) dome (of the sky),
The tablet (tilled land) of the children of dust (vegetation) emerald become.


The freshness of the earth is said to be due to the moon's rays.

On that tablet of beauty (the tilled land), the star (the luminous moon) with silver (its effulgent beams),
Wrote many a word of hope (of full harvest) and of fear (of scanty harvest).

The scribe who recognized those words (of hope and of fear),
Made not his lodging in this cave (of the earth) with the ghúl (the toil of the world).


To suffer toil in the world's business,—what advantage?
Since it is impossible by endeavour to increase one's daily food.

Not worth care is the world; incline to joy (contented with what thou hast);
Not for care,—have they made this mansion.

For the sake of joyousness and gladsomeness—is the world;
Not for injustice (-doing to one's self) and toil-enduring.

Let us not strive in this place of hardship (for the world devours its own hard-striver),
But draw up our chattels from this bottomless pit (and remain void of attachment):

Let us place with (for the sake of) joy joy-bringing wine (the goods of delight and ease);
And give with joy that established for joyousness (to the needy).


Since yesterday has departed and to-morrow will appear,
It is necessary to purchase with joy this one night (the present moment).


The second line may refer to—the diagram in which (from the effects of the seven planets) the good and the bad circumstances of life are depicted.

“Lauh-i-zeba” may signify—falak; lauh-i-iflán-i-khák (meta. the earth).


See couplet 33.

Thus best,—that we enjoy the spectacle to-night;
And do to-morrow's work when to-morrow arrives.

One cannot by force suffer grief uncome;
For one cannot go to the grave before death.

Exercise not thought in (enjoying) wine (the goods of delight) save joy (of the present moment);
The market (splendour) of every trade is apparent.

Why is it necessary to preserve tyranny over thyself (by putting off the joy of to-day till to-morrow);
To keep thyself in grief every (all the) year?


Why do we writhe in this world of twisting and turning?
For that to be is nothing, and that been nothing.

Let us fly (void of attachment) from this march-place of departure,
Before that we fall at the elephant's foot (at the end of life in toil):

Let us enjoy whatever after us they (our descendants) enjoy of us;
Take whatever they take from us in plunder.

If thou desire to take,—take such property (of good deeds)
As other forerunners took.

If thou fear the highwayman or the tribute-demander (the Sultan),
Who plunders whatever he sees on the road,—


Give first to the darvesh whatever thou hast;
For no one seeks the store-place of the (poor) darvesh.

Seest thou not that the tribute-takers of one-tenth
Bring the tribute to the vestibule of the darvesh?


“Dah yak sitán” signifies—báj va khiráj gíranda.

How sensible was that man, dínár-estimating,
Who made the desolate spot the abode of his treasure.

Since the world has the date of one day's space,
Why keepest thou concealed the treasure of a hundred years?

Come, so that we may sit and display joyousness;
May make a single night in the world like Kay Kubád.


May this one night take justice from fortune;
May bring to mind nothing of yesterday or of to-morrow:

May not ask of those things from which is no profit;
For reflection of this sort (regarding the increase of ease) is not happy.

As to whatever power is man's
May strive so long as the breath issues happily (not unhappily through excess of strife).

For the remedy (the cause of ease) of our own heart we may pleasantly strive,
Not to such a degree that we make the body of the food of the fire (of avarice).

The breath, which is the capital of life,
To give with bitterness (to respire bitter breath, to acquire great riches)—is not happiness.


Express this breath in such a way that thou mayst give it justice (in remembering God),
For the wind takes it if thou give it to the wind (of bitterness in acquiring more wealth than necessary).


In the second line, wairána may signify—fuḳará, the poor, or a desolate place.


In the acquiring of the predestined (muḳaddar) daily food, we may strive to the limit (ḳádr) of our power (maḳdúr); but not to such a degree that we make our body food for hell.

Sacrifice the diram (expend but little); prepare for heart-happiness;
For it is cheap to purchase the (joy of the) heart for nothing.

Be not fierce and of bad temper,—for the sake of (gathering) dirams;
It is necessary that thou shouldest be. Say to the diram:—“Be not!”

Be not a hard-striver as to world-reckoning;
For every hard striver is a hard die-er.

Reckon a breath (pass life) in lightly abandoning (the world at death and not grieving at shattered hopes);
For the man lightly abandoning lightly lives.


An auspicious night and a precious hour,—
In it, the gladsomeness (through lightly abandoning the world) was heart-pleasing.

The jeweller (historian) makes representation of this sort,
Of the matter relating to the Sikandrian ruby,—

That Sikandar, in perfect love, that night
Filled the cup to the memory of the lip of his love (the damsel of Chín):

Drank the cup to the sweet lip (of the lovely one):
Put the ring into the ear of the cup with his lip (placed on it to drink).


“Sakht-mír” is one whose soul, through love of wealth, departs with pain from the world.


“Yaḳút-i-iskandarí” signifies—the ruby that Sikandar brought from the darkness; or the tale of Sikandar.

Sitting in the manner of the young cypress,
Scattering sometimes the tulip, sometimes the arghaván;


A line of ambergris (the beard) raised on the rose (Sikandar's cheek);
On that rose, rose-water (the lustre and radiance of joy) scattered by the world,—

Both pleased was his heart through the victory over the enemy;
And also prosperous was his house through his wealth (the plunder of Russia).

He summoned the mistress, the heart's ease,
The Parí-form of tender limb;

(And) made the tent void of strangers,
Of singers and minstrels belonging to the tent.

The idol (the lovely woman), the parting of the head and the tresses adorned,
An object desired with a hundred desires:


The lip,—more heart-clinging than the pomegranate-grain;
The tongue,—more sugar-scattering than rose-conserve:


To the branches of the flowerless cypress they fasten bouquets of flowers.

Tulip-scattering may signify—Sikandar's giving the cup to the cup­bearer stained with wine; or casting the dregs on the ground.

“Arghaván-scattering” may signify—drinking the ruddy wine.


Of Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes Longimanus, Ardashír Daráz-dast, B.C. 465) it is stated in the Book of Esther:—

He appoints officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair virgins into Sushan the palace.

It takes an entire year to fit these damsels for presentation to the king—six months with oil of myrrh and six months with sweet odours.


The couplet may be:—

Of strangers,—void made the tent,
The tent-singers and the minstrels.

A mouth and an eye,—within limit both narrow:
One (the eye) struck the heart (with amorous glance); the other the harp (in singing):

The (long, coloured) hood of the tress, amber-scattering (black and odorous),
Trailing, rope-like, on the skirt-border:

The adorner of the assembly and the banquet-place (by her beauty);
The player of the harp at the king's banquet.

At the king's order, she tuned the harp,
Opened the door of the lip of the jewel-casket (the mouth),


Saying:—“To-night, through gladsomeness, there is freshness for the world;
“All joyousness is from the Khusrau's fortune.

“Pleasant is time at the season of the rose (Sikandar's victory over the Russians);
“The world laughs when the spring laughs (blossoms).

“When the effulgent sun (of victory) ascends to the zenith
“The light strikes up the wave from the luminous world.

“When the morning breeze comes to embroidery (grass-producing),
“The earth produces Rúmish, and the atmosphere Shustarí.


The narrow eye is not considered beautiful. The damsel, through modesty, looked at Sikandar with half-closed (tang) eyes.

See canto xxxii. couplet 63; lii. 31.


“'If-i-dámán” signifies—firávez-i-dámán.

The gísú-posh is a bag three yards long, having at one end a hood which they place on the head. They cast the tresses into the hood and pass the end of the bag under the arm under the left shoulder-blade.


Rúmish embroidery signifies—green silken cloth of Rúm.

Shustarí embroidery signifies—white silken cloth of Shustar.

“When the red rose establishes a pavilion (blossoms) in the garden,
“It illumines a hundred lamps with every rose-bud (of its own).


“When Sikandar brings victory to his grasp,
“Not beautiful is the mirror (the goods of ease) under the rust.

“When Kay Khusrau (Sikandar) becomes seizer of the cup (of ease) with wine (the victory over the Russians),
“Why is the cup empty on the throne?

“If the king be more lofty than Jamshíd,
“My face is more adorned than Khurshed (Jamshíd's mistress).

“If the king be Firídún of golden shoe,
“For his victory, I am the standard of Kávah.

“If the king be a Kay Kubád of lofty diadem,
“Mine is the diadem of musk and amber (the fragrant tress);


“If the king be Ká,us of turquoise crown,
“For him it is necessary to ask from me for the ivory throne (the lily bosom):

“If the king be demon-binding like Sulaimán,
“For me, some are in the world (distraught) like the demon.

“The king seized the world's throne,—O wonder!
“I captivated him (Sikandar) who captured the world.


“Killa” signifies—a small mosquito tent.

From the perfume and blossoming of one rose other roses begin to blossom.


In the second line, the cup means the one in the fortress of Sarír. Canto 42.

“Although the king's noose, world-seizing,
“Has fallen on the neck of the sun and the moon (so easy to him is world-seizing).

“For him I make a noose of my tresses;—
“I fear not; I cast it on his neck.


“If his be a noose, moon-seizing,
“Mine is a noose king-seizing.

“If he cast an arrow by the power of his army,
“Mine is a glance, arrow-casting.

“If he have the dagger for blood-shedding,
“I know how to excite (draw) blood by a glance.

“If he resolve upon sword-playing,
“My tongue sports with (fascinates) the sword (of the king).

“If he bring a heavy mace of gold on his shoulder,
“My two locks about the ear are two maces.


“If on his steed be a (golden) collar,
“Behold me, in whose full throat are ten collars!

“If he have caskets full of rubies,
“Mine is a casket (the mouth) full of ruby (the lips) and pearl (the teeth).

“If his ruby be now of the mine,
“Mine is the lip like the red ruby.

“If he be star-recognizer of the sphere,
“For me,—the stars of the sphere keep watch.

“If his be the standard above his head,
“Mine are a hundred standards outside the door.


Outside my door a hundred persons, standard-bearing, are standing to purchase my beauty.


“If through pre-excellence he became sovereign of the world,
“By soul-cherishing I am sovereign of the lovely ones!

“When I cast up my veil from my face
“I purchase the world for a single hair of mine.

“When I draw a perfumed tress across the moon (my face)
“I draw the moon with the tress to the earth.

“When I bring the sugar-lump (sweet speech) into the cornelian (the ruddy lip);
“(And) produce the finest wine (weighed and subtle speech) from the pistachio-nut (the small mouth).

“My wine (weighed and subtle speech) brings (pure, crystal) water to dancing (in envy);
“My cornelian (the ruddy lip) gives ease (even) to sleep (naturally full of ease).


“Desirest thou a collar from the moon (my resplendent face)? Behold my ample throat!
“Askest thou for relish from the ruddy nut? Behold my lips!

“In this sugar (the sweet lip), you my say is sweet laughter;
“Look at this sweetness (of the ruddy lip) that is of Samarkand (candy-producing).


“Namak” here signifies—lazzat.

“Finduḳ” is a fruit of red colour and round kernel.


The second line may (with a slight alteration) be:—

In it (the sugar of the sweet lip) behold the kiss—how it is of Samarḳand.

“Samar” signifies—afsána, a night-tale; or (simply) talk.

“Samarḳand” signifies—a well-known city, ḳand (candy)-producing; the sweet lip, sweetly-talking; or the night-tale of sugar (the sweet right-tale).

“If alchemy make the stone gold,
“My fragrance (from the musky tress) makes amber of (the dry) dust (the clay used for head-washing).

“(The intrinsic quality) of Canopus, Yaman-illuminating, as regards the fragrant leather of Yaman,
“Is just as my fragrant hair with the morning breeze:

“With one (amorous) glance I make roast meat of the wounded heart;
“With another glance I make plunder of his life:


“On this side (with the first glance) I make a prey and favour him;
“On that side (with a second glance) I cast him into the sea (of love, and trample on him).

“(Him) I fascinate by remedy (union), and consume with pain (separation);
“She am I who do this; save me, none did this!

“If from the far road the priest (the ascetic muslin) behold me,
“He performs adoration (to my fire-like cheek) as the fire-priest before the light.

“And if there be an austere recluse of (nature like) the hard stone,
“I bring him to dancing (restless with love) with one note of the harp.

In the Bústán, chap. iii. couplet 96, Sa'dí says:—

One had a mistress in Samarḳand;
Thou wouldst have said:—In place of sweet talk (samar) she had sugar (ḳand).

It is possible that should be written , in which Samar is a king's name, and means (in the language of the Turkáns) a city.

“I practise silver-working (the fascinating of men), because I am silvern of body;
“But I shatter not the lock (of chastity) of the treasure (the body).


“Of the door (of chastity) of our garden (the body), which became hidden (behind the screen of neglect),
“No one save the gardener (Sikandar) knows the key.

“Although I have many fresh dates (charms),
“No one sees me save the dry thorn.

“I am rose-water (head-ache dispelling); but I give head-pain;
“To my salt (favour)-desirer (i.e. lover), I give his own liver (to devour).

“Perhaps black night beheld the loveliness of my face
“That it became my slave like my (black) hole.

“Perhaps the new moon, which does the act of a new moon (empties its form),
Makes its mansion empty in hope of me.


“When my tress enters upon wantonness,
“It brings the foot of the mountain - partridge (the vigorous youth) into the snare.

“If the veil display the lobe of my roseate ear,
“The mouth of the red rose becomes full of water (in envy of its colour).

“When I prepare from the tress the ligature for the chin,
“I bring the noose (the tress) to the suspended water (the sky).


“Ganjína” (couplet 89) and “bágh” (couplet 90) each signifies— halḳa,e miyána yá mahall-i-bikárat.


I cast him into pain and torment; for he obtains no joy from me and passes his time in vexation far from me.


The second line may be:—

I bring the noose (the tress) to the suspended water (the chin with the full throat).

“When I reveal the grace of my limbs,
“I render defective the brain (the smooth white kernel) of the almond.

“When I display the wrist of my soft (white) arm,
“I fold up in shame the leaf of the water-lily.


“Sugar is the taster of my sweetness;
“The moon is the ring-in-the-ear (the slave) of my ear.

“My (small round) mouth, pledged to Jupiter (the Kází of the sky, ring-wearing),
“Won the bet from him. Behold the seal-ring (my pouting mouth).

“Luscious be the wine which I drink with the rose (Sikandar);
“Remembrance (sense) be mine, and forgetfulness (com­plete intoxication) to the rose (so that I may take my heart's desire).

“A little of the sorcery of my eyes reached Babylon,
“From which issue these magic arts.


If ko dárad be read for az o ainak, the second line will be:—

Won the bet (from Jupiter) who has the seal-ring.


This couplet should properly be at the end of the last. The renderings are:—

(a) Rapturous be the wine (union) which I drink with the rose (my tender body);

Be remembrance to me (my soul) and forgetfulness to the rose (my body).

Note.—The remembering of delight is the work of the soul, not of the dusty body that forgets.

(b) Luscious be the wine which, with the rose (in spring-time), I drink (from the king's hand);

Remembrance be mine and forgetfulness to the rose (that it may tell none that I enjoyed such pleasure).

The second line may be:—

May (shall) remembrance (of rapture) be mine; and forgetfulness to the rose (Sikandar) !—(Nay, Sikandar will not forget me).


Babylon (Báb-il, the gate of God) was famous for magic arts. See canto v. couplet 25; Revelations, chap. xvii. 5; xviii. 2, 10, 21; and Smith's Dictionary of the Bible.

“From my curling ringlet there passed into Chín perfume,
“From which (in envy) the musk of the deer in the desert became dry.


“When I bring the amorous glance into my intoxicated (wanton) eye,
“I bring to my hand (to sense) a hundred (lovers of mine, hearts) gone from the hand.

“When I make the tress a curl on the shoulder-side,
“Come, that thou mayst see (a hundred lovers of mine) heart gone from sense.

“To the heart whose head I turn towards the path (of love to me),
“I show the (dimple or pit of the) chin, so that I may cast him into the pit (whence he may not turn aside).

“By (showing) a single hair of mine, I give the collar and the crown (of sovereignty) to the lover;
“By (giving) a particle of perfume from my tress, I take tribute from (the beauties of) Khallakh:

“Place the wax-seal with the sovereignty of Chín;
“Strike five drums for the plunder of Rúm (far distant from Chín).


“Am a liver-piece (a cherished one) of the men of Chín by my mole;
“Am the lamp of the heart of the men of Rúm by the omen (of beholding my beauteous face):


The second line may be:—

(Of women of the world) I bring to my hand a hundred (lovers' hearts) gone from the hand (and make them desirous of my own beauty).


By (showing) a single hair (of mine), I give the collar (with the fold of my tress) and the crown (with the poll of my head).

“Give the rose-conserve (to the lover) when I become sleepy;
“Strike the red heavy stick (on him) when I display the keen glance (of punishment).

“My lip befits (gives ruddiness to) the ruby;
“My (beauteous) form sports with the sun (and makes it distraught with love).

“The fire-worshipper of the monastery calls me the silvern idol (heart-pleasing);
“He considers me the idol-house of the garden of Íram.

“When my pomegranate-breast became upreared,
“The heart of the pomegranate of the garden became shed (in envy).


“Of my pomegranate (breast), which is the orange (of delight) of the ‘Nau-roz,’
“To whom—share and power? To whom,—is such daily food?

“The auspicious tree am I, who am the friend of my own fruit;
“I am the rose, fruit-producing, although I am in the skin (in bud).


“Nár-rekhtan” may possibly have the same meaning as—nár afshándan, which signifies—excessive weeping and shedding bloody tears.

“Dil rekhtan” signifies – losing the heart (in love).


The orange of the Nau-roz, kings and nobles pass round for good luck.


“Bar dost” signifies—dost dáranda,e bár-i-khud, (meta.) a woman's bosom.

The first line may be:—

(a) The auspicious tree am I, who am the friend of the fruit (the bosom).

(b) The auspicious tree am I, who am the fruit of friendship.

(c) The auspicious tree am I; for mine are two fruits (breasts).

The second line may be:—

Bring forth (pluck) my rose (of pleasure); for I am in bud.

“I and red water (wine) and the king's fresh head (are enough);
“Say to the world:—Wash (down) thyself with black water (the salt sea).

“On that I am intent, that I may employ song;
“May draw him (Sikandar), like my harp, into my bosom:

“May sometimes give a kiss to his intoxicated eye;
“May sometimes give my tress into his hand:


“May make my own life his place (of love) in such a way
“That I may not turn my head from (the order of) his foot.

“For the sake of that sun (Sikandar), I so (soundly) sleep
“That I raise my head from sleep on the Judgment Day (not before).

“If there be a water (of life) which gives life,
“Or a Darkness (ease of the world) which gives youth,—

“Conjunction with me renders life long;
“I give youth when I enter upon amorousness.

“Sikandar goes to the water of life,—a mistake!
“I here! where goes Sikandar?


“If for him,—the road to the Darkness (where is the water of life) be necessary
“To him,—my (dark) tress-tip shows the path.

“And if he seek colour (lustre) from the (guiding) ruby on that account, that
“He may verily bring the water of life to his grasp,—

“(Behold) my life, in which is flashing ruby;
“In which is many a fountain of the water of life.


See canto lxix, couplets 12-15.

“O world-Khusrau! how long exaltest thou thy neck?
“Be not fiery as to this water of life.

“I am of Parí-face, and like the Parí (adorned) beneath the veil;
“When thou art heart-attached (to me) shut not the door (of thy heart) on the Parí.


“With thee, let not mine be the closing of the door!
“Be the tress-curling or the skirt waving, but let there not be separating!

“Enough—evoking this hard stone (against me) from (thy) heart;
“Not associating with tender hearts.

‘O love!—I towards thee exercise not tyranny;
“I am thy beloved;—nay, thy slave!

“With this heavenly nature,—I am thy earth (prostrate before thee);
“Am from Chín (producing saucy disloyal ones); yet am thy sorrow-plucker.

“My rose (person) is not a rose shade-cherished;
“For shade is unfit for the sun.


“Fruit (a person) like me,—only in the shade of the house—O leave not!
“For fruit, shade-ripened, is unpleasant.


The being dusty (humble) is best, so that thou mayst remain long.


The second line may be:—

Be—the twisting together (in perfect love); but let there not be the shattering (of the heart).


The second line may be:—

(By my sauciness to others of the house) I am (apparently) from Chín (producing saucy, disloyal ones); but am (yet) thy sorrow-plucker.


The rose, shade-cherished, withers on once being touched.

The second line hints at her warrior-like qualities.

“Thou thyself (art) my fragrant herb-seizer,
“For the house, no help is of the fragrant herb.

“Let go the hawk (Sikandar) for the hunting of this partridge;
“Fear the eagles (callosities that through age come to women) making prey (of beauty).

“When the date shall have ripened on the date-tree,
“If thou take it not firmly (to pluck and eat), it reaches rottenness (and is worthless).

“Thou mayst not obtain a greater liver-devourer (a (tormentor of lovers) than me;
“A liver-devourer! nay, a sugar-lump (one of sweet gait)!


“How many hearts that have become blood through my devouring the blood (of their livers)!
“How much blood that has remained on my neck.

“(In sale) I became opposed to (was put in competition with) sugar-lumps;
“Than for them,—the markets were brisker for me.

“I am pleasant and heart-alluring in voice and face;
“That (the voice), indeed pleasant; this (the face), indeed beautiful. I am exceedingly lovely!

“When I become the cup-bearer, wine (from my hand) is not unlawful;
“When I become the minstrel I scatter sweetness (of song) from the palate.


The second line may be:—

Fear the eagles (the vicissitudes of Time) making prey (of pleasure).


“Shakar-khwára” signifies—a lover who, in grief of his beloved, devours his own liver.

“Jigar-khwára” signifies—a lovely one who devours the liver of her lover and casts him into torment; or the sorrow-bearer of the grief-stricken one.

“Shakar-para” signifies—a mistress of sweet gait; shakar-púra; shakar ķalam (a kind of halwá, or sweetmeat).

“When happy, I place my hand on the stringed instrument of melody,
“I make (the hearer) intoxicated with love, and then become the (slayer) of the intoxicated.


“Thus at a distance I display heart-allurements;
“In the embrace I display soul-cherishments:

“To the eye (of beholders), I give with (on showing) the eye-brow heart-happiness;
“When they draw me into the embrace I display heart-ravishingness:

“I and the harp's lament, and the drinking of wine,—
“Of me,—how may lovers be patient? How?

“A (youthful) monarch like thee is my lover,
“My occupation,—what is it save joyousness (one with the other)?”

When the heart-entangling harper, with the harp, struck up
Such a song from sugar of jujube colour (lips ruddy and sweet).


The king,—through love of that sweet and graceful one— came
Like a white falcon to that young partridge (the damsel).


“Mast kush” signifies—ifrá-i-mastí, excess of intoxication of love, in which the state of being dead comes to one.

“Dost khúsh” signifies—dast mál va isti'mál-i-nawákhtan va guftan,


If shikebandagí be read for shikeband kay, the second line may be:—

Of me,—the patience of lovers, how?



When with the hand she struck up a heart-entangling harp,
(She sang) such a song (in praise of joy and union) from the sugar of jujube colour (the lip ruddy and sweet).


If jurra be read for chúza, the second line may be:—

Like a male white falcon to that bold partridge (the damsel, valiant in battle).

If jurra,e chang be read for chúza,e chang, the second line may be:—

Like a male white falcon to that one bold with the harp.

A spring-pheasant (the damsel) entered upon amorous glancing;
The orange (the rounded breast) issued from the golden cradle (the decorated busk).

The pavilion empty, and the heart-possessor (mistress) intoxicated (with love),—
The heart's rein passed altogether from the hand.

A night of privacy and a beauteous one like that!
From her,—how can one draw the rein?

The lion (Sikandar) cast the young deer (the damsel);
Boldly he came for the plunder of her place.


The eagle (Sikandar) came for the prey of the (white) pelican (the damsel);
The sun went to the entertainment of the moon:

Awhile he tasted her sugar-like lip;
Awhile he sipped her like the sugar-cane:

Took that lily-bosom into his embrace;
Took off the seal from the door of the treasure:

Beheld a wine (of delight) untasted, bright, pleasant-tasting;
A garden, door-closed, full of the apple (the chin) and the pomegranate (the round, firm breast):

A cornelian—on its own seal—injury not done;
A seal-ring,—by the diamond uninjured:


The second line may be:—

She came forth from the litter of golden orange (bosses);

but it is inappropriate.


The first line may be:—

Such a night! such a privacy! such a beauteous one!


“Almás” signifies—álat-i-mard.

“Muhr” signifies—muhr-i-bikárat.


A rose unplucked, the thorn up-plucked,
Save by the gardener (Sikandar), one unseen of man.

From the increasing of that ardency of fire,
The blood desired to flow forth from the rager (the diamond).

They evoked sugar with the sweet tongue (the diamond);
Mixed it together like milk and sugar:

Two lofty cypresses together crept;
Candy fell into (and sweetened) the oil of the almond (the lustrous limbs of the damsel).

The two lovers became two jewels of coral;
(And) dashed the two particles of one kind together.


When the ruby pierced the unpierced gem,
The gem indeed rested, and the ruby indeed slept.

At that fountain of life, Sikandar
Enjoyed much happiness and joyousness:

Gave thus some nights his heart to happiness,
And took not forth his chattels from that stage.


Khár” signifies—dast-andází.


Khún” signifies—máda,e áb-i-mání.


“Shakar” signifies—áb-i-maní.

“Zabán” signifies—álat-i-mard.


“Ḳand” signifies—áb-i-sapíd.


The second line alludes to a rule of grammar, by which, when two letters become joined, the contracting of them into one (ildighám) is permissible.

In some copies the second line is:—

(a) Both bent together like and —(that is ).
(b) Became both like the twisting, intertwining snake.


“Marhala” may mean—Sikandar's tent void of strangers, or the halting-place in Russia. See canto lxvi. couplets 2 and 79.

Come, cup-bearer! that cup of gleaming wine (of sense­lessness),
Take in the hand to the melody of reed and flute.

Wine which, by the decision of wine-bibbers (those perfectly senseless on beholding God's majesty),
Remedies the work of the helpless ones (those desirous of that cup).


The reed and flute signify—the causes of senselessness, or the aban­doning of the work of the world.