When the whiteness (of the dawn) struck forth its head (appeared) from the east,
The blackness of night lowered its head to the west.

The monarch of the west (Sikandar) arrayed the army
In thought of that man-drawing demon.

Towards the right flank, the army of Rúm and of Barbarí,
Like Gog (numerous) at the wall of Sikandar.

To the left flank, those of narrow eye of Chín,
Earth distressed at their multitude.


In the centre, the king of Rúm, like the savage lion,
Beneath him, a grey khatlan steed, like the moving mountain.

In another direction, the men of Alán, and Purtás, and Russia,
Enraged like the stubborn war-horse.

The kettle-drum became consonant with the globular bell;
Like the trumpet of the Resurrection Day, they blew the reed.

From the scratching of the drum, stone-splitting,
The Símurgh, in the mountains of Káf, shed his feathers.

From the clamour of the trumpet of ox-tail (form)
There went up (even) from the brazen jar (the drum)— 'ala-llah (a cry of fear)!


“Par afgandan” may signify—to fly away and to become invisible.


On both sides, the army remained in hesitation,
Saying:—“Whom will fortune assist?”

That one of Ahriman-face, like the malignant,
Came like fighting elephants to the fight:

Trampled again some;
No one went before him, battle-displaying.

From the rear of the king's centre, one armour-clad (the auspicious horseman)
Came, like a lion, to the combat-place.

From the fiery (flashing) sword, drawn forth like water,
By which the sun's fountain became obscured,


The king, from the army-centre, knew that that lion-man
Was indeed that one who had displayed the former prowess.

He became anxious regarding his affair,
When he viewed his combat with the dragon.

Regret came his that such a hero
Should become shattered before such an evil spirit (like live coal).

Such a horseman,—skilful, quick of stirrup,
Who recklessly cast his finger (the living body) on the fire (the demon-man),

Angel-like, around that one of demon-face,—
Circled, like the heavens about the world.


The first combat which he planned,—
He rained the arrow on that malignant heart.


“Sipar kardan” signifies—to trample upon


See canto lxi. couplet 49.

When fear of the arrow came not to the malignant one,
The striker became angry with his own arrow.

A spear of steel of diamond-hue
He raised, and struck upon the bold crocodile,

In such a way, that if he had struck that spear on a male camel,
It would have leaped forth whole from the other side.

Through the excessiveness with which he contracted his body,
The steel-spear became shattered on that hard one.


That male lion hurled another spear
Against that one fit to be slain; it also was ineffective.

He broke a third spear, even so, against him:
—One cannot close up water with a brick.—

When he knew that that demon, of iron-nature,
Regarded not (cared not for) the war-weapons of the arrow and of the spear,

He drew forth the crocodile (the sword), world-consuming;
Came towards the snorting dragon:

Struck him on the shoulder-blade-place, and brought him down from his place.
That tyrant came, even so, from his footing.


From beneath the dust he arose again;
Grappled, with vehemence, with his opponent (the auspicious horseman):

Seized (closed) in violent passion his path to fortune (victory over him);
Seized him firmly with that curved iron:

Brought him down, like the fierce lion, from his saddle;
His helmet fell down from his head.

A spring (a blooming face) appeared beneath the helmet,
Much more beautiful and tender than the tulip-leaf.

He wished to pluck off his head, for it appeared soft to him;
When he beheld such a countenance shame came to him.


He beheld two ringlets trailing on his skirt;
He made his ringlets a rope about his neck:

Like the Hindú thief, he took him from the treasury (Sikandar's army);
Snatched him from the army of Rúm; consigned him to the army of Russia.

When that angel became captive to the demon,
A shout (of joy) arose from the demons of the army of Russia.

He again hastened for prey-making;
For he obtained, from the first, a valuable prey.

At that misfortune, the king, the army-shatterer,
Writhed on himself like the snake.


He ordered that a huge black elephant
They should bring to rage within that battle-place.

The elephant-driver shouted at this huge elephant,
Urged him, like the river Nile, against that Ahriman.

When the dragon beheld that enraged elephant,
He opened his hand in anger:

Knew that that elephant, battle-essaying,
Would bring him, by his strong trunk, from his place.

He seized his trunk so firmly
That his land and soil (standing ground) became his prison (so that he could not move):


Shouted, and plucked his trunk from its place;
The lofty mountain-like elephant fell.

In terror of that terrible sport, the king
Feared lest the army should fall on destruction (be dispirited).

In that wrathfulness he spoke to the sage,
Saying:—“Fortune wishes to conceal her face from me.

“Adverse fortune has discovered me also;
“Otherwise why should I have sought this difficult business?

“When celestial calamity descends
“It turns the head of delicate (wealthy) ones from delicacy (the delights of wealth).


“Little are the strife and the contention of kings;
“Once in the year (seldom) is the strife of the lion (after prey).

“From assaulting no rest is mine;
“In this work I shall finish life.”

The sage (Balínás) gave him comfort, saying:—“O monarch!
“Exercise patience in this strife.

“Verily, thou mayst win victory,
“Since thou possessest deliberation, and the sword is thine.


They say that in the whole year the lion suffers not from headache; and that the strife of the lion (with other lions) is once in the year.

“If (though) the remedy be (concealed) in the hard stone,
“It becomes evident by deliberation and the sword.


“When lofty fortune displays friendship for thee,
“Thou mayst bring into bonds the head of a calamity (a demon-man) like this.

“Although a single hair of the king's limbs,—
“To me, more precious than a hundred crowns,

“Yet in the stars, such is the mystery,
“That when the world-king becomes contest-maker,

“By kingly fortune, and fortune's strength,
“That very vigorous one may come to the dust.

“Save this, is nothing; for this form of hard hide
“Has neither the sluggish foot (in battle) nor the soft limb (vulnerable).


“One only is he, notwithstanding that he is of brazen body;
“If he be of iron, one can pluck him from his place.

“Against him, it is not proper to urge the wound with the sword;
“For the cloud becomes not distressed by iron.

“But thou mayst bring his head into the noose;
“Thou mayst bring him to bondage in the curl of the noose.

“If it be impossible to slay him with the sword,
“—Because he possesses the firm foot and the hard hide.—

“When thou bringest him captive beneath the chain (the noose),
“At him, strike either the sword or the arrow.”


At the glad tidings of the man, star-understanding, the king
Accepted for himself (as necessary) thanks to God.

When he considered his own victory from God,
He brought his foot to that grey khutlan steed,

Which the king of the men of Chín had given to him;
Which had been born in a stable (a pasture place) of the men of Chín, full of fresh fodder.

He called for a noose and a valuable sword;
Made the rein straight for the enemy:

Against that demon, came the river of majesty (Sikandar),
Like the black cloud that comes up from the mountain.


That crocodile shook in his place;
For the king's fortune took down (overpowered) his grasp (of power).

A noose, enemy-enslaving,—the monarch
Cast like the collar of time (with true aim).

It fell upon the enemy's neck;
The sky gave the ground-kiss to the monarch!

When the noose came upon the enemy's neck,
The Khusrau, the demon-binder, hastened.

He drew his head within the curl of the noose;
Dragging, dragged him even so towards the army.


That lion, prey (man)- consuming, wallowed,
Like the fawn under the panther's claws.

When in that overthrow that savage wild ass
Became broken, by falling and rising (while being dragged).


See canto lxiii. couplet 6.

From the camp of the victorious king
A (joyous) shout came forth to the lofty sphere.

In that joyousness the kettle-drum so went (was so struck)
That the sky came to dancing on the earth.

When the king saw that that demon-like form
Had come, by fortune's power, to his grasp,


He appointed him for the (black) day of the other enemies;
Consigned him to the dungeon of Ahrimans.

The heart of the Russians, at such powerfulness
Over that enemy (the demon-man) enemy-overthrowing,— broke.

The king of Russia became like wax, the melter;
The monarch of Rúm entered upon joyousness:

Prepared an entertainment of musicians;
Opened the door of joyousness in the world:

Listened to the harp's wail;
Placed water of rose-colour (ruddy wine) in his hand.


Made mention of his own victorious fortune;
Drank wine, pleasant-tasting, joyfully.

When night fixed the blue lock (of its darkness) upon the treasure (of day),
(And) the balance of camphor (the whiteness of day) became musk-essaying (dark),



When night fixed the blue lock on the treasure (the sun),
(And) the balance of camphor (day) became dark.

The second line may be:—

(And) the balance of camphor (Libra) became musk (darkness)-proving (by its own luminosity).

Verily, the king drank musk-scented wine;
Verily, the musician preserved the true note.

Sometimes he drank the pierced ruby (drops of ruddy wine) in the goblet:
Sometimes placed the ear upon (listened to) the unpierced ruby (the song void of defect).

Scattered sorrow with every (exhilarating) draught of wine he drank;
Gave much treasure to the asker:


Entered upon long stories;
Asked the mystery of every past event.

Of that swordsman, the man skilful in horsemanship (the auspicious horseman),
He urged speech beyond limit in that assembly,

Saying:—“To-day that deceitful opponent (the demon), him (the auspicious horseman),
“Whether he slaughtered, or bound, I know not.

“If he remain (alive) in the bondage of those highwaymen (the Russians),
“We will bring him forth by the spear-wound.

“And if he have departed (in death), we will not pass by (forget) that departed one;
“Verily, best that we drink wine to his memory.”


When his (Sikandar's) brain by drinking wine became ardent,
His heart became soft as to the prisoners.

He ordered that that tougueless captive (the demon)
Should come to the music-place of the lord of the marches.


“La'l-i-sufta” signifies—sharáb-i-khúb.

“La'l-i-ná-suftá” signifies—zan-i-bikr.

By the king's order,—that captive to bonds
Came, like the lofty mountain, to the music-place;

By the king's power,—his whole body shattered
And withered. In that assembly,

With lamentation, he bewailed of that woundedness,
An intercessor,—no other than tongue-tiedness (pity-exciting).


When the tongue-tied man bitterly bewailed,
The monarch's heart compassionated him.

From that powerful body, violence??experienced,
He ordered that they should take off the fetters.

That king, the noble man, released him:
—No one injured a noble man.—

Caused him to sit with respect, and gave him victuals;
Displayed towards him every favour:

Associated with his nature (caused him to drink) some (cups of) wine;
Made his real nature conspicuous with wine.


When intoxication came to that one of distraught fortune,
He rolled like the shadow at the foot of the throne.

Although, from hard-heartedness, he agreed with none,
He recognized his own cherisher (Sikandar):

Ran out thence, hurriedly,
Went in such a way (so fast) that no one saw his dust.

At that circumstance, the Khusrau remained astounded;
He sought the trace of that matter from the chiefs,

Saying:—“When that fettered one became joyous with wine!
“Why went he far from us when he became free?”


In respect to that searching (question), the great ones of the empire
Fell into consideration about that matter (of the demon-man's departure).

One said:—“He is a desert one. O wonder!
“When they cut his bonds he took the desert.”

Another said:—“When wine worked upon him
“He bound his load towards his own house.”

The king—to whatever passed, open or hidden (reply),
Listened, but said nothing.

He remained in that reflection, saying:—“This screen of blue colour (the sky),
“What night-play brings it forth from the screen?”


When the king's heart became acquainted with this matter,
He became wish-seeker from his own cup-bearer.

Again, he held delay to be approved;
For he had in his eye the plunder of the enemy.

When some time passed that intoxicated elephant came,
The waist-place (the girdle) of a beautiful maiden in his hand.

He placed her with reverence before the Khusrau;
Gave the ground-kiss according to usage of adoration.

When in this way he produced a prey from the road,
He again went forth from the king's assembly.


The king was amazed when he witnessed this matter (the return both of the demon-man and of the damsel);
He looked at the jewel in the snake's head (the damsel), not at the snake (the demon).

From shame of the king that delicate doll,
Like the doll, drew the sleeve (as a veil) over her head.

When in the tent the king beheld that moon,
The tent he made void of men:

Obtained power as regards that beloved one of (sitting in) the tent;
Shattered the veil-armour (the sleeve) of her face.

What saw he? He saw a calamity (a lovely one) beyond imagination;
Not a calamity (of the heart),—a sun of splendour.


One of Parí-form, saucy and wanton,—come;
Parí-like, at night, to his hand,—come:

The dweller of Paradise, face turned from the dweller of hell (the demon-man);
From Málik (the demon-man) to Rizván (Sikandar) path found.

Like a cypress with freshness adorned;
And from her the ruddy rose borrowed:

With every arrow of the glance which she used to cast,
She used to make a prey of spiritualities.

Her lip,—what a lip! the distraction of markets!
In it, candy and sugar (sweet speech) in ass-loads.


In her (white) bosom, the spectacle of the jasmine;
The pink lobe of her ear—the spectacle of the ruddy rose.

When the Khusran looked at that face like the (luminous) moon,
In her appearance he beheld an idol-house (of great beauty).


“Dast dar chíze áwardan” may signify—chíze mass kardan.


If máh be read for Turk, the first line may be:—

Obtained power as regards that moon (the damsel), halo sur­rounded.


By incantation they make a Parí appear at night.


Málik is the chief angel of hell; Riván, the gardener of Paradise.

A prey—a damsel of sugar-laughter—he gained;
In whose market (of beauty) he found himself a slave.

—The damsel, whose master was slave!
Behold to what a degree hearts were in her skirt!—

He knew that that damsel of Chíní adornment
Was the token to him of the Khákán of Chín.


On account of the prowess which on her part he had beheld,—
He had approved of her in the field of combat.

He was astonished how she fell out from the screen (the haram);
More astonished,—how she fell again into his hand.

He inquired, saying:—“Unfold thy circumstances;
“Seek out my heart by this recital.”

The beautiful attendant (the damsel), the caresser (of her lord),
Offered a prayer, reverence-displaying, for the king:

Prayed for the crown-possessor of the world,
Saying:—“Be not thy crown hidden from the world!


“Thou art that world-seizer, the territory-subduer,
“For, thee God created for justice and religion.

“Most clear, like the day, is thy pomp;
“More befriendly is thy heart than fortune.

“By thee, the liberation (of wretched ones from the vicissitudes of Time) on the day of hope;
“From thee, the splendour of the luminous sun (of justice).


The first line may be:—

A virgin prey of sugar-laughter he gained.


It is said that the luminosity of the sun is due to the acts of just kings.

“Other kings, army-shattering,—
“One became crowned (king through ancestry); the other, the sword-striker (king through bravery).

“At this time thou art that sun;
“For thou art both the sword-seizer and also the crown-possessor.


“When thou art in the assembly, thou art the world-Khusrau;
“When thou essayest battle,—thou art the world-champion.

“One dusky like me possesses not that power
“That she may bring forth breath with the water of life (Sikandar).

“To whom, the boldness that here she should display great lamentation (for wrong done)?
“For if she be Zuhra (of enchanting speech),—she will melt with shame (of thee).

“The earthenware (the tale of my distressed state) which is mine,—is unfit to be pierced (uttered).
“When thou saidst—Speak, a little (of that long tale) is fit to be uttered.

“I am that (humble) one, ear-pierced, whom the Khákán of Chín
“Made the favourite of his (ear-) unpierced ones (the ladies).


“He sent me to the king's court, and spoke,
“Saying:—This casket (the damsel) has in secret pearls (of skill).

“Perhaps the king considered that speech unsuitable;
“Through anger he looked not at me:


“Ná suftagán” may signify—doshízagán.

“Made me silent behind the screen (of the haram);
“Forgot altogether recollection of me.

“I grieved at the king's alienation;
“Came from sorrowing to the battle:

“First, displayed in the battle-field
“Those dextrous qualities by the king's fortune.


“The second time, when I expressed a shout against the steed,
“I confounded an army of Russia.

“The third day, when fortune assisted not,
“I became in conflict captive to the enemy.

“Not the enemy,—a crocodile, to rage hastened;
“Through the anger of God, a form fashioned.

“That crocodile, the tyrant, slew me not;
“He took me, even so, towards the army (of Russia):

“Consigned me to the Russians, the tyrants,
“Saying:—Keep closed the door of this treasure.


“Flew again towards the battle;
“Prepared for conflict in elephant-overthrowing.

“When the fortune of the monarch of elephant body
“Cast him down like an elephant in that multitude,

“At the king's victoriousness in that battle-field,
“My head, by the king's power (of arm), ascended (in joy) to the sky.

“When I saw that thy snare (noose) was dragging the rapacious beast,
“That thy noose was dragging to itself the calamity (the demon-man),


“Sákhta” stands for—sakhta shuda.

“In a great measure, I became not free from fear of him (the demon-man),
“When I saw the dragon yet unslain.


“In a little measure, my heart became triumphant
“That a demon of that form had entered thy noose.

“Of all Russia the heart became full of sorrow;
“Their red rose (ruddy, joyous complexion) became yellow (sad) safflower.

“For me,—watch-keeper became an army,
“All discordant (of tongue), unpleasant of speech.

“He, like the night-demon, prepared the path of evil;
“Began to take men from the road.

“Demon-like, rope bound on the hand and the foot,
“For me, they (the Russians) made a place in a house.


“When less than a half of the night passed
“There came to my ear—há hú! in the desert,

“A cloud like darkness (the demon) entered;
“(And) rained stones on those stony ones (the Russian guards).

“The guards who kept night-watch (over me),—
“All left the place in fear of him.

“I saw only the head which he plucked from the herd (of Russians);
“He continued plucking and casting against another.

“With the many skulls of heads which he had plucked off;
“With those skulls, he had heaped a mountain.


“He came; took me up from my place;
“Took the path to the army of the king of the country:

“Caused me to reach the foot of the king's throne;
“Caused me to reach from the profundity of the fish to the (sublimity of the) moon.

“Until now, I have been like treasure in prison;
“Now, I will make pastime with joy.

“Best that woman, whose foot bears decoration (the gold anklet),
“Consider not the woman whose place is in the prison.

“My prosperous heart displays to me, in such a way,
“That in a dream I behold this desire of my heart (the sitting before Sikandar).”


When the one of Parí face unfolded her tale,
The king's face expanded with joy like the rose.

He gave a kiss on her sweet jewel-casket (mouth);
Uttered (sparkling) words like the (jewelled) ring in her ear,

Saying:—“O fresh rose leaf, dust unseen!
“With the love of God (who gave thee release) a (lovely) form in the veil (of chastity).

“By (God's) love for thee my resolve has become stronger;
“For thou art the ornament of the assembly and the ornament of the contest.

“In the contest-place I beheld thee soul-spoiling;
“Saw thee strong of arm and skilful of rein:


“In the music-place also I consider thee beautiful;
“In these two qualities thou hast not a rival.

“I am thy companion; arise; play the stringed instru­ment;
“Cause my heart to become fresh by the sound of melody.”

The one of Parí-face arose and played the harp;
The bow (the harp) of white poplar, and the arrow (the plectrum) of white poplar.

Of fresh songs she uttered a song;
The song of new order from the heart of the Pahlaví nation,


Pahlaví is a term applied to all the varying forms of the mediæval Persian language, from the time when the grammatical inflexions of ancient Persian were dropped till the period when the modern alphabet was invented, and the language became corrupted into Modern Persian by the adoption of numerous Arabic words and phrases.

Practically, Pahlaví begins with the inscriptions on rocks and coins of Ardashír Bábágan (A.D. 226-240), and ends with religious writings of the priests (A.D. 881). Any fragments of Pahlaví composition of later date than A.D. 1000 must be considered as modern imitations of a dead language.

The word Pahlaví is properly connected with the Parthva of the cuneiform inscriptions, the land of the Parthians (known to the Greeks and to the Romans), and of the Pahlavás of Sanskrit writers.

Strictly—mediæval Persian language is only called Pahlaví when it is written in one of the characters used before the invention of the Modern Persian alphabet, and in the peculiarly enigmatical mode (adopted in Pahlaví) whenever it is transcribed, either in Avesta characters or in those of the Modern Persian alphabet. Freed from this peculiarity, it is called Pázand.

The peculiar mode of writing Pahlaví was first explained by Haug in his “Essays on the Pahlaví Language,” 1870, pp. 33-37.

As we write Xmas for Christmas, so in Pahlaví logograms were used called Huzváris (an abstract noun from zuvárídan, to grow old); and these were the last remnants of older writings.

Pázand (Ávestá paiti zanti, re-explanation) is a term applied not only to the purely Persian words in Pahlaví texts, but also to transliterations of the said texts, either in Ávestá or in Modern Persian, in which all the Huzváris words are replaced by Pázand equivalents. These Pázand texts retain the exact idiom and construction of the Pahlaví original and represent the mode in which it was read.

The difficulty of Pahlaví texts lies in the Pázand, and is occasioned by the ambiguity of some of the Pahlaví letters. The meaning of nearly every Huzváris logogram (in its proper Pázand equivalent) was recorded in an old glossary preserved by the Pársís.

Pahlaví literature reached its zenith in A.D. 566, when it included the whole of the literature of Persia; its destruction began in A.D. 636-651; and its death-blow came with the subsequent adoption of the Modern Persian alphabet.

The oldest Pahlaví manuscript (A.D. 800) extant consists of several fragments of papyrus recently found in a grave in the Fayum district in Egypt, and now in the Royal Museum, Berlin. Next come four manuscripts on Indian paper, all by the same hand (A.D. 1323-1324)—two copies of the Yasra and two of the Vendidád, containing the Ávestá, with its Zand (Pahlaví translation and commentary); of these, two are in Kopenhagen, one in London, and one in Bombay.

The last remnants of Pahlaví are contained in the few manuscripts preserved by the Pársís in Western India, and by their brethren in Persia.—“Pahlaví Texts,” translated by E. W. West, 1880.

See canto xiii. couplet 18.

Saying:—“O king! O sovereign! O world-helper!
“O lover of the wise! O cherisher of wisdom!


“Be thy verdant head far from the chastisement (of being slain)!
“Be thy luminous heart the fountain of light!

“Be thou young in fortune, victorious in judgment!
“Powerful, and wise, and territory-conqueror!

“Thy life,—loin-girt with repose!
“The coat of thy body,—far from stain (of sin)!

“Of good and bad, wherever thou turnest thy face,
“May God be thy shelter, and wisdom thy ally!

“Be it so that the star may be to thy desire;
“All countries of the world be under thy command!”


Then she began her own mystery (desire);
Expressed (sang) her ardour of love on her own harp,

Saying:—“Into the garden (of youth) came a beautiful tree (a damsel);
“It kindled like the luminous lamp.

“In the garden (the bloom of youth) was a rose unblossomed;
“Verily, the narcissus half asleep in the parterre.


“Nargis” here signifies—parda,e bikárat; and “gul” signifies— ghuncha,e bikárat.

“The red wine (of joy) in the cup (the unblossomed rose) was untasted;
“An unpierced (unblemished) pearl was hand-untouched.

“In the hope that after the pursuit of prey (kisses), the king
“Would bring joy from the hunting-place (the lip and the mouth) to the (unblossomed) rose;


“That the pale spring (the fair Sikandar) would pluck a red rose (my ruddy complexion):
“Would behold sometimes the tulip (laughter and the rosy lip); sometimes the musk-willow (the black mole and the tress).

“Perhaps the king has no leisure for the garden (my roseate person),
“That he turns not his glance towards the resplendent lamp (my luminous state),

“Otherwise a spring, with this joyousness,—
“Why should it fall for nothing to the ground?

“I am fearful of the antumn wind (the toughness through age of the once tender body),
“Lest it should scatter such a spring (of joy) to the dust.”

The monarch, who heard the voice (of song) of the heart-ravisher,
Heaved from his heart the sigh of those whose hearts have gone.


“Durr-i-ná suftá” signifies—zan-i-bikr, bákirat.



(The king) would pluck the red rose (the inside of the unblossomed rose) and the pale spring (the outside of the unblossomed rose);
Would behold sometimes the tulip (the red mark on the damsel's body from embracing her); sometimes the musk-willow (the black mark from tightly holding her).


The first line may be:—

The monarch, who heard the heart-ravishing voice.


Her pleasant voice and the wail of the harp,
With her face of rose colour, gave him tidings

That—“A face like that, an agreeable voice like this;
“A desire (of union) like this (prohibitors none)—be it-not unlawful to thee!”

When the king's heart became acquainted with that matter (the damsel's desire),
Of that desire he became desirer.

Again he considered delay (till leisure occurred) proper;
For he kept in his eye the plunder of the enemy (the Russians).

On the part of the cup-bearer, he was contented with wine fit to be given;
For he put the road-provision (the damsel brought from the far road) for the halting-place.


He made full a golden cup with wine,
And drank it to the memory of the cheek of that Parí-born.

Another cup, ruby-drinking (full of red wine),
Having given to that sweet lip, he said:—“Drink!”

The moon (the damsel) took (it), kissed (its lip), and put it to her lip (to drink);
She took the cup with a kiss, and returned it with (another) kiss.

The monarch—with one hand drawing the wine-cup;
With the other hand drawing the tress of the heart-ravisher—

Would sometimes kiss the lip of the cup;
Would sometimes bite (kiss) the lip of the heart's-ease.


In that way (of wine-drinking with friends) which way is heart-alluring,—
Bitter wine with sweetmeats (kisses) is pleasing.


This describes the custom of respect.

When they poured sweet wine into the mouth,
They sweetly embraced (on one couch) in sweet sleep.

In that wish-place (Sikandar's tent), void of the prohibitor,
They desired naught save kissing.

Come, cup-bearer!—that coloured (grape-) juice (the purified wine of senselessness),
Whose colour the old villager gave with (red) blood.

Give me, so that when it comes to my grasp,—perhaps
Its water and colour may give me the water (the lustre) and the hue (of youth).


The wine was bitter, not sweet; but, inasmuch as it was drunk by way of mirth, it is called sweet.


In some copies bá dúr-básh occurs. The first line will then be:—

In that tent, possessed of the hinderer (the perplexing thought of the design of the battle of the next day).