O great-One! O greatness-Bestower! I am friendless;
Thou art my aid-giver and aid-arriver.

I brought, at first, nothing from the house (the mother's womb);
Thou gavest; all my property (person) is Thy property.

Since Thou madest my lamp (heart) light-possessing (by the Faith of Islám),
Keep far from me the wind (of calamity) of torch-extin­guishers (Devils and Jinns).

Thou gavest me (in this world) powerfulness as to sowing (good deeds);
Give me (in the other world) fruitfulness of what I sowed.


The hill (of desire) is lofty, and the torrent (of the vicissi­tudes of the world) rude;
Twist not my rein from the true path.


“Mash'al kushán” may signify—Lust or Satan. Or it may mean— certain infidels who, casting their daughters' garments into a room in which the torches have been extinguished, bid their suitors enter and bring them out.

Each one taking up a suit becomes the husband of its owner.

The second line may be rendered—

Keep far from me fleshly lust that is the extinguisher of the torch of Faith.


“Ráh-rakht” signifies—ráh-i-rást; síratu-l-mustaḳím; asp.

(The path of the world is difficult); for the hill (of its vicissitudes) is lofty, and the torrent (of its affections) swift.

Turn not the rein (of my steed) from the true path (to the next world).


From the path where my steed crosses in safety, turn not my rein from Thy grace.

Let me pass over this torrent-place (of the world), in such a way,
That this torrent (the world) may not shatter the bridge for me (in the sea of Sin).

Render not punishment; I came pardon-seeking:
To Thy Court, I came black of face (sinful).

Turn to white (cleanse) my (face) black (through sin);
Turn me not hopeless from Thy Court.

Of my constitution which from dust Thou createdst,
The pure (soul) with the impure (body) Thou mixedst.


If in constitution, I am good; or, if I am bad,—
Thy decree decreed this form (of goodness or of badness) on me.

Thou art our Lord; and, we are slaves (to Destiny);
By Thy power, we are each one alive (as to good or to bad deeds).

To the Beholder (the Seer)—whatever is created
Gives a token of the Creator.


“Pul shikastan” signifies—gharḳ kardan.

“Pák” here signifies—“Ná-pák” here correspondingly signifies—
h-i-insání, man's soul jism-i-insání, man's body
áb-i-maní, man's seed khún-ihai, menstruous blood
khair, goodness sharr, wickedness
'ibádat, adoration gunáh, sin
dil, heart nafas, flesh

O God! my body, which in truth is dust, Thou didst, in this way create; for from the unclean seed of man, Thou didst make the pure man.

My vision (the heart) is the place of beholding Thee:
By it, how may I not behold Thy path (of Lordship).

By whatever is made, I behold Thee;
For, Thou art the Maker; it (is) the thing made.


In the opinion of people of wisdom and judgment,—every form
Is a guide to the Painter (God) of the form.

From me to Thee, many a stage intervenes;
It is not possible to find Thee, save by Thee (by Thy grace).

The foundation (creation) that is in the sky and the earth,
Is at the limit of human thought.

Thought is the guide to the measure (of its own under­standing);
It brings not forth its head (proceeds not) beyond the limit of measure.

The hand (of understanding) reaches to every degree as far as
The limit of that degree terminates.


When the limit of created things accepts finality,
Other borders (limits) remain not in the imagination.


God looks at the heart, not at man's outward form.

The heart of the Faithful is the place of God's heart.


“Zamín” signifies—zamí, from zam coldness and ín affinity. The Orientals say that the earth is essentially cold. In couplets 16 to 21, the poet discourses not of ma'rifat-i-'awám, but of má'rifat-i-khwáșș.


In things comprehended, limited, and encompassed,—thought exercises sway; in matters unlimited, it has no power.

Thought reflects not more than this:—
“Thou (O God!) art not related to existence; nay, beyond this!”

O my well-wisher (God)! keep me in that way,
That my path may be towards rectitude, (so that)

I may choose a road that at the end of work (time of departing),
Thou mayst be pleased and I (may be) safe (from sin).

Within creation, not a remedy is mine save this—
That I turn not my head from that written on the forehead (Destiny).


(That) in supplication (to God), I write a line (of my own salvation),
Authenticated by the signature of the Prophet (Mu­hammad).


The ascent of thought is not beyond this that it should say:—

Thou (O God!) art not of the species of created beings, who are of the stage of change.

Nay! Thou art external to (beyond) this stage; for the qualities of eternity without beginning and eternity without end are inherent in Thy nature.

With a flavour of Sufiism, the poet says:—Thy existence is not in truth:—

Huṣúl va kun—coming forth and making, which is the necessity for the existence of existing things.

Nay Thy existence is—zátí va haḳíḳí—original or essential which is more; for the existence of existing things is full of Thy existence.


The first line may be—Prevail on me, in that matter.


With supplication and importunity, I write a line in praise of God Most High; and that writing is sealed with the Order and the Decree of the Prophet (on him be peace!). In regard to that writing, there is evidence of four persons (see Canto iv., couplet 67); and hence it has complete credence.

(That) I bring up evidence in respect to it from the four friends (of Muhammad)
—A hundred praises be on all four!—

(That) I keep, as my Soul, that writing of beauty (and warrant of Salvation),
Like an amulet (against enchantment) concealed on the arm (of my Soul).

In that judgment-place (of the Resurrection), like a sharp-sword (fearful),
Which is the place both of judging, and also of springing up and rising (from the grave).

When the Writings (of deeds) go flying towards the man (or woman),
(That) I open the fold of that writing (of supplication of mine, sealed by the Prophet),


(That) I show it (to Thee) saying:—“Since Thou truly enforcest command
“Issue the order on (agreeably to) this (my writing); and that other (of justice) is Thy order.


“Dávarí-gáh” is a place of justice. The comparison between it and a sharp sword is, on account of its being the place of separation between the true and the false; or, because the bridge, “Ṣirá,” which is narrow, is there situated.

“Rust-khez” agrees in form with guft-gú, shust-shú; but unlike these the two parts spring not from the same root, though they ulti­mately have the same meaning.

Khez” has not its true meaning but that of paidá shudan as—

Fulán shahr husn-khez ast, ?? husn-i-bisiyár az ánjá paidá mí shavad.

The first “rust-khez” may signify—the name of the judgment day or the assembly of souls; and the second, the description of it, or the assembly of corporeal forms.

“Rast-khez” signifies—“Rust-khez” signifies—
ḳiyámat kiyámat
rustagárí bar-khástan az zamín
ṣaff paidá kunanda rustá khez
rastá-khez nau khez.

See couplets 25, 26 and 27.

“My hope is, beyond limit, in Thee;
“Turn me not hopeless from thy door.

“Although, I have urged the steed (of endeavour) beyond my strength,
“I have remained half-way, on the path to Thee.

“Bring down my cradle (body) to Thy own Court,
“Turn (it) not from Thy path (by so much as) a thread.

“On my part, seeking (the path of Safety); on Thy part, road-showing;
“(On my part), the being ready to die (by intensity of endeavour); on Thy part, life-strengthening.


“Since Thou adornedst my market (of external and internal excellences), without my being existent,
—“By that custom and regulation, which Thou desiredst,

“Take not the painting of embellishment, from my splen­dour;
“Give me a portion, from the treasure of forgiveness.

“What wishest Thou from me, with so weak (dusty) an existence?
“Non-existent, I was at first: even so consider me.


The travelling of the holy traveller is of two kinds:—

a. Sayr ilạ Allah, “travelling up to God,” so that the traveller comes forth from his human affections, and is attached to those Divine.

b. Sayr fí Allah, “travelling in God,” so that the traveller is immersed in the Divine essence.

The first line signifies the completing of (a); and the second the non-completing of (b.)


The second line may otherwise be rendered—

Turn not the cord (of the rein of the steed of endeavour) from Thy path.


Since, without my being existent, Thou adornedst my market; and broughtest me forth from my non-existence to existence; and gavest me splendour …

The first line may otherwise be read—Without my endeavour.

“Since Thou castedst a glance (of favour) on me, drive me not away;
“Since Thou cherishedst (me) strike not the whip (of Thy wrath) upon me.

“Thou gavest me lofty rank (independence),
“Seize Thou my hand (aid me) in this foot-tied place (the world).


“Since Thou gavest me the (spiritual) fame of the re­nowned ones (of God),
“O Ruler of Rulers! give me justice (that I may be independent of the world).

“The head, on which Thou placedst the Crown (of external and internal excellence),
“Cast not down, at the foot of every mean one of the road (the worldly one).

“The heart, which became Thy secret-keeper, at Thy door,
“Keep from beggary at every door (in this and in the next world).

“Make my deeds good, like Thy own conduct;
“Act not with me as befits my (sinful) conduct.

“In this (Thy) lofty Court, Nizámí
“Brings only Mustafá (the Chosen One, Muhammad) the intercessor.”


The second line means—Make me not disgraced; none strikes Thy cherished one.


In Thy mercy, look; and behold not my sin.


Of just Rulers, God is most just. It is violence, therefore, to seek honour from the Rulers of the World. Ask God.