The next day, when this vault of azure hue
Brought forth the gleaming ruby (the sun) from the stone (the mountain Káf or the darkness of night),

An Alání, a horseman, like the roaring lion,
Came forth,—a black dragon (a black steed) beneath him.

In his hand a mace fit for seventy men,
That would shatter the brain within the head of the mountain Alburz.

He kept seeking the warrior-foe; circled alone;
(And) brought forth the dust of destruction from the warriors of the world:


Caucasus. The appellation is neither Sanscrit nor Grecian; it must be Persian. The real name should be Kasus or Kas.

In Persian, Koh signifies—a mountain; in Sanscrit, Koh Kas would become Kasgar,—not to be confounded with Kashgar, east of Samar-ḳand. The true Sanscrit name is Khasagiri, the mountain of the K'hasas, an ancient tribe who inhabited this range from the east of India to the confines of Persia, and probably as far as the Euxine and the Mediter­ranean Sea.

The name of K'hasagiri is confined to a few spots. In Sanscrit the range is called—Himáchal (the snowy mountain), hence Himálaya (the abode of snow). The Greeks derived Imaus from Hima; and called the western part of the range Taurus, the etymology of which is obscure.

The Barahmans (Barhamans, Brahmans) say that Tokháristán is corrupted from Tushára-sthán (in the Puránas); and Túrán from Tushárán. Hence, Taurus may be derived from Tushára, snow.— “Asiatic Researches,” vol. vi. p. 445.


In some copies the first line is:—

In his hand a mace of seventy “mans.”


Of the army of Rúm, and of Írán, and of Khurásán,
Many—he overthrew in that contest.

Verily the Russian-overthrower, the bold (auspicious) horseman,
Came forth from the ranks (of Sikandar's army) like the male lion:

Fixed a bow-string of raw hide to the bow;
Brought to the aim an arrow perfect in every respect.

By the power of his hand, bow-seizing,
The Alání fell by a single arrow of his.

Like the weaver's shuttle of Hind (filled) with colour,
His interior stuffed with the poplar arrow.


Again a Russian of cat-eye,—
Rage gathered like lions in his eye-brow,

Weapon-essaying (in his house) learned,
Much the armour patch-stitched,—


Khávarí” signifies—Khurásání, since Khurásán is to the east of Persia.


See canto lxi. couplet 25.


“Tír-i-tám” signifies—tír-i-tamám, a perfect arrow.

The second line may be:—

(a) Brought to the aim an arrow, large of point.

(b) Brought to the aim a small arrow. (In the language of ús).

(c) Brought to the aim an arrow inscribed with his name.

In this case read nám for tám.


“Máshura” (minsaj) is a reed on which weavers wind coloured threads; it is used by the jugglers of India.


The second line may mean:—

(a) With his blows in battle he had rent much armour, which rents his adversaries had patched.

(b) Much stitched armour he had rent.

For sword-exercise they used to put a suit of armour on a figure of moist earth, and to strike at it. When the armour was rent, they patched it again and again, and renewed the practice of cutting at it. Thus had this Russian exercised himself.

Came, with sword-play like lightning,
From head to foot immersed in steel,

The accepter of the tumult of battle,—
On the bay steed a suit of housing cast.

Although he had a heart like the hard stone
He was unproved in the dangers of war:


Had (only) in solitude (in his house) practised this trade (of sword-play),
Had not trembled at the enemy's sword (in battle).

When that lion-heart (the auspicious horseman) cast forth his breath (in the warning note of battle),
He saw a weak prey (and) recognized him:

Considered the war-weapons on him more than (necessary for) battle;
His housings and raiment better than the horse and the man:

With a sword-blow, he plucked out his life from his body;
Drew (passed) the flash (of the sword) within the veil of the housings.

For battle, prepared another warrior;
From him, he loosed his life with another arrow.


“Dam bar andákhtan” signifies—mánda kardan va dam girifta sákhtan.

Lion-hearted ones give notice of attack before attacking.


The weight of unnecessary weapons is a loss to the warrior.


If ba chil be read for ba jul, the second line will be:—

(a) Notwithstanding the forty (the numerous) coverings, he drew him within the veil (of the shroud).

(b) Notwithstanding the (garment) “chihil-táh” (worn beneath his armour), he drew him within the veil (of the shroud).

If ajal burḳa'ash rú,e andar kashíd” be read in the second line, it will be:—

(c) Death drew the veil (of the shroud) on his face.


With every arrow which sped from his arm,
A warrior came to his side (fell).

That excellent horseman, with ten wooden arrows,
Cleared the battle-field of ten warriors.

Again, secretly, from the spectators,
He came to the place of the sitters (Sikandar's women­folk).

Thus some days that warlike horseman
Fought openly in disguise.

Again, to none (of the Russians) was power,
That he might impel forth his steed against him.


They (the Russians) reached such a state that, from fear of (his) sword,
Dispersion came upon them, as the (dispersion of the) cloud (from the sword of the sun).

They exercised a little patience (delay) for reputation sake;
Aroused an idea for artifice.


“Shast” signifies—the fixing the notch of the arrow (súfár) on the bow-string.


“Dígar yáragí” is not one compound word meaning dígar bár.