THE special messenger of the Omnipotent;
The arriver of the “strong-proof” (to the people of the world):

The most precious crown of noble ones (those accepted of God);
More precious than man-born ones:

—Muhammad! (from) eternity without beginning to eternity without end, whatever is
Was designed for the embellishment of his name:

A lamp,—in which is the light of (man's) vision;
In which, is the splendour of all creation!


The Surety-holder of the world,—white to black;
The Intercessor, on the day of fear and hope (the judg­ment day):


See the translation of the Ḳurán by Sale; and the “Life of Muham-mad,” by Sir William Muir.

“Hujjat-i-ustuwar” signifies—the glorious Ḳurán, the strong argu­ment as to the truth of Islám, the miracle of the revelation of which will last till the judgment day.

The special messenger is mentioned in couplet 3.


“Parwár” here signifies—roshaní; partav-i-núr. In dictionaries this line is quoted as a proof of its being used in this sense.


“Siyáh ta safaid” may signify—Bad and good; night and day; all things, as—siyáh tá sapídí raftam ba tegh.

“Zamán dar” signifies—kafíl; matakaffil.

A tree! (nay) the straight cypress in the garden of Reli­gion;
Earthly, in root; heavenly, in branch:

The place of pilgrimage of those possessing pure-origin Angels and Prophets);
The Lord of Beneficence to the produce-devourers of the dust (men):

A lamp, whose light, so long as it was not kindled,
—Light was far from the eye of the world:

The blackness-giver to (the adorner of) the mole of those of the house of 'Abbás (the Faithful);
The whiteness-remover (by the antimony of Islám) from the eye of Sun-worshippers (the infidels):


The lip, more welling with the water of Immortality than the breath of 'Isa;
The body, more black-clad than the Water-of-Life:


Of Muhammad, the purified body was of dust; the pure soul, of the sky, or of the sublime Universe.

The second line may be—

An earth in root (origin); a heaven, in branch.


Touching a mole with black colour is supposed to increase its beauty.

“Sapídí” signifies—a disease (whiteness) of the eye, which causes blindness.

'Abbás was the son of Muhammad's uncle, and the ancestor of the black-clad 'Abbás-i-khalá,if, who reigned A.D. 749-1258, when the khiláfat came to an end.

Since “khál” signifies cloth of Yaman, the first line may be—

The blackness-giver to the Yaman-raiment of the house of 'Abbas.


“Bád” here signifies—the breath of Jesus, whose intrinsic quality (the Muslims say) was the raising of the dead to life and the curing of disease.

Muhammad is said to be black-clad, by reason of veil and screen.

The Water of Immortality is situated in a dark land called “the Darkness.” See Canto lxix.

The sky his victual-tent pitcher on the earth,
The earth (in boasting) his five prayer utterer to the sky:

The (house-) column from (being) his support became wise,
The moon, by his finger, became finger-shattered:

The Rulers of Rúm and Ray, his tribute-bringers:
Kisra (Khusrau) and Kay sent tribute to him:


“Panj naubat” may signify five things used in the time of joy—

duhul, the drumná,e, the fife
damámat, the small brass drumás, the drum
ambak. the trumpet

Or it may mean—“namáz-i-panj gána,” the five daily prayers of a Muslim, the uttering of which reverberates from sky to sky.

At the door of the Monarch Sanjar, they used to beat five drums; before his time, four only.

“Chár-ák” is a blue coloured tent (in Hindústán called “ráwtí”) with two upright poles and one ridge pole, used as a kitchen.

Khíma afgandan” signifies—

Khíma farúd áwardan, to lower (strike) a tent.

Khíma bar pá kardan, to set up (pitch) a tent.


In his own masjid, at Madína, Muhammad used to lean against a column and give directions to his “companions.” When, a pulpit being built, he left the column, it began (through pain of separation) to lament. Muhammad, taking it in his arms, consoled and hushed it into silence. This story is related in detail in the book of Prophecy, as one of his miracles, because the lamenting of a stone proves that it became (by Muhammad's blessing) possessed of sense. The spot is now marked by a stone column called “El Mukhallaḳ.” The pulpit was made by one Banu, two cubits long, one cubit broad, with three steps, each one span in height. Muhammad used to sit at the top. See “Burton's Pilgrimage to Makka,” pages 229 and 247.

“Angusht kash” signifies—
shák shud, shatteredangusht kashída, finger-drawn
nábúd sákhtá, made non-existent

It is said that, at Makka, Muhammad struck the moon in two halves.

—See Clarke's translation of the “Bustán of Sa'dí,” page 10.


Ray (built by Alexander the Great) is the capital of Persian 'Iráḳ.

“Rúm” is an indefinite name for the region west of the Euphrates as far as the shores of the Euxine and the Mediterranean.

“Kay,” signifying king of kings, was given to four monarchs—

Kay Kubád (Dijoces); Kay Khusrau (Cyrus); Kay-Ká,us (Cyaxares); Kay Luhrasp (Cambyses, or Smerdis the Mage).

An Ocean! what shall I say?—Like the Cloud, the rainer,
In one hand the jewel (of the Kurán); in the other, the sword (of slaughter of infidels).


With the jewel (of the Kurán), the world adorned;
With the sword (of slaughter), justice for the religion (of Islám) sought from the world.

If the Watchman (the King) draw his sword against (anyone's) head,
The point of his sword takes crown and diadem.

When he (Muhammad) presses his foot (is resolute) to take the enemy's head,
He transports to the (person's) head a sword that he drew not against his head.

A coat (made) of two worlds (this, the lining; and the next, the covering) they stitched together;
And from those two (worlds) gathered decoration.

When that resplendent coat became his place (Muhammad's covering),
It was less than his stature by a span.


On his stature, which God has adorned,
Verily He has desired the Divine adornment.


Couplets 16 and 17 form a “kit'a-band.

If the watchman of the kingdom had drawn his sword against anyone's head, he would have cut through crown and diadem. But Muhammad, by purpose alone, without drawing his sword, eut off, from afar, his enemy's head.


“Afrokhtan” is a mistake of the scribe's for “andokhtan.”


“Mulamma'” may signify—two-coloured. The colour of this world is ugly; that of the next, lovely.

“Daste” signifies—shabr; wajab.

The first line may be—

When that resplendent garment became his little coat.


Muhammad's stature was worthy of decoration appertaining to God, rather than of that appertaining to two worlds.

In the beginning of the work (of Creation), he was the key of liberality (of God);
By him, the locks of many citadels (of infidelity) opened.

By him, plenteousness at the scanty feast;
The evidence of the stone as to his miracle.

The Sultán empty of hand (austere), wool-wearing (world adornment—abandoning).
Submission buying, and Royalty selling:

On the night of swift flight,—by his decorated garment,
Embellishment to the skies:


The word “feast” may refer to the feast of Islám. In past times, through the influence of the infidels, few were in the religion of the prophets of Islám. At the time of the embassy of the prophet, the feast of Islám acquired greatness by his auspiciousness.

Or it may refer to this—

One day a person invited Muhammad to a feast at which the victuals ran short. By the blessing of the prophet, the scanty food became abun­dant to such a degree that all ate to satiety and yet there remained. It is said that one kid (halwán) sufficed for nearly three thousand persons.

The story of the stone is this—

Abú Jahl (on him be curses!), secreting some pebbles in his hand, came before the messenger of God and said:—“If thou knowest what is in my hand, I will become of thy religion, and never again practise infidelity.”

The prophet said:—“If what is in thy hand gives evidence to my prophecying, what wilt thou?”

He replied:—“This will be more wonderful than that.”

The prophet said:—“In thy hand are some pebbles.”

The pebbles shouted saying:—“Muhammad is the true prophet and only messenger!” or they recited the Kalima,e shahádat.

The accursed Abú Jahl, hearing this evidence of the pebbles said:— “Thou art a powerful magician who hast caused stones to speak.”


Muhammad put away the title of king, and took up that of slave to God.

“Pashmína-posh” may signify—the woollen garment, which was the raiment of Ádam, the father of mankind, and of the prophets.


“Shab-i-turk-táz” signifies—the night on which Muhammad ascended to Heaven. See Canto 21, couplet 70.

The Turkomans used to assault on a dark night.

“Mu'arraj” signifies—a decorated garment (not in the dictionary); “Mu'arrij” signifies—a ladder-ascender; “Mu'arrajgar” signifies—a decorator; “Mu'arrajgarán-i-falak” signifies—aflák-i-haftgána.


The (great) Night (earth's shadow) only a shadow of the canopy (of honour) of his ascent;
And the (lofty) sky, only a step of that (his) ladder (in search of propinquity to God).

“Jiráz” signifies—a golden shaft, on which they hang a banner.

The sky itself is both a garment decorated with stars, and also a decorator of its own decoration, by Muhammad's ascent.

On the night of excursion and swift flight (to Heaven) of that Prophet who reached near to God and gave decoration to the heavenly beings, his decorated garment became (by his great exaltation) a golden shafted banner for the Heavens.

“Mu'arrajgarán” may signify—the angels, the stars, the attendants about the throne of God—all of whom are “ascenders.”

The couplet will then be—

On the night of swift flight—by his ascent (to Heaven),

Embellishment to the ladder-workers (angels, stars, attendants) of the sky;

but this rendering is not so appropriate.