To the world-traveller, travelling in the world,
Pleasant it became to make journey on journey:

To behold the administration in every territory;
To enjoy repose at every stage:

To possess news of hidden things;
To take up a share of (viewing) unseen things;

But when thou beholdest the end of work,
A man is monarch (of happy state) in his own city.


To be helpless in his own city with the mean,
Is better than monarchy in the city of others.

Although there be prosperity in the city of others,
The heart is not void of love of home.

Sikandar, notwithstanding that success which was (his),
Displayed all affection for his own city.

Because in the rose-bed is the colour and perfume of the rose;
Because transplanting from the rose-bed is (the cause of) the yellow face (of grief).

Although he possessed country beyond limit,
He preserved the thought of his own house (of Rúm).


One night, he expressed an opinion on that matter, saying:—To-morrow, from the place,
Like the wind, he would bring his foot to the wind-fleet steed;

Would make the desire (of seeing) his native country (Rúm) easy to his heart;
Would (on the return path),—enjoy the air of Khurásán:

Would bring the land of Persia beneath his foot;
Would use his judgment towards the country of Usturakh:

Would illumine the world ('Ajam and Írán) by his own conduct (of justice);
Would bring loftiness to his own throne:

Would pass by that land (Usturakh) of sweet praise;
Would glance at the bad and good of that kingdom:


Would show that they (the nobles of Usturakh) should make anew the regulations (the ceremonial of reception and the decoration of the city);
Should make resolution as to the ground-kiss of the Khusrau.

He would renew to each the bread-fragment (the subsist­ence-allowance, or the lofty rank),
As to that fragment would show much favour:

Would give to those petitioning (the chiefs of Usturakh) a present road-brought;
Would give to the world (Irán) life anew.


The first line may be:—

Would, the water of life creating (bounty-bestowing), pass by that land (U șurakh).


If bára be read for pára in the second line, the couplet will be:—

He would renew to every one (of the ground-kissers) the bread-fragment (lofty dignity);

As to that dignity (the town of Usurakh) would show much favour.

His thought within this screen (of imaginings) travelled,
—(Just) kings have no occupation save this (equity, liberality, and bounty to the people),—

Daválí, who was chief of Abkház,
Was, by the king's power, neck-exalter.


Girt with the leather strap, at the king's order
He travelled much around the world.

He came to the king of good reflection;
(And) complained like the drum of the leather strap,

Saying:—“O king! a complaint (I have) against the tyranny of the Russians,
“Who take the bride from the cradle (the land) of Abkház:

“The person (the messenger) came saying:—From that adorned country (Abkház),
“Of all property (even) a tooth-pick remains not:

“The Russian oppressor from Álán and Gark
“Uses sudden assaults like hail:


“He found no way by the mountain-passes of that quarter (Abkház);
“Hastened by large boats by way of the sea;


The bride signifies—the wife (other than Núshába) of Daválí.


Álán may be—a country among the mountains of Fataḳ (Fatiḳ), containing a large town, which the kings of Abkház call Kundáj; a country in Turkistán; or a place in a land called Haft-Rús (the seven Russias).

Gark (Kark) may be—a city founded by the king Gurgín; a town near Jerusalem; a place in Haft-Rús.


“Ḳirvát” signifies—jung, a large boat; or one of seven towns on the river of Abkház.

“Darband” may mean—the town of that name near Shirván; a ferry (bandar) across a river; a barrier across the mountain-passes.

The couplet may mean:—He found no way by the ferry by which travellers to Abkház cross; for my army was there stationed. He therefore assaulted from some other port.

“Made not a sally within limit;
“Renewed the ancient feud in that abode (Abkház):

“Took in rapine that land and soil (Abkház).
“—May the road be closed to that inauspicious foot (of the Russian)!—

“Besides those slain, whom one cannot reckon,
“Ravaged much and took much.

“In Abkház, a morsel of food stored remained not:
“Verily, in the treasury, a thing wrapped up (gold or silver) remained not.


“He emptied the goods from our treasuries;
“Snatched the pearl from the jewel-casket and the brocade from the throne.

“They overthrew the whole country of Burda';
“Emptied a city full of wealth:

“Took away Núshába in rapine;
“Shattered the flagon (her ease and pleasure) on the stone:

“Of the many brides (virgins) whom thou sawest standing (before Núshába),
“Left not one lovely one in the place:


In consequence of constant warfare with Russia, the people of Abkház had placed a barrier on the mountain passes.

See canto xiii. couplet 47.


In the east it is the custom to wrap up gold and silver in pieces of cloth.

The second line may be:—

Verily, in the treasury remained not anything acceptable. an old, empty, folded purse.


The second line may be:—

Broke the flagon of her purity on the stone.


“Mándan” here signifies—guzáshtan.

“Overturned all the city and the territory (of Burda');
“Applied fire to the village and the round dwelling (tent)


“If I had been in that contest (with the Russians),
“I should (by being slain) have rested from this foolish wandering (from an overturned country).

“Here,—in service I became lofty of head;
“There,—wife and children (are) in prison and bonds.

“If the king should exact justice from the enemy,—
“May God be (my) assistance-giver and justice-desirer!

“Thou wilt see that in these few years the Russians
“Will cause injury to reach Rúm and Arman.

“Since they have thus found a way to the treasure,
“They will attack as they have attacked:


“They are all highwaymen like the wolf and the lion;
“Are not impetuous for (spreading) the table (of hos­pitality), but impetuous for blood (the slaughter of man):

“Take territory; subdue cities;
“For they are the vain ones of the people and the mean ones of Time.

“None seeks manliness from the Russian,
“To whom humanity is not, save the form (void of honour).

“If the jewel-load be on an ass,
“Why lookest thou at the jewel? Verily, he is the ass.

“Since those opponents (the Russians) have found a way to the treasure,
“They may cause injury to reach many lands.


Couplets 38 and 46 are prophetic.

Failing revenge on the king's part, they will ravage his lands.


“Ba khwán ná dilír” is the proper reading.


See canto lii. couplet 50.


“May bring forth the arm for injustice-exercising;
“May take property from the merchants.

“Since they bring injury upon that land and clime (Abkház and Burdá'),
“They may display greed of Khurásán and of Rúm.”

The monarch raged at his (Daválí's) speech;
At the tyranny against his house and his spouse (Núshába).

He was vexed also for Núshába;
For dear to the king was that country.

The head, dark and angry, lowered,—
He became terrible in that darkness (of fury).


To the redress-desirer (Daválí), he said:—“Thine is the order;
“In my heart is whatever grief is in thy soul.

“If thou cease from this talking,—well;
“Thou spakest; and the rest thou shalt see from me.

“When I bring my head to the road (of attack) thou wilt see,—
“What heads I will bring to the pit (of degradation) with the loop (of the noose):

“What hearts of men (Russians) I will pluck from sense;
“What blood of lions (Russians) I will bring into agitation:

“I will bring the dogs (the Russians) to lamentation;
“For wild ass-overthrowing is sport to the lion:


“Bál” signifies—in man, from the shoulder to the finger-tip; in beasts, to the hoof or foot; and in birds, to the tip of the feather.


“I will leave in the place the men neither of Purtás nor of Russia;
“The head of both, I will cast beneath my foot:

“If it be the Russia of Egypt, I will make it the Nile (flooded with black elephants);
“Will make it confounded beneath the elephant's foot:

“Will cast out their throne from Russia;
“Will place every stone (the hard-hearted Russian) in the fire.

“Neither will I leave a dragon in cave or in mountain;
“Nor will I leave a grass-blade for the purpose of medicine.

“If I demand not this revenge from the wolves of Russia,
“I am the dog (father unknown) of dogs (the Russians), —not Sikandar (the son) of Faylikús!


“If I hunt not the wolf of Purtás,
“I am more the fox (the mean one) than the fox of Purtás and the fox of Russia.

“If from the revolution of the sphere be safety,
“We will demand our own revenge from the enemy:

“Will bring back everything taken away in rapine;
“Will bring the seizer (the enemy) beneath the foot:


“Mándan” here signifies—guzáshtan.


In the opinion of Orientals, Egypt is a most agreeable country. The Russia of Egypt then means—If it be the most joyous country of the world.


There are many readings of the first line.


In mountain-caves grows a grass that bears a grain-like pulse of yellowish colour and of fatty kernel; also a tree. The grain of the grass and the bark of the tree are each useful in medicine.


The first line may be:—

If I hunt (ravage) not Gurg and Purás.

“Will not leave Núshába within bonds;
“Will bring forth the sugar (Núshába) from the reed (the robbers) when the time comes.

“If that silver (plunder) became place-occupier in the stone (of the mountain-mine),
“We would bring it forth (easily) like the hair (unbroken) from the dough.


“By thought, the difficult affair becomes solved;
“In season, the spring-flower blossoms on the tree:

“In hardship, take not thy heart from remedy (despair not);
“For the old sphere changes time to time (it brings sometimes ease, sometimes pain).

“When I took up road-provisions on this path (to Russia);
“I will exercise patience so that my object may be accom­plished.

“From the ponderous mountain to the deep sea,
“By deliberation the work (of journeying) becomes prosperous.

“Mine was the intention of going towards 'Ajam,
“That in that kingdom I might establish some places.


“Since the news of this matter reached me,
“Best, if my throne (Istakhr) be void of me.

“My chattels have inclined to the motion (of journeying);
“My saddle is my throne, and that only.


When the dough-makers of Chín make good the dough, they place a hair at the bottom of the dough and begin to knead. When, after a while, the hair comes from the bottom to the top,—it is a sign of good kneading.

“I sleep not; I rest not in any way,
“Until I take revenge from the malicious one.”

When Daválí witnessed that acceptance,
He rested from anger and perturbation;

Made the dust amber-stained (beperfumed) with his lip;
Made the earth gold-encrusted with his (yellow, grief-stricken) face.


Come, cup-bearer! take in the hand that cup of wine,
Of drinking which no help is ours.

Not (real) wine,—(but) the liver-piece (the son) of the sun (the consumer and the vivifier of the earth),
That is in essence both the fire (the consumer of this imaginary existence) and also the water (lustre-giving to those escaped from this imaginary existence).