O saucy one of Chíní (beauteous) decoration! display not sauciness;
Come; for a moment gather not the frown (of vexation) on thy eye-brow.


It is said—that Niámí had a lovely damsel, in whose hands was the work of receipt and expenditure of the house. One of Niámí's friends representing that this damsel expended with great prodigality,—the speech reached the ear of the damsel, who immediately gave up her duties, upset the affairs of the house, and then sate in a corner.

When Niámí heard of this, he called her and gave the counsel mentioned in the text.

The address may be to himself; for sometimes, through his over­powering love to God, Niámí used to suffer privation from maintaining the needy and the necessitous.

Make my heart joyful by the sight of thee;
Make me to-day free from the fetter of grief (at the disorder of the house).

If (even) the revenue of the Khákán of Chín be thine,
Expend it not; the day of rain (tranquillity) is thine.

Of my property, enjoy something; and give something (to my family and guests);
Lay aside something also for the sake of the people (the pilgrims visiting me).


Enjoy not all; I fear that thou mayst stand (live) long;
To the elderly head, evil is want.

Close not the door of expenditure on thyself in such a way
That, from not enjoying it, thou becomest sorrowful (by reason of privations).

Empty not also at once the treasury in such a way
That, through foolish consuming, thou comest to sorrow (of want).

Make thy (house-) expenditure to an extent
That the mean may be neither little nor great.

When thou makest the thread larger than the needle (-eye),
Many are the needle-eyes which thou expendest.


The representer of speech, the picture-painter (Nizámí),
Expressed such a picture on Chíní silk (silk paper),

Saying:—The world became full of the king's renown;
For he filled the skirt of Chín with pearls.


In some copies the second line is:—

Spend it (on the needy); for this is the splendour of thy market (for the next world).

Night and day in that matter (Sikandar's liberality), the Khákán
Sought all assistance from his own fortune,

That he might give the king rare recompense for foot-toil (in coming as his guest);
Might expend treasure in hospitality to him:

Might make for him a royal entertainment;
Might cast the world (of Chín) beneath the hoof of his steed:


Might draw before him royal first-fruits,
To the limit of degree of his own work.

Of the world he chose a day,
The illuminator like the monarch's fortune.

Like resplendent Paradise he prepared a feast,
At which (in envy) the teeth of lions let go milk.

With wine and fruits, pleasant-tasting, in such a way
He arrayed the monarch's feast


The second line means—the Khákán wished Sikandar to enter the capital of Chín.


“Dandán-i-shírán” signifies—the stars.

“Shír az dandán hishtan” signifies—letting go milk from the teeth; suffering envy.

“Shír hishtan” signifies—dropping milk; letting go existing bounty; emitting star-rays.

“Shír” (milk) may signify—light, because milk is white.

“Shírán” may signify—those who have not lowered the head to the world's delights.

The couplet may mean:—

(a) They prepared such a feast that even the constellations displayed envy.

(b) Through the splendour of the tables and the candles of camphor, the assembly was so illumined that the stars, in shame, became void of light.

(c) The Khákán prepared a feast such that the teeth of the contented man abandoned everlasting favour that he possessed, to acquire in imagination its delights.

That in the world was not a desire
Which was not each gathered on that table.


Besides victuals of Chíní character,
—Like to which the porter of Paradise beheld not in Paradise—

Many delicious confections of sugar,
With the almond and the pistachio-nut, kernel-stuffed.

Rare delicacies,—not of that kind that the world-worshipper (the rich powerful man)
Acquires one of them in a life-time.

Jewels—not to such a degree that the jewel-recognizer
May estimate a half of them in a year.

When the treasure-house was emptied (by reason of the cost of the feast)
—In that way hospitality prepared!—


The Turk king, with the great ones of the land,
Went to the monarch for the purpose of inviting him.

According to the former manner, the ground-kiss given,
He increased his own dignity by his ground-kiss.

Benediction-uttering, he said:—“If the king's throne (sitting-place)
“Make its way over this slave's throne

“It will make his head precious with the diadem,
“Will make him renowned with this honour.”

The king accepted his warm wish;
Preserved, by going, his (the Khákán's) honour.


“Many delicious confections” (couplet 21) may be the agent to Guzasht, “besides” (couplet 20). That is:—

Many delicious confections surpassed the victuals of Chinese character,


The king and the king's escort at once
Went from their steeds to that table.

Earth unloosed the fastening from the head of the treasure;
Running to and fro (in attendance) came to the lofty sphere.

When Sikandar reached the Khákán's table,
Khizr's (Sikandar's) foot reached the fountain of life (the tray of hospitality).

He beheld a throne of gold like the sun,
In it, a fountain of (many) pearls, (in purity) like a sea of water.

On that golden throne he sate with joyousness,
In his hand an orange (a ball) of camphor and ambergris.


Faghfúr, the world-seeker, at his right hand
Stood erect, loin-girt, in service.

The king, favour-displaying, called him in front;
He placed him, like the king, on a chair of gold.

By the king's order, the other crown-possessors
Sate on their knees (in reverence) in the front place (before the throne).

The Khákán ordered that they should bring food,
(That) the dust should become yellow with golden trays.


The first line may mean:—

(a) Sikandar scattered much treasure.

(b) The horsemen were so decorated with gold trappings that you might say:—“A treasure has sprung from the earth.

The second line may mean:—

(a) (The great joyous cry of) the coming and the going (of the people) ascended to the lofty sphere.

(b) The coming and the going (of the angels) went to the lofty sphere.

Like a king he scattered a great treasure,
Like the (broad, yellow) leaf of gold (of the vine) from the bough, leaf-shedding.


In that wish-place (the feast of victuals much desired), like the city of Farkhár (in decoration and in the delights of food),
On the part of the guests, the devourers, the wish (for delicious victuals) displayed no diminution nor choice (for all viands were ready without stint).

Whatever they desired, like the inhabitants of Paradise,
They arranged on that table, victual-spread.

When they had eaten of every kind of victuals,
Over the wine-cup they displayed their peculiarities.

Exhibited the joyousness of the crimson wine;
Cast also a carpet of crimson silk.

From every country, seated for music,
A master (of music) and a minstrel (of sweet voice)— wonderful;


Vocalists, melody-awakers,—wondrous,
Brought forth the word (of criticism) according to the rule of metrical measures:


Farkhár may signify—a city in Turkistán famous for its lovely women; or an idol-temple famed for its beauty and decoration.

“Mukís” signifies—mukás.

The second line may be:—

(a) The wish (of the guests) made no demand upon the attendants; (for all kinds of delicious victuals were present without stint).

(b) The shrewd guest expressed no desire (for better or for other food) to the attendants; (for all kinds of delicious victuals were present without stint).


In Paradise, whatever the inhabitants desire, they at once obtain.

In the second line, bar árástand is here equivalent to—they found arranged.


Sughd is near Samarḳand.


Brought forth criticism on the pipe-players.

The silk (-string) players of melody in the Sughd language
Brought forth the sound of music to the sphere:

The singers of the path (of melody) in the Pahlaví tongue
Gave, with much melody, freshness to song:

Verily, the foot-beaters (dancers), Kashmír-born,
Through (the violence of) dancing,—whirling like the demon-wind:

From the Greek-land, many organ-players,
Who ravished the sense from everyone's heart.


The army of Rúm and that of Chín together waist-girt (to view the spectacle),
The standard of Rúm and of Chín upreared.

The Khákán of Chín opened the treasure-door (by much giving to Sikandar's army);
He emptied the earth of Kárún's (Korah's) treasure.

First came to use (was given, the treasure) of jewels;
With war-helmets and steel-armour, jewel-adorned:

Of crystal gleaming like the sun,
A chief seat (a royal throne), in lustrousness like water:

With brocade of Chín in ass-loads,
With musk of Tatarí also in bales:


Platters of camphor with musk-fragrance;
Than the fresh camphor,—the dry aloes more (in quantity):


“Pá,e kob” (bází-gír). In the violence of the revolution of the dance the pá,e kob leaps up, claps his feet to the buttocks; and, by the power of hand and foot and flying skirt,—dances in the air.

“Mu'allaḳ-zan” is a bází-gír who whirls about, head low, feet high, like those pigeons called “tumblers.”


Khákán is properly the title of the king of Tibat (Thibet) only; Faghfúr that of China proper. In some copies Jaypál (instead of Khákán) occurs. It was the title of the king of Láhúr, of Chín, and of Hindústán—given by Mahmúd of Ghuzní.

Bows of Chách and silk of Chín;
Also some valuable swords:

Horses of noble breed, powerful in speed, of Khatlí (stately) gait;
All fresh of form; all swift of foot:

A káraván,—all white falcons and hawks;
For fowl and heron overthrowing, swift of attack:

Forty elephants, with litters and housings,
Tall, and strong of brain, and hard of bone:


Troop on troop,—slaves, army-shattering;
Lovely damsels, who would bring love into the dead.

When he (the Khákán) drew before the guest (Sikander) such a present;
Besides these he drew magnificent presents:

After a while he unfolded a fresh treasure;
Than it he prepared a more beautiful present,

A (grey) Khatlan steed, the proud-mover, the mane and the tail black,
Swifter than the wind in the morning-time:

A mover like the royal throne,
Its sitter (rider) unconscious of its motion:


In speed the deer surpassed;
In impetuosity like fire; in softness like water:

In the morning, more quickly rising than the birds;
In the river, more swift than the fishes.


Khing” signifies—a white horse.

“Sabz-khing” signifies—a white horse inclining to green(?).

“Surkh-khing” signifies—a white horse inclining to redness.

Couplets 63-72 describe the steed.

In swift moving, his form the demon-wind;
In turning, his title the demon-born:

In leaping, he was (he leaped) not less than the sky;
Even the breeze was not his rival:

In the battle-field he so went and came
That fancy remained behind him half-way:


In the time of his tumult (neighing), the steed overthrown;
In the time of his force (warring), the elephant over­thrown:

Like imagination, the supreme mover, in every direction (overthrowing horses and elephants);
Like thought, perfect in swift moving.

In impetuousness, I say not like a samander!
Like a samander? No; a Sikandar-bearer (chosen out of all the horses of the world).

A hunting-bird of distraught brain (impetuous in the attack of birds);
More distraught (restless) than the sleep of (men on) the night of calamity:


“Rukh (or faras) afgandan” signifies—to overthrow.

See canto xix. couplet 168.

The couplet may be:—

(a) In the time of tumult the rukh (the roc) overthrows the steed;

In the time of battle overthrows the elephant.

(b) In the time of tumult the castle (at chess) overthrows the knight;

In the time of battle the knight overthrows the bishop.


The first line may be:—

Like imagination, the supreme mover (with or without a road), in every direction (in rear, in front, above by plunging and bounding, below by kicking).

In couplet 64, Solomon's throne is hinted at. See Sale's Kurán, chap. xxvii.


The samandar moves quickly in the midst of fire.

The second line may be:—

A samander? No; a Sikandar-ravisher (inasmuch as out of thousands of horses it took Sikandar's heart).

Like (un-ending) Time in to and fro motion, swift of wing;
Going (after prey) like the (fierce) south wind; coming (back to the falconer) like the north:


In his grasp claws of steel;
Through his design (of attack) the black eagles, black-clad (in mourning),

Much blood (of birds) on his neck deposited,—
The claws of his grasp, eagle-overthrowing:

In assaulting, the grinder of the liver of the (mighty yet terrified) Símurgh,
Making every rhinoceros its prey:

Angry and blood-shedding and bold of eye,—
God created it for injustice and rage:

The Tughán-Sháh of birds (of prey), in name Tughril,
Altogether like Tughril-Sháh in sovereignty.


A damsel, black of eye, chaste of face;
Of rose-limbs, and sugar-lip, and musk perfume:

An idol (a lovely one), like one of Paradise adorned;
A fascinating one, desired with a hundred desires:

A moon, a proud mover, like the lofty cypress;
Two tresses, like musky nooses intertwined:

On her (face) a double chin, from which water (lustre) trickled;—
Over the fire (the ruddy face) who saw water suspended (the lustrous double chin)?


The agent to “deposited” is the word—“claws.”


ughril is the name of a king and of a bird of prey.

The eagle is described in couplets 73-79.

ughril, the last Sulán of the Saljúk dynasty, succeeded his father Arslán on the throne of Hamadan in A.D. 1175; and under the direction of his valorous uncle, Muhammad, son of Atábuk, governed his dominions happily. At last, abandoning himself to excesses, he was, after showing the greatest valour, defeated in A.D. 1193 by Takásh, Prince of Khwarazm, and slain.

The straight cypress, in need of her stature;
Sugar, her attendant; and honey, slave:


Her face—cast the violet (the black tress) on the rose (the ruddy face);
Made the violet (the blue-black tress) the care-keeper of the rose (the ruddy face):

Pure (black) musk the loin-girt one (the attendant) of her (fragrant) tress;
Because her (black) tress was the attendant as regards the sun (the ruddy face):

A sweet speaker, a sugar-lump;
A tyrannous one as to honey and sugar:

Her body, crystal (in lustrousness) and the ermine's back (in softness);
Her finger, in form (delicacy) the ermine's tail:

A ball (formed) of the silvern chin upraised;
On it,—a collar (formed) of the double chin (like the collar of gold) affixed.


That idol, love-seeking, with that collar and ball,
Used to take the collar from (surpass) the moon; the ball from (surpass) the sun!

With the eye-brow, bow-fashioned; and with the glance, the arrow,—
With the bow and the arrow, she captured a hundred hearts:


“Bar binafsh gul” should be read—binafsh bar gul.


The second line may be:—

Because her (black) tress had overpowered the sun (the ruddy face, by drawing it within its noose and concealing it).


The first line may be:—

A piece of honey and a sugar-lump,—speaking.


“auḳ (goe) burdan” signifies—to surpass.

The sun is like a ball; and the moon (during the first ten days of the month) like a collar.

From the delicacy of her limbs, when she used to drink wine
The colour of wine used to appear through her throat:

A thousand praises on such a foster-mother (the earth),
Who cherished a precious one of this sort!

Through scanty glancing she cast not her glance at any;
Her mouth much smaller than her eye.


Thou wouldst have said:—Indeed, no mouth is hers!
Its name (fame) is, indeed, in the world (but not its reality).

The bringer of the precious gift (the Khákán)
In describing that gift became lofty of head (stood up),

Saying:—“This bird and this steed and this damsel
“Are precious (unequalled),—May they be dear to the king!

“Neither sate anyone on a grey war-steed like this;
“Nor comes easily to the hand a bird like this.

“What need of speaking? For at the time of action
“They display their own qualities.


“A damsel also with this countenance is not despicable;
“For no one is her equal in beauty.

“Within her, the assister (God) has introduced three (matchless) qualities;
“In respect to which, the fourth is not to be acquired:

“One—beauty of countenance and grace;
“For in fascination she is an evident proof (of God's power):


See canto lvi. couplet 17.


Khwár” signifies—maza, lazzat, neko-șúrat.

“The second—powerfulness, which at the time of conflict
“Turns not the rein from manly men:

“The third—an agreeable voice and the playing of the stringed instrument;
“For she sings more sweetly than Zuhra (the minstrel):


“When she lifts her pleasant gentle voice,
“Fowl and snake, on account of her voice, sleep not.”

To the world-seeker, of that clever heart's delight
The sweet voicedness and loveliness were agreeable;

(But) the tale of boldness and manliness,—
He had (without believing) accepted through wisdom:

The lily (woman) is tender; and the thorn (man) stiff,—
For manliness is little in women.

Woman of silvern body, though she be of brazen body,—
Why boasts she of manliness? for, verily, she is woman.


If a fish (of silvern body) be of the hard stone,—
It is (verily) the prey of the crocodile of the river.

Of paper it is improper to make shields;
And afterwards to cast them in the water.

The monarch held this point unsuitable;
He considered not women strong in manliness.

He accepted her and put the ring (of service) in her ear;
When he accepted,—he forgot her name (so little thought he of her).

When the king accepted those presents,
He went from the Khákán's table towards his sleeping-place.


The exploits of this damsel are given in cantos lxi. lxiv. lxvii.


After wetting their shields in water, warriors rise up to battle. Shields of paper are useless.


In the morning-time, when the peacock (the sun), east proudly moving,
Struck forth its head from the arch of azure hue (the sky),

The king again placed the wine-cup in his hand;
Opened the door of the court for music:

Passed a day or two in toying and caressing,
With music and wine, and the wine-cup, heart-soothing:

(And) kept being in joyousness with music and wine.
Again his steed became swift of foot.

For returning (to Rúm), he arranged matters;
In wandering, he became like (restless) Time.


The saucy one of Parí face, whom the Khákán of Chín
Gave to the king that he might hold her dear,

—For the reason that she was not agreeable to the king,—
Became captive like the shadow (that ever remains) behind the screen (of the haram).

That moon kindled (with rage) like the sun;
She shed rose-water (bitter tears) on the rose (the face) from the narcissus (the eye).

In the prison-house (the haram) of the king's damsels,
She was continually like the shadow (void of effect or of beauty) at the bottom of the well.

One day, when this sphere, chaugán-worshipping (loving revolution),
Brought from night-playing the ball (the sun) to its hand,


Perhaps—in mirth and pleasure.


Pla??ers at chaugán whirl the chaugán (the bat) in the air before striking the ball.

The first line refers to this whirling motion; for the sphere ever revolves.


Sikandar, who surpassed Khusraus,
Surrendered the rein to his own steed, practised at the chaugán:

He mounted the fleet steed, mountain-stamping (with his sharp hoof),
The steed (was) of elephant-stature; and the king, of elephant-body.

Those neck-exalting drew forth (with pomp) the standard;
The sign of the day of the place of assembly (the Resurrec­tion Day) appeared.

Through the army, whose amplitude was to farsangs,
The plain was straitened for hunting.

From the desert of Chín to the river Síhúr (of the city) Jand (in Farghána),
Land after land was beneath the silk (of the standard).


When to the musterer came the army,—
In it, were five hundred thousand men, selected and of exalted rank.

Rear and front, soldiers of peacock hue (accoutred with armour and weapons);
Left and right, lions of steel claw (tried in battle).

Within the centre, the king, a river of majesty;
Round about the river (the king), the army (firm and collected) like the mountain.

Besides those of elephant-strength of iron helmet,
Forty war-elephants behind the king's back.

A thousand and forty Pahlaví banners
Moving in rear of the royal standard.


“Sanjak” may signify—the pennon of a certain standard, immedi­ately on the raising of which on the elephant's back,—they make the beast move forward.

The first line would then be:—

A thousand and forty Pahlaví banners (each on the back of an elephant).


On special attendants (of silvern body), belts of gold,
Like pure gold on the particle of silver (the slender waist).

The attendants, moving like the waters of a torrent,—
Horse-leaders on every side, troop on troop.

Around the king,—efficient court-officials,
By whom the road-toil becomes easy.

The Khusrau of Khusraus went proudly moving,
The potentate of Chín at his stirrup running.

When for a while the monarch travelled the earth,
The order so passed to the Khákán of Chín,


That he should return to his own territory,
Should hasten to the clime of the Turkáns.

The Turk (the Khákán) bade farewell to the world-seeker;
He made his face the river with the water of his eye (-lashes).

The king, rein-turned, world-traveller,
Caused the dust to reach from the plain (of Jand) to the Jíhún (near Balkh).

When he came near to that deep river,
He ordered that the army should alight:

Regarded that portion of ground (on the bank of the Jíhún), heart-exhilarating;
Considered it fortune to sit in that spot.


The tent-rope of the royal pavilion,
They drew; and the peg (tent-pole) of the centre became firm.


The clime of the Turkáns may signify—either Chín or Turkistán; for Chín is cousidered as another Turkistán.


Balkh is twelve farsangs west of the Jíhún or Jayhún.

From many bejewelled pavilions,
The bank of the Jíhún became like the garden of Írám.

When the king beheld that territory beyond the Oxus,
(He saw) a great world,—I say not that he saw (merely) a city!

Of that property which came from Chín to his grasp,
He gave much (in founding cities) when halting chanced to him there:

Made prosperous the ruined cities;
Founded also many new cities.


Of Samarkand, from seeing which a man is joyfu.,
Its founding, thus it is heard that it was by him.

In Khurásán and Rúm the news became instant,
That the monarch had come from the strange land.

In every city, through joy at the king's victory,
Those proclaiming the joyful tidings opened out the road (to take the news to the different cities),

(The men of Rúm and of Khurásán) in thanks exalted the standard (of joy);
Displayed joyfulness in every house.

Everyone sent much wealth and treasure
To the king's court on account of his foot-toil.


Come, cup-bearer! make haste to-night with the wine (of senselessness);
For rose-water (the wine) is necessary for the head-pain (of carelessness);


See canto lxvii. couplet 81.


“Pá ranj” signifies—pá??muzhd, the present given to a guest.

The wine which brings water (lustre) into the face of the work (of wine-drinking);
Not that wine which brings crop-sickness into the head.


The poet desires the mai,-i-ma'uaví (the spiritual wine), whose fruit is the good disposition and the fire of the love to God.