Again the nightingale (Nizámí) has entered the garden (of sweet speech);
The Parí (Nizámí) has come before the luminous lamp (of sweet speech).

My (poetic) fancy makes the Parí-form (presents the beauteous form);
Makes me (from melting thought) like the Parí-form (the unexampled form).


Enchantment-utterers ('azá,im khwánán) at the time of summoning jinn or Parí, kindle at night a lamp, and then utter their enchant­ments.

The garden may signify—Niámí's heart.


My poetic fancy presents the Parí-form (in appearing and dis­appearing);

Makes me like the Parí-form (unexampled in ever-changing subtleties of verse).

From this mine (the dusty body), dark, of Ahriman nature,—
Behold the jewel (lustrous words) which with this lumi­nosity I bring.

A thousand praises be on the wise ones (the skilful poets),
Who bring the luminous gold (lustrous speech) from the dark mine (the dusty body)!


The representer of the detail of this history
Represented to the lord of the marches in this fashion,

Saying:—When the world-king, the sage of Rúm (Balínás)
Ordered that he should make wax (an image out) of the (black) stone,

By its own beauteousness, that desired image
Became adorned like a turquoise picture.

The delineator (Balínás) made it of such beauty
That he fastened the silk (of shame and envy) upon the painting (of beauty) of the Turkáns (the lovely women of Khifchák).

When the form-displayer (Balínás) set up the form (of the tilism),
From before the form the king made void the place (departed):


Scattered treasure wherever he went;
Endured toil in the hope of (gaining) case (for the world):


The dark mine may signify—an inkstand.


The second line hints at—his making the stone heart of the people of Khifcháḳ soft like wax.


The first line may be:—

That image with its own beauteousness desired (by Sikandar).

Went some stages in each week;
Remained some night-watches (of seven hours) at every stage.

When the stage (Sikandar's camp) came near to the enemy,
The lions (Sikandar's warriors) made sharp their claws for rage.

A spacious place it was,—near to water;
There, at the time of sleep he alighted.

In that place abounding with birds, all—from the king to the men of the army—
Rested from the toil of the road.


He arrayed a camp like the stars;
In it, a court up-raised to the sphere.

Made the world peacock-like with (variegated) standards;
Placed the door of the royal pavilion towards Russia.

To the Russian (Kintál), the news went that:—“The holder of Rúm
“Has brought the army to this land and clime.

“An army (the greatness of) which makes lame the foot of reflection;
“When it strikes the mountain it makes the mountain sweat:

“Warriors, swordsmen, countless,
“For man-biting (slaying), like the wriggling (raging) snake:


“Noose-casters, who, like the savage lion,
“Bring down the heads of elephants:


The spy speaks from couplet 17 to 25.


“Kih” is contracted for koh, a mountain.

“Slaves of Chín, who in contest (such is their skill)
“Cause a hundred wooden arrows to leap from (the split of) a (split) hair.

“Sikandar? No; this is a savage dragon;
“This is for the world a calamity of the tyrant!

“Moving with him not an army (but) a mountain;
“Beneath which earth has become powerless:

“Of elephants,—two hundred elephants, steel-clad,
“That bring earth's blood into tumult.


“(His camp),—a plain full of elephants and those of elephant-body (warriors),
“All army-harassing and army-shattering.”

When Kintál the Russian, who was chief,
Became informed that the sphere was intent upon this work,

He raised an army from the seven Russias,
In the manner of the bride arrayed with the seven (decorations):

From Purtás, and Álán, and Khwárazm,—the multitude
Raised a torrent like the river and the mountain:

From the Ísú land (of Russia) up to the Khifchák desert,
(And) traversed the land with sword and armour:


All the army immersed (clad) in iron,
The helmet of iron placed on the head:


The seven decorations are—hiná,a, henna; samah, a herb; gulgúna, cosmetic; safeda, white lead; áb, water; zarak, gold leaf; gháliya, a perfume of musk, ambergris, camphor, and oil of ban nuts; surma, collyrium.


The second line may be:—

Raised a torrent like the mountain-stream (whose water is all stone and wave mountain-high).

All, shield within shield, face-turned (to one another);
Not a place open (among them) for a single hair:

All bold like the roaring lion,—the warriors,
From each one a great elephant turned (in flight):

Every moment shouting and cry-uttering,
From the noise of which (courage-exciting) the old man becomes young:

An army,—not to such an extent that the army-under­stander (the military man)
Might cause computation to arrive at its limit.


When the general reckoned what was before him,
Its number was more than nine hundred thousand.

At the end of the far road they alighted,
A space of two farsangs distant from the king's (Sikan-dar's) army.

To the army Kintál of Russia thus spoke,
Saying:—“To man - overthrowers, what fear of the maiden?

“The army like this, luxurious, toil-unseen,
“All end to end, káraváns of treasure,—

“How may they hold the foot (be firm) against the Russians?
“Delicate ones like these and warriors in name, not in nature:


“The surcingle all bejewelled; the bridle golden;
“The tray crystal, but the cup amber (jewel):

“All their occupation—drinking and fire-worshipping;
“Not wandering a single night (in the battle-field) fighting:


“Zír” may signify—low; great; the cry of flight.

“At night-time (engaged) in exciting sweet perfume;
“In the morning-time, in mixing wine:

“To devour the liver (to reduce its size by enduring hardship) is the work of Russians;
“Wine and sweetmeats is the work of maidens.

“From the Rúmí and the Chíní contest comes not;
“Wine and sweetmeat is the work of maidens.


“God gave to us such wealth (Sikandar's army),—
“How can one close the path to that, God-given?

“If in sleep I had beheld this plunder,
“My mouth would by this lusciousness have become full of water.

“In this multitude there is none without the gold crown;
“Nor in the river find we so many jewels:

“If we bring to hand this wealth,
“We may bring defeat upon the climes of the world.

“We will seize the world and exercise sovereignty;
“Will every year exercise lordship of the cup.”


After that, he (Kintál) urged his horse of mountain-stature,
Some individuals accompanying him.

He pointed out with the finger, saying:—“Behold, from afar
“Are the delicate ones and húrís, world within world (numerous):

“The door and the court full of jewels and treasures;
“The ruby and the pearl instead of the spear and the mail-armour:


Rich persons burn aloes at night-time and raise smoke so that noxious exhalations may not reach them.

“The saddles golden—all with ruby-work;
“Horse-cloths bejewelled:

“The begemmed cap uplifted;
“The garment (like that of women) continued down to the palm (the sole) of the foot:


“The carpet all of brocade and the silk of Sha'r;
“Neither the spear in the hand, nor the arrow in the quiver:

“All musky of mole (bepatched) and anklet-wearing,
“The tip of the tress twisted above the ear:

“Head to foot, in royal jewels;
“Neither the foot the runner, nor the hand endowed with power:

“With those languid feet of strained power,
“What army can Sikandar defeat?

“If on them fall the head (the point) of a needle,
“(Wide) like a window they open the mouth (in lamen­tation).


“They wage war by date and the kalendar (of happy omen);
“Delay a month in calculation:

“Not of this sort, are those soldiers that, on the day of battle,
“Bring forth the dust (of destruction) from a broken clod:

“When we all at once make an attack upon the place,
“They will not keep the foot (firm) against a single assault of ours.”


The first line may be:—

The carpet all of brocade and the garment (sha'r) of silk.


The foot of a needle is its eye.

When the Russians, hardship-enduring and hard of brain,
Heard a highly artful speech of that kind,

They placed their heads (in submission) saying:—“As long as we live,
“We are head-lowered (in submission) to this treaty and covenant,—


“We will endeavour to strive like the crocodile;
“Will leave neither the perfume nor the colour of this flower-garden (Sikandar's army, rich and powerful):

“Will make an assault against the enemy of power (thy enemy);
“Will make the hard stone blood with the spear-point:

“When we draw the hand from the rein towards the dagger,
“We will draw the enemy's (Sikandar's) head within the snare (of the noose):

“Will not leave an enemy of the king (Sikandar's army);
“Will not leave that crown and throne (of Sikandar):

“When we cut off the heads, and the reckoning (on account of the number) comes not,
“We will not fear again such conflict:


“Will snatch them like straw (does) the amber;
“Will grind them all beneath the foot:

“Of these brain-strained ones of battle;
“Of the manly men,—we will not leave one.”


In couplets 68, 71,—dáshtan signifies—guzáshtan.


Brain-strained ones are those of unharassed brain; and consequently of red and white complexioned limbs. For the redness and whiteness of man's limbs depend on the freshness of his brain.

When the Russian beheld his army ardent of heart,
He considered the (hard) mountain softer (less) than his own power:

Came to the camp with the design of battle;
Took blight (hesitation) from his heart, and rust from his sword.

On this side, the king, the army-shatterer (Sikandar),
Sate in deliberation in the assembly.


All around the king,—the chiefs of the army,
Like the stars around the moon, sate—

Kadr-khán of Chín; Gor-khán of Khutan;
'Ra,is of Madá,in; Valíd of Yaman;

Zarívand (chief) of Gílán, (born) of (the country) Mázan-darán;
Nayál, the hero of the land of Khávarán:

Daválí of Abkház, and Hindí of Ray;
Kubád the Valí of Usturakh, of the kindred of Kay:

Suhayl of Khurásán, and Kúm of 'Irák,
Barísal of Arman,—in this league (of waging war):


From Greece, and Europe, and Egypt, and Syria,— (numbers),
Not to such a degree that the total may come from speaking.

The world-possessor made them free from care (fear);
Gave them hopes (courage) by his heart-ardency.

Thus he spake, saying:—“This army (of Russia), war-seeking,
“Sweated (practised) not in the contest of lions.


“Gílí” may mean—belonging to a tribe of Turkáns wearing the gilím (blanket) called gíl.

“(Only) in thieving, and treachery, and highway robbery,
“Display they manliness and man-overpoweringness:

“They have not experienced double-handed anyone's sword,
“The battle-axe and the spear—all in front and rear:


“Have fit,—neither weapons nor clothing;
“From those weaponless warfare comes not well:

“In the battle-ranks,—a few naked (unarmed) men,
“Why is it necessary to hew down from head to navel?

“When I seize my sword and move from my place,
“I fasten down the hand and the foot of (the mountain) Alburz:

“I am that world-seizer,—that Dárá, the hero,
“From me sought to take the place (Rúm); but took not even his own life (in safety).

“By the art that I exercised against Kaid,—
“How did I cast him down (in submission) at my foot.


“When I did battle with the army of Fúr (Porus),
“Fúr, through manliness, devoured camphor (became cold and died).

“When my brow fixed the knot (of the bow-string) on its eye-brow (two horns),
“The king of Chín laid down his bow-string (and submitted).

“Not mine is fear of war with the Russians;
“For the great torrent pours down water from the mountain.

“From the mountain of Khizr (Khizrán in Turkistán) to the river (Jand) of Chín
“I behold the land—all Turk on Turk.


As the mountain causes the torrent to fall, so will I cause the Russians.

“Although the Turkáns were not allied (in friendship) with the men of Rúm,
“With the men of Russia their rage even greater than with the men of Rúm:


“By the sharp darts of the Turkáns of this halting-place (Sikandar's camp)
“One can scatter the blisters (of flight) on the feet of the Russians.

“Often, the poison which brings distress to the body,—
“By another poison it is proper to obstruct.

“I have heard that from the wolf, the fox-seizer,
“The old fox escaped through the noise of dogs:—

“Two young wolves sowed the seed of malice;
“They took up the pursuit of the old fox.

“A village there was; in it large dogs,—
“All thirsty for the blood of the fox and the wolf.


“The fox, remedy-deviser, expressed a cry
“Which opened the fastening from the mouth of the dogs.

“The village-dogs took up the cry;
“For they thought the fox a wolf.

“From the noise of the dogs, which came from afar,
“The wolves were terrified and the fox escaped.

“The meditator, work-knowing, at the time of action,
“Becomes free from the enemy (the Russians) by the enemy (the Turks).

“Although—with these arms and weapons,—mine
“Is no need of anyone's aid,


“Not closed is the door of remedy to the remedy-deviser;
“Every matter is not connected with the sword.”

The chiefs of the army drew forward their heads (in obeisance),
Saying:—“We pour our blood at thy feet.

“Before this, we were not sluggish of endeavour;
“Than that (former time), we will now display tumult more furious.

“Both for the sake of manliness, also for the sake of wealth,
“We will contend with the malicious enemy.”

When the Khusrau gave much heart (encouragement) to the army,
—For it is improper that anyone should be heartless,—


He was in thought until evening-time,
Saying:—“To-morrow the sword (of war) and the cup (of peace)—which befits?”

When the luminous day was hidden by the dark night,
The night-patrol went forth and the day-watchman (the spy) slept:

The countless guards of the camp
Sate (watched) on the guard-roads (beats):

They left not the dark night guardless;
They kept guard from night till morning.

Come, cup-bearer! that quicksilver reduced to ashes (the wine of senselessness, ruddy and joyous),
Produced by cinnabar-working (mixing),


In some copies the second line is:—

(a) We will strive as long as there be the grain (of life) in the sack (of the body).

(b) We will strive as long as there be the grain (of plunder) in the sack (of the enemy).


They drink mereury táfta (made ashey, slain), and by so doing increase the appetite for food and the ruddiness of the body.

The whole of the second line means—ground down, rubbed.


Give me, that I may take it into the palace-court (of my retirement, or of my heart, the place of Divine inspiration);
May bring it to use (drink it) like ground cinnabar.